FLUIDS' MECHANICS in BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - Facoltà di ...

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24 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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- CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
- RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
- LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
- OTHER SMALLER CANALIZATIONS WITH FLUID MOTION
FLUIDS’ MECHANICS
in
BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
I
st
part
corso integrato FISICA - disciplina FISICA
Corso di Laurea Specialistica in
MEDICINA e CHIRURGIA
Laurea Magistralis in MEDICINE and SURGERY
Integrated Course/Discipline: PHYSICS
01/14
“HARVEY”
human biological
phenomenon description
fluid mechanics in
biological systems
PHYSICS
basis

how does it work ?
FLUIDS MECHANICS in
BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
02/14
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM
CUORE
100
mmHg
4
mmHg
POLMONI
8
mmHg
25
mmHg
CAPILLARI
GRANDE CIRCOLO
40
mmHg
AD
VD
AS
VS
schema del circuito chiuso :
5 litri/min
10
mmHg
5 litri/min
5 liters/min
5 liters/min
HEART
RA
LA
RV
LV
LUNGS
CAPILLARIES
FLUID:
liquid (blood)
DUCTS
:
blood vessels
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density constant
(not compressible)
03/14
Capillari
CAPILLARIES
VEIN
ARTERY
HEART
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
RIBS
MAIN LEFT
BRONCUS
CATHETER
MAIN RIGHT
BRONCUS
SECONDARY
BRONCUSES
TRACHEA
MAIN LEFT
BRONCUS
CARTILAGINOUS
RINGS
CARTILAGINOUS
PLATES
LUNG’S ROOT
VISCERAL PLEURA
SECONDARY
BRONCUS
TERTIARY BRONCUS
SMALL BRONCUSES
BRONCHIOLES
TERMINAL
BRONCHIOLE
BREATHING
BRONCHIOLE
LUNG LOBULE
ALVEOLUS
FLUID:
gas mixture (air)
DUCTS
:
broncuses
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density variable
(compressible)
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
04/14
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
LYMPHATIC
SYSTEM
FLUID:
liquid (lymph)
DUCTS
:
lymphatic vessels
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density constant
(not compressible)
UPPER LIMB LYMPHATICS
TONSIL
THORACIC DUCT
(LEFT LYMPHATIC)
AXILLARY LYMPH
NODES
BREAST LYMPHATIC
SPLEEN
MUCOSE ASSOCIATED
LYMPHOID TISSUE
(MALT)
PELVIC LYMPH NODES
INGUINAL LYMPH
NODES
LOWER LIMB
LYMPHATICS
LUMBAR
LYMPH
NODES
CHYLE
CISTERN
THORACIC
DUCT
THYMUS
LIMPHATIC
RIGHT DUCT
CERVICAL
LYMPH
NODES
BLOOD CAPILLARIES
ARTERIOLE
SMOOTH MUSCLES
LYMPHATIC
CAPILLARY
ENDOTHELIAL
CELLS
LOOSE
CONNECTIVE
TISSUE
INTERSTITIAL
LIQUID
VENULA
TISSUES, BLOOD CAPYLLARIES AND LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES
05/14
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
7
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
FRACTALS
14
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
Nature requirments:
maximize the suface (for substances exchange - atoms,
molecules and ions) and minimize the volume and the
system’s biological material .
solution: fractal geometry !!
Which is the reason for the particular structure
of the circulation, respiratory and lymphatic
systems (like tree branchings)?
large surface in a limited volume
(saving biological material)
8
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
FRACTALS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
15
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
further important advantage:
the system can grow in structures selfcopying
Geometrical patterns self copying over and over on an
ever greater scale: the repetiti ve shape does not
change even if it is scaled up very much (similarity
ratio on different scales).
Fractal images have fractional dimensions.
solution: fractal geometry !!
9
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
FRACTALS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
15
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
blood circulation system
respiratory system
10
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
FRACTALS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
15
D. SCANNICCHIO 2007
some similar examples:
tree
fern leafes
roman cabbage
URETER/URETHRA
FLUID:
liquid (urine)
DUCTS
:
ureter, bladder, urethra
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density constant (not compressible)
KIDNEY
URETER
BLADDER
URETHRA
URETER
MEDIAN UMBILICAL LIGAMENT
WRINKLES
TRIGONE CENTER
NECK
PROSTATE
PROSTATIC URETHRA (ONLY MAN)
MEMBRANEOUS URETHRA
EXTERNAL
DIAPHRAGM
SPHINCTER
(IN UROGENITAL
DIAPHRAGM)
LATERAL
UMBILICAL
LIGAMENT
URETHRAL
OPENINGS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
06/14
CORTICAL
MEDULLARY
CORTICAL
NEPHRON
LUXTA MEDULLARY
NEPHRON
DRAIN DUCT
KIDNEY
PAPILLA
PAPILLARY DUCTS
CALYX MINOR
KIDNEY’S DUCTS
FLUID:
liquid (urine)
DUCTS
:
tubulus,
collector duct
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density = constant
(not compressible)
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
07/14
Organo del Corti
Finestra ovale
VESTIBULAR
DUCT
SPIRAL
GANGLION
CORTI’S ORGAN
OVAL WINDOW
TYMPANIC DUCT
COCHLEAR
DUCT
COCHLEA BONE
WALL
CORTI’S
ORGAN
BASIC
MEMBRANE
COCHLEA
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
08/14
FLUID:
liquid (endolymph)
DUCTS
:
timpanic and vestibular ducts,
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure (sound waves)
fluid density = constant
(not
compressible
)
LABYRINT’s DUCTS
cellule capellute
otoliti
SEMICIRCULAR
DUCTS
UTRICLE
AMPULLA
HAIRY CELLS
OTOLITHS
ENDOLYMPHATIC
DUCT
ENDOLYMPHATIC
BAG
VESTIBULAR BRANCH
(VIII)
MACULES
SACCULUS
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
09/14
FLUID:
liquid (endolymph)
DUCTS
:
semicircular ducts,
isothermal (t = 37°C)
variable pressure
fluid density = constant
(not
compressible
)
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM

DESCRIPTION

PRESSURE, VELOCITY and FLOW RATE

CONTINUITY EQUATION

FLUIDODYNAMICS and SUBSEQUENT APPROXIMATIONS

MOTION REGIMES and CONSEQUENCES

CARDIAC WORK and POWER

BLOOD VISCOSITY

DUCTS ELASTIC EFFECTS on MOTION

PULSATION’S EFFECTS on MOTION

ANALOGICAL MODELS and DEVELOPMENTS

CONCLUSION
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
10/14
human biological
phenomenon description
fluid mechanics in
biological systems
PHYSICS
basis

how does it work ?
LESSONS’ PROGRAM
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
11/14
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM
general description
behaviour of the significant
physical quantities
Capillari
HEART
ARTERY
VEIN
CAPILLARIES
blood pressure
(mercury millimeters (mmHg))
blood velocity (cm/s)
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
12/14
BLOOD CIRCULATION SYSTEM
LUNGS
VENA
CAVA
AORTA
POLMONI
CUORE
VENE
VENULE
CAPILLARI
ARTERIOLE
ARTERIE
valvole
pressione media
velocità media
(nel tempo)
(nel tempo)
time mean
pressure
time mean
velocity
AORTA
ARTERIES
ARTERIOLES
CAPILLARIES
VENULES
VEINS
VENA
CAVA
AORTA
ARTERIE
ARTERIOLE
CAPILLARI
VENULE
VENE
VENA CAVA
AORTA
ARTERIES
ARTERIOLES
CAPILLARIES
VENULES
VEINS
VENA CAVA
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
13/14
pressione media
velocità media
(nel tempo)
(nel tempo)
time mean
pressure
time mean
velocity
BLOOD CIRCULATION SYSTEM
50

40
40

10
velocità media
(cm s
–1
)
pressione media
(mmHg)
10

0.1
<0.1
<0.3
0.3

5
100
100

40
40

25
25

12
12

8
8

3
2
5

25
mean velocity
mean pressure
AORTA
ARTERIE
ARTERIOLE
CAPILLARI
VENULE
VENE
VENA CAVA
CUORE
CUORE
AORTA
ARTERIES
ARTERIOLES
CAPILLARIES
VENULES
VEINS
VENA CAVA
HEART
HEART
?
?
D. SCANNICCHIO 2009
14/14