Agricultural Runoff Cheat Sheet

pointdepressedΜηχανική

22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Hauptschein, Dina

Koshy, Olivia

Xie, Yuan

Honors Biology, Period 4

3
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10
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12


Agricultural Runoff


Cheat Sheet


WHAT IS IT?




When Pesticides, nutrients, and fertilizers are picked up and then deposited into
large bodies of water



Type of Nonpoint Source
Pollution

(
The poll
u
tants are picked up and transported
during rain and snowmelt events. The rain/snowmelt picks up humans made
pollutants and transport them into rivers, lakes, etc.)


IMPORTANCE TO BEING STOPPED




Deadly effects on human health:



Ruin drink
ing water



Destroy rivers, ponds, and wetland’s ecosystems



Ruin swimming and boating
opportunities



When humans are careless they
affect

ecosystems and habitats

in a bad way
.
This is
a problem that could be stopped if take care of.



HOW DOES AGRICULTURAL
RUNOFF HAPPEN?




Sedimentation

-

Runoff collecting loosen soil and then

depositing it in ponds,
causing burying of plants, larva, clouds water, can clog gills of fish, and many times
fertilizers and pesticides are mixed in this soil.



Nutrients



When exce
ss fertilizers are applied the excess is picked up in rainwater,
and carried to aquatic ecosystems causing algae bloom, which depletes the oxygen
of the pond. It can also run into drinking water
creating tainted

water with foul
orders.



Animal Feeding Oper
ations



If farmers keep all their animals in tight confined
spaces they create an enormous amount of waste. Runoff from these farms that are
badly maintained can carry bacteria, viruses, excess nutrients, and more that can
cause problems in the water it i
s carried to. It can also be carried to drinking water
spreading bacteria and viruses.



Livestock Grazing



When cattle overgrazes in an area it cause the soil to be exposed
making it easier for sedimentation to occur,
which can destroy aquatic ecosystems
a
s state above.



Irrigation
-

When

crops are
overwatered it

can cause erosion and carry nutrients
and pesticides to aquatic life.



Pesticides



When farmers over apply pesticides, they can runoff into aquatic life
and drinking water contaminating it.



Prevention



Sedimentation
-
Control the flow of water which would help keep the soil in place,
reducing sedimentation.



Nutrient Overflow
-
Farmers can create management plans that would make sure not
to over use fertilizers, while still maintaining the amount
of crops and saving money
by not overusing the fertilizers



Animal Feeding Operations
-
Ranches and farmers need to make sure that their
animal’s wastes are disposed of in a correct manner, and by managing wastewater.



Livestock Grazing
-

Farmers need to ensu
re the fact that their animals are not
overgrazing an area, which can cause soil to loosen. Provide animals with
alternate

sources to graze, find shade, water etc.



Controlling
Irrigation

Systems
-
Control amount of water applied to plants, no need to
over w
ater.



Also farmers can switch to more
efficient

irrigation

systems



Pesticides
-
Farmers should use Integrated Pest Management. These techniques base
the amount of pesticides used on specific soil, climate, pest history, crop conditions
etc.

o

This limits pest
icides to only NECCASARY


amount


WHAT CAN YOU DO?


Specifically

for Non
Agriculture Runoff
:



GO ORGANIC!


Spe
cifically

for
other
Non
-
Point

Source Pollution:




Dispose of pet was
te, leaves, and debris properly. If not
disposed

properly, it can
end up in outlets that lead directly into ponds, lakes, etc.




Don’t over apply fertilizers
. Follow directions on the packet.



Dispose of household
chemi
cals

correctly, such as paint, oil,

and antifreeze. For
example, household chemicals

c
an lead to spilling which would travel to drains
when it rains




Clean your car
’s oils, grease, and antifreeze. This should be done on grass because
the soil absorbs moisture.



Use detergents, and cleaning products low in phosphorous and oth
er chemicals.


OUTLOOK


1.

National Water Program: safe and reliable source of water

2.

Farm*A*Syst
: preventing pollution on farms, ranches, and in homes using
confidential environmental evaluations

3.

2008 NRCS Farm Bill Conservation Programs

(Farm and Ranch Lands Protection
Pro
gram)
:

matches funds to purchase developmental rights to help maintain
productive farms and ranchlands in agricultural uses.