Addressing malnutrition through effective communication

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Addressing malnutrition through effective

communication
:

The case of Totonicapán, Guatemala


A Research Paper presented by:

Gabriela María Díaz Salazar

(
Guatemala
)

in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the degree of

MASTERS OF ARTS IN DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

Specializ
ation:

Local Development Strategies

(LDS
)

Members of the examining committee:

PhD. João Guimaraes

PhD. Nicholas Awortwi

The Hague, The Netherlands

November
,
2011


ii

Disclaimer:

This document represents part of the author’s study programme while at the
Institute of Social Studies. The views stated therein are those of the author and
not necessarily those of the Institute.


Inquiries:

Postal address:

Ins
titute of Social Studies

P.O. Box 29776

2502 LT The Hague

The Netherlands

Location:


Kortenaerkade 12

2518 AX The Hague

The Netherlands

Telephone:

+31 70 426 0460

Fax:

+31 70 426 0799



iii

C
ontents

Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Design

1

1.2 Background

1

1.2.1 Malnutrition in Guatemala

4

1.3 Making use of communication

6

1.4 Identification of the Problem

7

1.5 Research Objectives

8

1.6 Re
search Question

8

1.7 The Methodology

8

1.8 Limitations

9

Chapter 2:
Understanding communication from different
perspectives and
experiences

10

2.2 Models of Communication

10

2.3 Social Marketing

12

2.4 Experiences of Social Marketing and Health

14

2.5 Information, Education and Communication for Change of Conduct

IEC/CC

15

2.6 Communication for Development

17

2.7 Experiences of Communication for Development

21

2.8 Methodologies and Techniques used in Communication for
Development

22

2.8.1 Outcome Mapping

22

2.8.2 The Most Significant Change

24

2.9 Analytical Framework

26

Chap
ter 3:
Study Case: Totonicapán, Guatemala

28

3.2 Totonicapán, Guatemala

28

3.
3 Malnutrition in Totonicapán

29

3.4 Consequences of Malnutrition

30

3.5 Views about Malnutrition

31

3.6 Responses from Different Act
ors

33

3.6.1 Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance

33

3.6.2 Government

35

3.6.3 Local
NGO in coordination with International Cooperation
and other actors

36

Chapter 4: Malnutrition and Communication

39

4.1 From Social Marketing, going through IEC/CC reaching
Communication for Development: the road to improve inter
-
sector
integration and
participation

39

4.2 Integration of local actors in a territory

39


iv

4.3 Local Voices

41

4.3.1 Focus Group

41

4.3.2 Most Significant Change in Totonicapán

43

Chapter 5: Conclusions

46

Income

differences

48

Malnutrition

49

Communication

50

Totonicapán, G
uatemala

50

Production and Economy in Totonicapán

51

Malnutrition in Guatemala

52

The Most Significant Change in Totonicapán, Guatemala

53

MSC in the Quality of Life (Parents)

53

Story 1: “That my children have a better life”

53

Story 2: “The value of herbs”

54

MSC in the Quality of Life (Local Actors)

55

Story 1: A speed recovery

55

MSC in knowledge and application

55

Story 2: I made my voice be heard in my language

55

MSC in the participation and coordination of an organization in
COMUSAN or Municipal Team of Communication

56

MSC in comprehension and appraisal of C4D

56

Story 3: C4D in the City Hall’s Plan

56



v

List of Tables

Table 1.1: Ethnic Groups in Guatemala

................................
................................
...

1

Table 2.1: Intentional Design............................................................................
........
22

Table 2.2: Program
Framework........................................................................
........
23

Table 2.3: Overview of the approaches...........................................................
........
26

Table 2.4: Indicators that lead to the integration of
actors..........................
........
27

Table 3.1: Municipality Priority, according to Quality of Life....................
.........
29



List of Figures

Fig
ure 2
.1
:

Communication as a Pro
cess of Dialogue...................................20

Figure 2.2: Signals of Progress..................................................................................23

Figure 3.1: Totonicapán's Municipalities.............................................
....................28

Figure 3.2: Linking Local Actors..............................................................................37


List of Boxes

Box 2.1: Social Marketing Planning…………………………………………13

Box 2.2: Participatory
Approach…………………………………………….18

Box 2.3: Signals of Progress………………………………………………....24



vi

List of Acronyms

SESAN


Secretariat of Food and Nutritional Security




Secretaría de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional

COCODE
S


Development Community Council



Consejo
Comunitario de Desarrollo

COMUDE


Development Department Council



Consejo Municipal de Desarrollo

COMUSAN


Municipal Commission of Food and Nutritional Security



Comisión Municipal de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional

CODESAN


Department Commission of
Food and Nutritional Security



Comisión Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrici
o-
nal

MPO


Municipal Planning Office



Oficina Municipal de Planificación

OMM


Women’s Municipal Office



Oficina Municipal de la Mujer

CTA


Technical
-
Managerial Coordi
nator



Coordinador Técnico Administrativo

MINEDUC


Ministry of Education



Ministerio de Educación

MIFAPRO


My Family Progresses Program



Programa Mi Familia Progresa

PRORURAL


Programa Nacional de Desarrollo Rural



National Program of Rural Development

K’iche’


Mayas K’iche’, one of the 21 Mayan groups in Guatemala

MSPAS


Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance



Ministerio de Salud Pública y Asistencia Social

CECODE


Centro de Comunicación para el Desarrollo

UNICEF


United Nations Children’s Fu
nd

UNDP


United Nations Development Program



vii

Abstract

This research has been done in order to contribute to the Social Sciences from
Communication for Development. Communication for Development is a pa
r-
ticipatory approach of communication as process of
dialogue. It is also a r
e-
sponse to the Western way of doing communication, since its beginnings date
back from the decades of the 70s and from Latin American countries.

There
has been an ongoing debate amongst the practitioners of communication as
mass med
ia and the practitioners of Communication for Development. The
first ones have believed that what the products that they produce are the result
of communication. The latter, have claim the true meaning of doing commun
i-
cation and also take it as a citizens’

right. Therefore, the efforts are always pr
e-
pared in the best interest of the people that the development project intends to
help.


Throughout the research three approaches to communication have been
analyzed, from the literature and from experiences, in

order to assess which is
the adequate to address a particular social issue: malnutrition in Totonicapán,
Guatemala.
Worldwide experiences have been included from the three a
p-
proaches; an overview of the approaches has been made based on the liter
a-
ture. Th
e case of Totonicapán, Guatemala has been chosen since it has been an
example of a participatory project from the perspective of Communication for
Development.

The views and experiences from people of the area have also
been included to give relevance and
importance to the local knowledge of the
area of interest.

Relevance to Development Studies

Communication as part of the Social Sciences is gaining importance in deve
l-
opment projects around the world. Since the right to communication is also a
citizen’s ri
ght it should be promoted and respected. This research
tries to co
n-
tribute to the
vindication of the right to communication in communities of T
o-
tonicapán, Guatemala.
It is also a contribution to the importance of commun
i-
cation in development projects in or
der for them to be successful and not just
a repe
tition of previous experiences. The relevance of local knowledge is also
an important issue in the paper
,

which can be taken as an example for future
researches and professionals to be working in different
contexts

(from what
they know).

Keywords

Communication, information dissemination, Communication for Develo
p-
ment, K’iche’, Totonicapán, Guatemala



1

Chapter 1:

Introduction and Research Design

This research examines the effects of communication addressing malnutrition,
but to understand the context, then it is necessary to understand the country
and its current problem of malnutrition of children. The research h
as also been
done to provide an explanation of effective communication with development
programs.


1.2 Background


Guatemala is located in Central America and it is politically divided in 22 d
e-
partments and the departments make 333 municipalities. It has
a population of
14,713,763
1

. Guatemala has different characteristics that make it a unique
country, rich in cultural diversity since it is one of the Latin
-
American cou
n-
tries that still has a numerous indigenous populations from different groups.


Table
1
.1
:

Ethnic Groups in Guatemala
2


Ladino

6,750,170

60.36 %

Maya

4,411,964

39.45 %

Xinca

16,214

0.15 %

Garífuna

5,040

0.04 %

Total

11,183,388

100 %



The cultural diversity is important since the different groups make the
country. The Ladinos are the ones that do not belong to an indigenous group,
and it is said that are the ones who have a Spanish link. This group is also
known as the Mestizos, because in times of the colonization the Spanish pe
o-
ple mixed with indigenous g
roups and created the “mix of cultures” the Mest
i-
zos. As the years went by, the term changed into Ladino, but it basically refers
to people who don’t have a specific indigenous culture. The Mayas on the ot
h-
er hand, were the settlers of the country with the

other two; Xinca and Garíf
u-
na. The Mayas are the second biggest group in population of the country, but
have struggled since the colonization. After that period they lost their rights
and ever since it has been a constant battle to access a better quality

of life.
Within the Mayas there are 21 groups that are spread in different departments



1

Instituto Nacional de Estadística
http://www.ine.gob.gt/np/poblacion/index.htm

August,
2011

2

Instituto Nacional de Estadística
http://www.ine.gob.gt/np/poblacion/index.h
tm

August,
2011, data from the last National Census of 2002.


2

and municipalities of the country. The Xincas; a smaller group in numbers but
it is also part of the cultural diversity; the departments where they live are the
East. T
he Garífunas are also located in one department of the country, in the
Caribbean area.


Whether big or small in numbers all these groups are recognized in by the
State. Although the country is still struggling to become a more inclusive n
a-
tion and to be a
ble to improve the access of the basic services, such as Health,
Education, Sanitation, Security, etc.


Guatemala is also a country with high inequality amongst its groups, which
can be one of the reasons why there are some groups that have access to all
the
basic services and others have problems accessing them. Because the lack of
access to the basic services and other factors, the indigenous groups have su
f-
fered the consequences and are the ones who have more problems related to
health and nutrition, bu
t also the ones with highest rates of illiteracy, low i
n-
come, etc. These problems, together with other factors, have caused the cou
n-
try to remain as a developing country because when the population gets a di
f-
ferent treatment the country’s growth will also
be different. The opportunities
and the access to the growth opportunities have been different too. There are
some examples that illustrate the differences between indigenous and non
-
indigenous population in terms of ac
cess to basic services (Appendices

Ta
ble
1).


Regarding the poverty, there are also diffe
rences between the two groups
3
.
In Guatemala 56% of the population lives in poverty, from this percent
age,
58% of

the poor people are indigenous.
16% of the population lives in extreme
poverty, from this
percentage, 72% are indigenous people.


These indicators show a gap that has been increasing between the indig
e-
nous population and the non
-
indigenous population and also between the rural
and urban areas. The issues of inequality and the lack of access to
basic se
r-
vices have been in the eye of the international community. Many efforts have
been done in order to improve the quality of life of these groups, by the Go
v-
ernment itself and also with the help of the international cooperation through
different stra
tegies.


The State, since 2002 and following the agreements of the Peace Accords
signed in 1996, the end of Internal Armed Conflict, approved the creation of
the Commission Against Racism and, the Indigenous Women Advocacy. Steps
have been taken into resp
ecting indigenous people’s rights, but there is more to
be done.





3

Diagnose of Racism in Guatemala, 2006


3

Guatemala has had a history of discrimination and racism, and the victims
of these actions have been the indigenous groups. After the sign of the Peace
Accords, attention has been given to reduce and eliminate discrimination and
racism. An example of this
attention has been the UNDP’s National Human
Development Reports

NHDR
-

of the past years, more specifically 2005 and
2008. NHDR of 2005 describes and analyzes one of the basic dimensions that
define the nation; its multiethnic character. Guatemala has an
asymmetry in the
inclusion of indigenous and non
-
indigenous people in the socio
-
economic
structure. “More than 80% of the indigenous population is located in the low
and extreme low strata. This means that 8 out of 10 Mayas, are in the bottom
of the social

structure” (UNDP, 2005:98). Because of this the indigenous po
p-
ulation is excluded from participating in highest social strata.


Income difference is also significant and, it has an important role since it is
the mediator between the economic activity and

the access to satisfy the needs
that will lead to
have a dignified life. Graph 1

illustrates the level of inequality
of the

Guatemalan population (Appendices Graph

1).


Living in poverty or extreme poverty has been a situation that has affected
more indi
genous people in the country. In 2004, 21.9% of the population lived
with less than $1.00 per day and, in relation to the indigenous rural population,
for the same year, 38% were under this category. When the country’s income is
concentrated in one group o
f the society it makes it difficult for others to have
the same opportunities.


International laws and agreements have been signed to reduce inequalities.
The Convention 169 from the International Labour Office

ILO
-

is the most
important framework referr
ing to development, economy and cultural
-
ethnic
equity. “Establishes that the indigenous people should have the right to decide
their own priorities regarding the process of development, if affecting their
lives, believes, institutions, spiritual wellbeing

and the lands that they occupy
and use. Therefore it warranties the right to control, as possible, their econo
m-
ic, social and cultural development” (UNDP, 2008:76).


Even though there are national and international documents, agreements
and more, there
is always the chance for improvement. In the words of an
economist Maya K’iche’ “Very little has been analysed in the cultural
-
ethnic
dimension of the Guatemalan economy. This should be analysed due to the
importance of the historical circumstances of the
country and considering that
the indigenous population is the one that presents the highest levels of poverty
and extreme poverty, low social indicators and less levels of public investment.
This dimension could be analysed in three aspects: a) the relatio
n between cu
l-
tural exclusion and economic exclusion, b) the nature of the culture and, c) a
s-
pects like the indigenous economy in the last years. To understand it better will
help the definition of measures so that the Guatemalan economy could be
more inclu
sive and sustainable” (UNDP, 2008:77). This shows that the notion

4

of a non
-
inclusive economy is present and there is a need to work on it so that
the country can achieve the desired development.


Different strategies can be developed in order to address a
n issue, but the
results may vary. This research is focused in one issue that affects the majority
of the indigenous children in Guatemala, malnutrition. More specifically, the
research presents the findings of what the Ministry of Public Health and Social

Assistance has done over the past years and also was has been done for the last
two years by a local NGO. Also for a better understanding of the analysis, an
explanation of the ways for doing communication and sending information is
presented. The reason;

it is important to recognize and identify the strategies of
information from the strategies of communication.


1.2.1 Malnutrition in Guatemala


According to the information provided by “Situational Analysis of Malnutr
i-
tion in Guatemala: Causes and Approac
h” elaborated by UNDP Guatemala
2009
-
10, malnutrition associated to poor nutrition and other issues such as low
human development in Guatemala is understood as a vicious cycle. “It is re
c-
ognized that malnutrition, as a visible expression of food and nutrit
ional ins
e-
curity, it is also a barricade to growth and national development. The authors’
opinion is that the complex nature and the multiplicity of determinants and
factors that affect food and nutritional security, coupled with the limited parti
c-
ipation
of civil society in these efforts, makes the current models of gover
n-
ance poorly successful. This requires the strengthening of comprehensive view
in the adoption of strategies, constant commitment of society as a whole”
(UNDP, 2009
-
10:7).


Understanding
malnutrition has had shift, it is clear that this is no longer
just a health problem but one that in the long run affects national develo
p-
ment. And, it is not a new problem. The Analysis (UNDP) establishes that
malnutrition has been society since the decad
es of the 30s and 40s. It was until
the late 50s
4

when the characteristics (clinic, biochemical and pathological)
were defined, with children who suffered from malnutrition and also the re
c-
ommended treatment and the prevention measures of nutrition and sa
nitation
were established. Since the 60s the attention on malnutrition kept increasing
and a proof of that is that investigations have been done to identify more d
e-
tails on the problem and also effects of malnutrition.





4

Information linked

to the release of an African Report on Kwashiorkor around the
same time, 1955


5

The Analysis (UNDP) mentions studie
s from different years
5

and “these
all agree on the attention that has to be given from the moment of the child’s
conception until the first three years of life. This being important because it
has been shown that it makes a difference in the potential of

growth and h
u-
man development, including development of intelligence, personality and s
o-
cial behavior, as well as physical and intellectual productivity in the adult age”
(UNDP, 2009
-
10:9).


Recent information is integrated in the “Third National Height Ce
nsus”
from Ministry of Education in coordination with SESAN. This was done in
2008 and the goal was to elaborate a current diagnose to know the children’s
nutritional state, through the height indicator. This indicator, as stated in the
Census, measures th
e delayed growth size, it also establishes the degree of s
e-
verity of chronic malnutrition and allows making a direct relation of social and
economic development of the family and community where the measured
children live in. The Census was done with child
ren from First Grade from the
Official Sector a total of 459,808 children from the ages of 6 years 0 months to
9 years and 11 months.


According to the Census, 54.4% of the children have been classified as
normal in relation to their height and the other 4
5.6% are delayed in height or
with chronic malnutrition. From the ones with delayed height, 32.9% are mo
d-
erate and 12.7% are severe. More in detail, information has been summarized
in: Age, Urban and Rural Areas and Language (perc
entages can be found in
Ap
pendices

Box 1).


UNICEF’s report entitled “El Enemigo

Silencioso (The Silent Enemy)”

provided a view on the problem faced by the country. According to the Repr
e-
sentative of UNICEF for Guatemala Manuel Manrique, stated that “chronic
malnutrition needs to be explained because it can’t easily be recognized like
acute malnutrition (children with swollen stomachs and the hair looks light in
color). A child who suffers

from chronic malnutrition has an inferior height,
the health is fragile and the intellectual development is severely diminished”
(UNICEF, 2007:3).


About the efforts done in Guatemala, Manrique mentioned that “for years
Guatemala made an effort to face t
his reality, and as stated in the Policy of
Food and Nutritional Security, these attempts lacked of the political decision
needed and a methodological development with a multi
-
sector approach, b
e-
cause of these the result was not positive” (UNICEF, 2007:3).






5

1994: Rivera and Martorell, 2001: Fuentes, Hernández y

Pasucal, 2005: Behrman,
Martorell and Stein and 2006: The World Bank., information from “Situational Anal
y-
sis of Malnutrition in Guatemala: Causes and Approach” elaborated by UNDP Gu
a-
temala 2009
-
10


6

The problem of malnutrition has been a constant and, different Gover
n-
ments have developed actions, strategies and even policies have been approved
in order to address it. Whether or not these have been successful does not
mean that the problem has been
neglected. This is one of the reasons for the
research, to analyze what has been done and is being done, from a communic
a-
tional view, since it is also important in the development processes. Chapter 3
provides more information about other efforts done in G
uatemala.


1.3 Making use of communication


On a daily basis, we make use of words, sounds, messages, technology, media
and other tools in order to make ourselves understood but also to keep in
touch with our surroundings. Many times all of the tools ment
ioned are put in
one same basket called “communication” but what most of the time is not
mentioned is that not all of them are communication. As simple as it may
sound, people do not always know the difference or meaning of communic
a-
tion and information. B
oth terms have been wrongly interpreted as meaning
the same. This clarification is a “must” because part of the problem of dealing
with issues is that the actions or strategies have not been the most accurate
ones. If the differentiation is clear and if pe
ople understand what it is that they
are doing, then the planning, the actions themselves, and the results may
change from what has been accomplished in the past.


Throughout this research communication is understood a process of i
n-
clusive dialogue, like

it is in Communication for Development, were the people
involved become active Subjects of the process. Subjects meaning as presented
in Pedagogy of the Oppressed “subjects; this term denotes those who know
and act, in contrast to Objects, which are known

and acted upon” (Freire,
1996:18). Communication for Development has its fundaments in diffe
rent
methodologies

for social change, for this
research
, the reference is to Pedagogy
of the Oppressed. This methodology, created to empower people through e
d-
ucati
on, people that have been neglected by the social structure that oppresses
them. In Shaull’s words “those who, in learning to read and write, come to a
new awareness of selfhood and begin to look critically at the social situation in
which they find themse
lves, often take the initiative in acting to transform the
society that has denied them this opportunity of participation” (Freire,
1996:11).


The principal is the same, through participation people become aware of
their reality and with the proper communi
cation tools and guiding them in the
process of improving their capacities, and they will become agents of their own
change. As oppose to other strategies which make use of media in order to
somehow manipulate these people by giving the impression of helpi
ng them,
but in reality what they seek for is to keep

the social structure: the same;

p
eople
oppressing others for their own benefit and others being the oppressed, who
miss the growing opportunities. Dialogue and communication are very i
m-

7

portant for Freir
e as well in Communication for Development, “dialogue
which is radically necessary to revolution corresponds to another radical need:
that of women and men as beings who cannot be truly human apart from
communication, for they are essentially communicative

creatures. To impede
communication is to reduce men to the status of things

and this is a job for
oppressors, not revolutionaries” (Freire, 1996:109). In Communication for
Development, people’s right to communication is being vindicated so that they
are
no longer the “recipients” of the people in power who want to keep co
n-
trol of the rest. Realizing that communication is a right, will give them the tools
to plan their own actions and strategies that will help them in the process of
social transformation.


1.4 Identification of the Problem


Malnutrition of children is the problem that has been addressed in different
ways, following different methodologies and techniques (with different results
and responses from people). The communication approaches that ha
ve been
used in the area of interest have not helped in making significant changes in
people. The reason being is that these approaches are not communication, but
information dissemination and therefore lack the interpersonal communic
a-
tion, hence people do
n’t show interest.


A positive aspect of information dissemination is that it can help in crea
t-
ing awareness of an issue. Changes will not happen, in this case in reducing
malnutrition if people aren’t interested in hearing what the experts tell them.
Eff
ective communication will provide spaces for local knowledge to be linked
with the information shared by a facilitator of a developmental program. If
transmission of messages, alone was enough, then why is it that people have
complained of not having prope
r information on the issue? Something has
been missing, and as simple as it may sound, is the interaction between local
actors and experts (in the interventions). To clarify the results of both, tran
s-
mission of messages and effective communication, Totonic
apán, Guatemala is
a useful example, since it has received both approaches to address malnutr
i-
tion.


Communication alone cannot change the problem of malnutrition, but it
can improve the knowledge, attitudes and practices through people’s particip
a-
tion i
n different spaces that will lead to improve the children’s health and nutr
i-
tion.





8

1.5 Research Objectives

General Objective:



Analyze and compare different approaches to communication and i
n-
formation used in development
-
oriented projects, both from the

point
of view of their assumptions and from that of their effectiveness.


Specific Objectives:



Identify and describe the elements that are key components of a
Communication for Development Process.



Study one region in Guatemala that has been subject to tw
o different
approaches of communication to address malnutrition of children u
n-
der five years of age.


1.6 Research Question

Research Question



How have Social Marketing and effective Communication for Deve
l-
opment differed in addressing malnutrition of child
ren under five years
of age in Totonicapán, Guatemala?


Sub
-
questions

1.

What are the main criteria that should be satisfied by communication
for effective change?

2.

What are the main characteristics of and differences between Social
Marketing and Communication

for Development for civic driven
change?

3.

How the current project in Totonicapán has helped to improve or not
the integration of different local actors to organize the efforts of
fighting malnutrition practices of the families?


1.7 The Methodology

The res
earch analysis has been done with the information obtained by Primary
and Secondary Data Collection from the local NGO working in Totonicapán.
The information from the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance has been
provided by the representative of the
Program of Promotion and Health Ed
u-
cation from the Ministry. The Municipal Monitors from SESAN have also
contributed with the information. Testimonies, Most Significant Change St
o-
ries and focus groups of women, have been a contribution from the local
NGO.


Communication, as a process of dialogue and participation, helps empo
w-
er people in the communities so that they can be agents of their own change.

9

Experiences around the world, but mostly from developing countries, have
given examples of how effective
communication can help in social problems.
Communication for Development, although began since the early 70s has not
had enough attention and this research a contribution to the field.


To have a better understanding of whether and how the project helped i
n
the situation related to Food and Nutritional Security in Totonicapán, the ones
best to evaluate the actions are the local actors. For that reason the use of the
Most Significant Change, “a dialogical, story
-
based technique to facilitate pr
o-
gram improvem
ent by focusing the direction of work towards explicitly valued
directions and away from less valued directions” (Dart and Davis, 2003:137) is
important, as well as the interviews of the actors.


1.8 Limitations


To recognize that not everything is possib
le or easy is not a signal of weakness
but of ethics and professionalism. Therefore, it is important to clarify that one
of the limitations that affected the initial purpose of the research, was the fact
that I didn’t personally get the data analyzed. This

was done with the help of
the local NGO and because of that I had to wait for the information to be
gathered and then sent. Th
is partly affected my schedule.
There were some
events that also made it difficult to get the information due to the natural disa
s-
ters that took place in the country and affected the rural areas (Totonicapán).
Regarding the project mentioned, it is important to state that I had been i
n-
volved in it, but needless to say that the information has been treated profe
s-
sionally to avoid bia
s in the results and the analysis.








10

Chapter 2
:
Understanding communication from
different perspectives and experience
s

This chapter tries to provide an overview of the different models of commun
i-
cation that have been the foundation for recent ones. U
nderstanding comm
u-
nication may seem simple since we all make use of it in daily basis. There is a
need to go beyond of what has been understood, since different authors have
presented their own view of doing communication. This research has its focus
on tw
o particular approaches to communication and their foundation. This
analysis can help the clarification on what has been done in terms of comm
u-
nication in a particular area of interest. Also in order to understand how the
two of them can complement each ot
her, or not, it is necessarily to review
where they came from.


Communication is a term that even nowadays is causing confusion
amongst the practitioners and those ones that are trying to learn more of it.
For some people, communication is a synonym of m
ass media: television, r
a-
dio, newspapers, Internet, etc. For others, communication is a process of di
a-
logue that can make use of mass media for a specific purpose, but mass media
is taken as part of a more complex process. Another difference is how the
str
ategies and processes are planned from one view of communication or a
n-
other (more on this to be explained in each approach).


2.2 Models of Communication


The social sciences have interpreted communication in different ways. As the
years have gone by, dif
ferent communicational models have been presented
which respond to approaches or paradigms associated to social, political and
economic aspects from various authors. Each model presents a new element,
which helps understand better what communication is fro
m the perspective of
its drivers. It is important to note that unlike what happens in the so
-
called
Rigorous Sciences, the challenge here is not to displace one theory with anot
h-
er, but to make them coexist at the same time. However, in many of these th
e-
or
ies or models, communication is not yet conceived as a process of dialogue
and exchange (with all that the word implies).


The most common and well known models of communication are pr
e-
sented in the following section
6
. In each model, a new element can be
ident
i-
fied and later an analysis will be given.





6

Díaz, G. (2009). BA Thesis, Universidad Rafael Landívar
, Guatemala.


11

a)

Schramm






The traditional models, or the way communication began to be presented,
had a linear and simplistic perception where a Sender sent a Message to a R
e-
ceiver
without evaluating if there was an answer or if the message was unde
r-
stood.


b)

Shannon y Weaver







This model has an Encoder, Decoder and Feedback. The Encoder helps
to create the
Message and the Decoder helps in the understanding. Although,
new elements are incorporated, the linear process is still present but the Fee
d-
back has been incorporated. This can be used to evaluate how the Receiver
behaves, for example: if a person buys ce
rtain product, then the message was
received, but this isn’t be communication.


c)

Osgood and Schramm











This
model presents both sides as equals, Sender and Receiver, Encoder
and Decoder. It recognizes that Feedback can’t be just from the Receiver, but
that the Sender and the Message can be the source of it. Even though it pr
e-
sents a different view, it is missing

the Channel, which is used to send the me
s-
sage.


This model is more dynamic one than the previous, but as some authors
explained “is clearly better suited to the description of face
-
to
-
face interaction
than to the more remote processes of the mass media,
but remnants of the
same psychological interaction can still be seen in more distant communic
a-
SENDER

MESSAGE

RECEIVER

SOURCE

MESSAGE

RECEIVER

ENCODER

DECODER

FEEDBACK

Encoder


Interpreter


Decoder

Decoder


Interpreter


Encoder


MESSAGE


12

tion” (Beck, et

al
.
, 2004:39). This could be a model closest to communication
as a process of dialogue; because it shows that a situation can change rather
than b
e still.


The approaches discussed in the following paragraphs are the ones being
used in development projects around the world, in the context of this research,
have also been used in Totonicapán, Guatemala.


One of their differences is in the way these
conceive communication, S
o-
cial Marketing is more an example of the linear process and, Communication
for Development makes use of communication as a process of dialogue and
participation. The importance of this analysis is to identify the differences,
stre
ngths and weaknesses, and at the same time evaluate the results in a specific
context, as a combination of strategies from both approaches.


2.3 Social Marketing


Social Marketing; a term commonly used by organizations and institutions that
focus their wor
k in social issues. Philip Kotler brought the term into discussion
and for that he is always a reference of the approach.

The definition of Social
Marketing has been; “the use of marketing principles and techniques to infl
u-
ence a target audience to volunta
rily accept, reject, modify, or abandon a b
e-
havior for the benefit of individuals, groups or

society as a whole” (Kotler, et
al
.
, 2002:5).


The marketing principles are present in what is done, by following the
Marketing Planning Process. Social Marketing
even uses the Marketing Mix,
which is the 4Ps

product, price, place, promotion. There are three aspects
that social marketers keep in mind; selling a behavior, influence to change a
behavior, use of the marketing principles and identify target audiences.


Another characteristic of this approach is that goals and objectives are set
by the social marketer in order to meet what the organization and/or instit
u-
tion has established. “Marketers divide the market into similar groups (market
segments), measure the

relative potential of each segment to meet organiz
a-
tional and marketing objectives, and then choose one or more segments (target
markets) for concentrating their e
fforts and results” (Kotler, et

al
.
, 2002:7).


The information above is the process of how
the actions and decisions
that social marketers take are done. In comparison to commercial marketing;
social marketers sell a change in a behavior, in terms of the gain, they seek to
gain the greatest returns and regarding the competition, they study and a
nalyze
what other organizations are doing in the same area. In Social Marketing fee
d-
back, is in the measure of results and it is used for improvement. The feedback
is for marketers and how they can improve next time.


13


This approach is related to Behavior
Change, and is how marketers plan
their actions. In order to achieve a change in the behavior, marketers influence
people in different ways. A strategy that they use to address the issue and pe
o-
ple is by using other people. Some experiences have made use o
f singers, mo
v-
ie stars, athletes or others, to reach a group of the population. This can’t make
a person do something but it can help in raising awareness.


According to Kotler, et al.,

2002, social marketers have other ways to i
n-
fluence people’s behavior
by using technology, economics, legal


political


policy making and education. The way these are used is as follows: 1. Techno
l-
ogy: can contribute and/or support the behavior change. 2. Economics: used
in the way to pressure people or as an incentive. 3.

Legal
-
political
-
policy ma
k-
ing: when other fails, then marketers turn to the law to make the change. 4.
Education: is used to communicate information, build skills, is more the Pr
o-
motion (4Ps).


Social marketers also have their strategic planning or
Marketing Planning
Process, although it has different steps to be followed (eight steps). The steps
seem as a marketing strategy, which demonstrates that social marketers try to
differentiate themselves from commercial marketers, but from what is presen
t-
ed
, they aren’t too different.


Box 2.1
:

Social Marketing Planning



The eight steps followed in the Marketing Planning Process


1.

Analyze the social marketing environment; campaign purpose.

2.

Select Target Audience; segmenting the market and ends with choo
s-
in
g one or more targets (segment by behavior).

3.

Set objectives and goals; social marketers decide what they want their
target audiences to do and what they may need to know and believe to
make the behavior change more likely.

4.

Understanding the target audience
s and the competition (often
-
skipped step)

5.

Determine strategies; following the 4Ps

6.

Develop Evaluation and Monitoring Strategy

7.

Establish Budget and Find Funding Sources

8.

Complete an implementation plan


Source: Kotler, et

al
.
, 2002:34
.



14

In the context of
Guatemala, for years the way of doing communication in
order to address social issues related to poverty alleviation actions, has been
done from the Social Marketing approach. The approach tries to bring social
change by influencing the behavior of the aud
ience (people in communities).
“Marketers know that what appeals to one individual may not appeal to anot
h-
er. They divide the market into similar groups (market segments), measure the
relative potential of each segment to meet organizational and marketing
obje
c-
tives, and then choose one or more segments (target markets) for concentra
t-
ing their eff
orts and resources” (Kotler, et

al
.
, 2002:7). Social Marketing relates
to the audience by implementing and using the commercial techniques with
people. It also mak
es use of media in order to influence the behavior or other
techniques (group work) to tell people what they
need

and how to
do

things.
With this approach, the interventions have been done to convince people of
changing. Maybe in some countries experiences have helped in relation to
awareness, like stated before, but it doesn’t mean that it works in the same way
in every context.


In terms of resources, great amount of the money from the project is i
n-
vested in mass media and campaigns, which can be useful to some extent but
what these strategies could also use is the participation from people who they
are trying to reach and money
could be allocated in doing so (creating spaces
for dialogue). In the immediate future, in terms of the sustainability, after the
intervention is done the messages sent by mass media could be forgotten and
the efforts would have to be repeated with a new p
roject.


2.4 Experiences of Social Marketing and Health


Experiences of Social Marketing and Health are commonly linked to
HIV/AIDS since it is a problem that has been affecting many countries
around the world.


In 2007 a Social Marketing experience was
done in Zambia; “The Reach
and Impact of Social Marketing and Reproductive Health Communication”.
According to the report, to deal with health issues, several social marketing and
health communication programs have been implemented, but for this partic
u-
lar

one the impact was focused on condom use, HIV/AIDS and reproductive
health.


How the experience worked? The campaign made use of radio and TV
programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS to increase and/or create
awareness of condom use because as presente
d in the report “95% of Zamb
i-
ans have heard of AIDS and know is fatal, a substantial fraction continue to
engage in risky sexual behavior” (Van Rossem and Meekers, 2007:2). The ta
r-
get groups for this experience were: women, adolescents, truck drivers, and
commercial sex workers.


15


The use of mass media has always been high and for the campaign, four
radio programs and four television programs were used. The findings showed
that the exposure to programs made a difference in males and their use of
condom. In
terms of radio and TV effectiveness, the results on radio exposure
were positive and the TV results showed no significant effect. In relation to
condom use, the emphasis was on one brand and the advertisement of it
proved to be positive.


Information prov
ided by a Zambian citizen also mentions a recent ca
m-
paign to address HIV/AIDS. The Region
al Campaign “One Love Kwasila”, a
s
taken from the web site
7

“The campaign aims to get us thinking and talking
about our sexual behavior in this time of HIV and AIDS”.
In the context of
Zambia “The national campaign aims to prevent HIV transmission through
Multiple and Concurrent (sexual) Partnerships (MCP) in Zambia by providing
basic information about the risks posed by MCP and generating thought and
dialogue about soc
ial issues that make people decide to have more than one
sexual partner. The primary target audience of the campaign is married men
age 25
-
50 years. The secondary target audience is women age 15
-
45 years (the
wives and girlfriends of the primary target aud
ience)”. The mass media r
e-
source used in this experience is a 10 series
-
drama called Club Risky Business
8

which “follows three male protagonists as they navigate their sexual networks
and learn about the risks therein”.


2.5 Information, Education and Comm
unication for Change
of Conduct

IEC/CC


Information, Education and Communication for Change of Conduct is anot
h-
er technique that it is linked to Social M
arketing. As stated in Minja et

al
.
, “its
main approach drew on basic principles of social marketing,

namely that ce
r-
tain messages should be promoted together with a product carrying and a
p-
pea
l
ing brand name and logo, and that the marketing should be consumer
-
oriented and target specific segments of the society”(2001:615).


This is used around the word
in order to achieve a change in people’s b
e-
havior and there are experiences that have shown positive results after the i
m-
plementa
tion of an IEC/CC

intervention
. Aggleton et

al
.
,

2005
,

comment on
the effectiveness “IEC programs need to be evaluated on two l
evels, both in
terms of their outcome (does an interv
ention influence behavior?) and,

process
(how an intervention works and assists in developing and refining programs).



7
One Love Regional Campaign

(launched in 2008)
http://www.onelovesouthernafrica.org/index.php/about/

September, 2011

8

http://www.onelovesouthernafrica.org/index.php/countries/zambia/

September,
2011


16

Studies also need to be undertaken which compare the effectiveness of inte
r-
vention wi
th and without certain IEC components” (2005:21).


In Aggleton et al. “HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use: Information, ed
u-
c
a
tion and communication” it is stated that “IEC has an important role to play
in HIV prevention, though it should be combined with oth
er approaches if it is
to prove effective. There are many different IEC strategies, including the pr
o-
vision of information about HIV/AIDS
-
related risks through posters, pa
m-
phlets, newsletters, videos, face
-
to
-
face work, and radio and television broa
d-
casts”
(2005:22). Even though this experience is related to HIV/AIDS the IEC
component is similar in other cases that have dealt with health issues. This e
x-
perience explains that “IEC can be used to establish a policy climate suppor
t-
ive of working with injecting
drug users

IDUs
-

and sensitive to the most e
f-
fective approaches. It can do this through advocacy with politicians and
political decision
-
makers, religious leaders and community groups” (Aggleton
et al 2005:27). These are examples of how IEC can lead to a
positive change
that can also be sustainable.


An experience in Vietnam illustrates the use of IEC, in combination with
other techniques) to transform IEC. Laverack and Dap “IEC in Vietnam is
widely understood to include strategies and approaches used in
health comm
u-
nication and health education” (2003:364). An explanation is provided on how
IEC is understood in the Western and the Vietnamese context (Appendix T
a-
ble 2).


In the context of Vietnam, IEC activities, in the past, have followed a top
-
down appr
oach through the governmental apparatus that was the one “telling
people what to think rather than what to think about” (Laverack and Dap,
2003:364). According to the same information, IEC activities have been
planned in terms of resources, which also incl
uded the available funding; this
determined what was used and most of the time this resulted into the selection
of one channel. This approach has changed using other experiences regarding
health communication and education. The new approach “understands th
at
IEC can be more effective when a combination of activities and channels are
used as a part of the same intervention” (Laverack and Dap, 2003:366).


The approach was developed as a combination of the previous experience
and “the need to build on existin
g capacity for IEC including: mass media,
face
-
to
-
face communication, print material, and opportunistic activities, at the
provincial, district, commune and village levels. Also, the need to improve the
quality and delivery of IEC through better design; im
plementation and evalu
a-
tion of interventions using a systematic and structured approach” (Laverack
and Dap, 2003:366). In terms of the improvements, sustainability is mentioned
but in relation to the cost of producing certain materials that can be used in
the
intervention and that should be locally produced to reduce the cost. It shows
the ability to recognize what has been done, to evaluate it and to be able to i
m-
prove in order to achieve the goals that have been set. Now the approach is

17

perceived as an in
teraction and complement of the activities, including the pa
r-
ticipation of village volunteers. The interaction between actors and sectors is
also recognized.


The authors identified the importance of building capacity and improving
coordination of key com
municators, as a way to improve and transform IEC in
Vietnam. In doing so, they suggested that communicators should make use of
participatory methods and materials, and this could be provided by develo
p-
ment agencies to strengthen the capacity of their coun
terparts. Laverack and
Dap

also identified the importance of the materials and the distribution and
regarding communication, “must be properly evaluated as an integral part of
the design using correct procedures and providing a critical analysis of the pr
o-
cess and outcome of the intervention” (2003:368). Sharing experiences
amongst the actors of a territory can lead to improve the IEC activities. Ther
e-
fore, spaces should be created to share the experiences in order to complement
what is being done, to learn

from others and to organize efforts towards the
same goals.


2.6 Communication for Development


Communication for Development, the other way of doing communication, as
it’s known by its practitioners. This has been understood as an alternative way
from t
he traditional one. In this approach people are not considered as target
groups or audiences, but as strategic partners and as individuals who have
something to say. Also, doesn’t tell people what to do but works with them
since the beginning and, they are

the ones who propose the changes and a
c-
tions that are considered important to improve their quality of life. Particip
a-
tion in a real sense, where all have the chance to talk and listen, promoting a
process of dialogue is what makes this approach different

too. In relation to
how the money is invested, this approach focuses on actions that are planned
by the people for the rest of the community. Communication for Develo
p-
ment goes beyond the mere action of sending messages. People in the co
m-
munities are the
ones elaborating the messages and, this approach helps them
upgrade in communication skills, not just for one project or one particular i
s-
sue, but helps them realize that can be used in daily life; work, home, school
and other spheres of their society.


Th
is approach has not been used or recognized by different actors in soc
i-
eties, even though in 2006 the World Congress on Communication for Deve
l-
opment was organized by the Food and Agricultural Organization

FAO
-

in
order to establish what was going to be u
nderstood when talking about this
process but also recommendations were reached as reference to undertake this
approach. In Latin America and, other developing countries, this approach has
become important since the 70s and, nowadays institutions which wer
e used to
Social Marketing (or others approaches) are shifting into

Communication for
Development.


18

For people working in Communication for Development projects, “co
m-
munication can create a favorable ecology for development programs by re
-
linking and facili
tating interactions between economically, politically and cu
l-
turally disconnected groups and ideas
-
between indigenous knowledge and sc
i-
ence, elite national policymakers and rural communities, donor agencies and
local NGOs, men and women, and didactic pedag
ogy and participation”
(Inagaki, 2007:2).


The established methods, the way communication has been wrongly pr
e-
sented has its fundaments in the modernization paradigm and are the example
of top
-
down, one
-
way dissemination. These methods “tried to resolve
Third
World problems by facilitating the transformation

through information
transmission in mass media
-

of pre
-
modern and “backward” attitudes and
practices of “traditional” societies into modern, rational and Western ways of
life” (Inagaki, 2007:5). Mode
rnization paradigm can be found in Social Marke
t-
ing, Entertainment
-
Education; mass media for persuasive messages.


In response to this paradigm, participatory communication approaches
have emerged since the early 70s in Latin America. “The problem of under
d
e-
velopment in Third World countries was created not by the endogenous fa
c-
tors in these countries but by the international political economic order subj
u-
gating the South to the advanced capitalist states in the North” (Inagaki,
2007:7). By criticizing this

political order
-
dependency theory
-

and also the
one
-
way flow of information, the Latin American countries have come up with
communication approaches that emphasize in participation.


Box 2.2
:

Participatory Approach



Participatory Model of Communication


1.

The participation of the intended beneficiaries in different or all of the
project
-
cycle stages.

2.

Horizontal dialogue rather than vertical information transmission.

3.

Cultivation of trust and mutual understanding rather than persuasion.

4.

Local
-
level actions
rather than national
-
level programs.

5.

Local knowledge.

6.

The role of development specialists as the facilitator and equal partic
i-
pants rather than decision makers.

7.

Communication process rather than specific outcomes.

8.

The use of communication to articulate dee
p
-
seated social relations.


Source: Inagaki, 2007:7



19

The action of participation, which is a key element of these processes, has
also been subject for discussion, because it should be defined who gets to pa
r-
ticipate and how real is that participation. As
presented in Inagaki 2007, parti
c-
ipation is a term that in different projects and experiences it can have different
meanings and writes about four: 1) participation in decision making, 2) partic
i-
pation in implementation, 3) participation in evaluation, and

4) participation in
receiving benefit. Experiences have shown that sometimes participation is just
a word in the project but is not exercised by people and if so, then the project
shouldn’t be associated with Communication for Development.


The interest
is growing amongst the practitioners of development strat
e-
gies; successful experiences (from different countries) have been documented
to show this side of Communication and Development, for that matter. This
approach is also vindicating the real meaning o
f communication so that it will
no longer be confused with dissemination of information or as Gumucio
-
Dagron in Fowler and Malunga stated “none understands the role of comm
u-
nication as facilitating dialogue, enhancing participation in the decision
-
making
p
rocess and ensuring sustainability of social and economic change” (2010:
303). His observation is related to NGOs, multilateral organizations or bilateral
agencies that imagine or understand communication as other actions that also
need to be done, like pr
opaganda, institutional image and not as a tool to
achieve social change.


According to Quarry and Ramírez “Communication for Development is
the use of communication processes, techniques and media to help people t
o-
ward a full awareness of their situation

and their options for change, to resolve
conflicts, to work towards consensus, to help people plan actions for change
and sustainable development, to help people acquire the knowledge and skills
they need to improve their condition and that of society, an
d to improve the
effectiveness of institutions” (2009:9).


Sometimes the meaning of communication gets confused, even amongst
practitioners of it. The activities related to communication are also assigned to
almost anyone in the organization and shouldn’t
be this way, because it r
e-
quires the attention of a person who knows the difference between commun
i-
cation and dissemination of information. As Quarry and Ramirez pointed out
in relation to all that surrounds the meaning of communication and the actions
tha
t are related to it is that “what matters most is to have clarity around the
purpose of the communication initiative

the overall intent. What is it that the
communication initiative is trying to do and what do we hope it will achieve?”
(2009:18). As long
as the organization and people who practice communication
have these points clear, then they can define what is the purpose or the fun
c-
tion that communication is trying to help.



20

In Guatemala, efforts have been made in order to help with the clarific
a-
tion

of the concept and practice of Communication for Development, one way
of understanding it is explained by Gularte
9

“has its focus in the emphasis on
the decision
-
making of the subjects, they are the ones who make the conscious
decision of wanting to chang
e a situation that affects them. It is based on full
respect for the person as an agent of its own change, orderly facilitates the
tools to succeed in achieving a change. For this, there are some techniques that
have to be followed, clearly, but techniques

that have been improved from
other participatory projects or that have been developed within a project”.
From this perspective, communication is understood as an exchange process
between the subjects that have the capacities needed for it and in terms to
i
m-
prove their quality of life.


In relation to the projects from Communication for Development, what is
sought is to strengthen the right to communication so that the subjects can be
able to put it into practice in order to change their reality. This is so
mething
that is entirely up to them (people in the municipalities and/or communities),
in any case the intention is to find out how to strengthen a process so that it
can be effective and help improve people’s life.
Figure

2.
1

illustrates how to
understand the process of communication in Communication for Develo
p-
ment.


Figure

2.
1
: Communication as a Process of Dialogue



Source: Adaptation from CECODE Guatemala





9

Eduardo Gularte, President of Centro de Comunicación para el Desarrollo


CECODE
-
, Guatemala.

(Interview via email, September 21, 2011)

FRAMEWORK

Shared Code

Medium /
Resource

Transmitter

Percipient


21

2.7 Experiences of Communication for Development


Some experiences of Participatory Communication for Social Change have fo
l-
lowed the principles of Communication for Development. Related to empo
w-
ering people wit
h knowledge and strengthening local capacities, there are se
v-
eral experiences around the world. Some have vindicated the use of mass
media, since it has been used as means of providing the knowledge. For some
of these experiences, local media has been used

and strengthened in most of
the cases.


The production of information is a shared activity amongst the ones from
the experience and people of the territory where it has been held. Experiences
have been presented in different ways and countries,
Making
Waves

Stories of
Participatory Communication for Social Change
10
-

is an example of where to find
them
.

These selected experiences are the ones that had a participatory a
p-
proach. The action of participation was also included in these experiences, in
the aut
hor’s words “these examples show that the beauty of participatory
communication is that is can adopt different forms according to need, and that
no blueprint model can impose itself over the richness of views and cultural
interactions" (Gumucio
-
Dagron, 200
1:6). Thi
s is

an example of the strategies
that can be successful moving away from the social marketing view. What is
also represented throughout these experiences is that the community showed
that they had appropriated the initiative, which means is now s
ustainable and
organized by some of its members. Another aspect taken into account here is
that in the experiences people have been part of the different stages and/or the
complete process. Because the ones who initiated the project weren’t looking
to gain

visibility, which is the case of some international organizations and that
is one of the reasons why they always rely on mass media, advertising, etc.


These experiences of participatory communication have been developed
in many countries, but mostly in

the Third World, and even more specific,
most of these first experiences began in Latin America. Because communic
a-
tion has been neglected in development projects, as mentioned in Gumucio
-
Dagron, 2001, these experiences show that communication can’t be ign
ored
and should be interpreted as dialogue to be able to understand the cultural and
ethnic view, that other project neglect for being too general to be accepted by
all.







10

Gumucio
-
Dagron, A., 2001: a collection of fifty case stories from three specific r
e-
gions Latin America, Africa and Asia.


22

2.8 Methodologies and Techniques used in Communication
for Development


In order
to achieve the goals established in a Communication for Development
Project there are a series of methodologies that can be used and/or improved,
based on previous experiences. A participatory methodology and a monitoring
and evaluation technique are prese
nted here; Outcome Mapping and The Most
Significant Change.


2.8.1 Outcome Mapping


This is a methodology that explains in a different way how the results can be
achieved in a process of change, not from the linear logic of “X” leading to
“Y” as a cause ef
fect, but as from “X” to go to “Y” there are multiple ways,
multiple actors and factors and it is more dynamic the process. Outcome Ma
p-
ping is different from other ways of planning since it represents the difference
between giving the answers (external act
ion) as oppose to give the tools to cr
e-
ate elaborate the answers (internal action) from a participatory approach. It is
also different because, as explained by Briggs (2010) it promotes transition, is
flexible (adapts to its variations), is participatory (
promoting commitment with
change and the responsibility per result), allows to visualize the process of
change from its multiple dimensions and outcomes.


Table 2.1: Intentional Design

Why?

Vision

Whom?

Direct partners

What?

Desired outcomes and progress

signals

Wow?

Mission, map of strategies, pra
c-
tices of the organization


In the case of the Outcome Mapping, the Direct Partners are the ones that
the project will be working directly with. These actors are direct partners b
e-
cause, even though the
project works with them to promote a change, they are
not under the project’s control, they always have the power to exercise an i
n-
fluence on the development.



23

The desired
outcomes

are the most significant changes in behaviour that
the direct partners are
able to achieve with the project’s support. These ou
t-
comes are the effects that the program will achieve with its intervention, with
the emphasis in the way that the actors behave as a result of its influence.
These are stated in a way that will reflect th
e how an actor will behave y relate
to others if the program uses its potential as an agent of change.


Table 2.2: Program Framework

Vision


Mission


Direct Partner 1:

Outcome 1:

Direct Partner 2:

Outcome 2:

Direct Partner 3:

Outcome 3:

Direct Partner 4:

Outcome 4:


For each direct partner and outcome is established in consensus with the
people who are participating in the planning. The signals of progress are set in
a gradual manner. That is to reach and Outcome it can’t be done
overnight and
it acknowledge that it will take time to reach a difference from the reality until
the Outcome. This should be coherent to the Direct Partners’ capacities. Ou
t-
come Mapping suggests three levels for the signals of progress:
1. It is expected
t
o… 2. It would be positive to… 3. It would be ideal to…


Figure 2.2: Signals of Progress










10









9









8

IT
WOULD BE
IDEAL TO…







7







6

IT WOULD BE
POSITIVE TO…





5





4




3

IT IS EXPECTED TO…


2


1



The Signals of Progress are a participatory step as well. The local actors
are the ones who know best their situation, reality and context, therefore are
the ones who can set their goals in a realistic manner. They are explained what
is the difference betw
een each signal, and then they are able to establish what
would be expected, positive and ideal.


24

Box 2.3
:

Signals of Progress


It is expected to…

These are signals that make reference to reactive changes, that have priority
because can activate the
actions for change in the process.


It would be positive to…

Signals that make reference to more elaborated changes, result from the lear
n-
ing and transformations from exchange and new experiences.


It would be ideal to…

Signals that make reference to chang
es from initiative of the partners inspired
in the changes already achieved.


Source: Beatrice Briggs, International Institute for Facilitation and Change



Map of Strategies, are resources that the program has to support the
changes undertaken by the dir
ect partners, which are also expressed in the Si
g-
nals of Progress. The strategies should have a satisfactory process of conce
n-
tration with the ones that will be using them. The kind of strategy is different
depending on the use. The strategies directed to
people: are to support the
changes undertaken by people. The strategies directed to the context: are to
create favorable conditions in the context so the changes can happen and can
also remain.


2.8.2 The Most Significant Change


The Most Significant
Change

MSC
-
, according to Dart and Davies “is a story
-
based technique to facilitate program improvement by focusing the direction
of work towards explicitly valued direction and away from less valued dire
c-
tions. It can make an important contribution to ev
aluation practice, its unusual
methodology and outcomes make it ideal for use in combination with other
techniques and approaches”(2003:137). In this technique the terms to be used
when talking about the ones involved is important. Therefore, to talk about

the
beneficiaries, in MSC the proper term is participant, instead of intervention, is
program and instead of donors are funders.


MSC is a technique of Monitoring and Evaluation. “Monitoring in the
sense that it occurs throughout the program cycle and pr
ovides information to
help people manage the program. Evaluation in the sense that it provides data
on impact and outcomes that can be used to help assess the performance of
the program as a whole” (Dart and Davies, 2005:8). In monitoring, “MSC is
suited t
o monitoring that focuses on learning rather than just accountability.

25

For staff, it can help them improve their capabilities in capturing and analyzing
the impact of their work” (op.cit.:13).


Dart and Davies, 2005, have also identified purposes on why to

make use
of MSC, from identifying unexpected changes, to identification of values, as
well as being a participatory form of monitoring that requires no professional
skill. Also, it encourages analysis and data collection, builds staff analytical c
a-
pacity,

gives a rich picture of reality and monitors and evaluates bottom
-
up in
i-
tiatives.


As indicated by Dart and Davies, “MSC represents a radical departure
from the conventional monitoring against quantitative indicators that is co
m-
monly seen in the sector a
nd involves the regular collection and participatory
interpretation of
stories
about change rather than predetermined quantitative
indicators” (2003:138). Because it is a technique, there are some steps that can
be followed in order to use it; 1) Raise the

interest, 2) Define the domains, 3)
Define the period (from when to when), 4) Collect the MSC stories, 5) Sele
c-
tion of the MSC stories, 6) Feedback of the process of selection (give back the
stories), 7) Verifying the stories, 8) Quantification and, 9) Mo
nitoring the sy
s-
tem, secondary analysis. Step 8 and 9 are optional. Quantification has been
used in order to keep track of the number of activities or people who have a
t-
tended an activity. Also to be able to tell what kind of effects have been made
and how

many people have recognize to have made a change.


When defining the domains (step 2), it has been suggested to leave an
“open window” domain and it is recommended to use between three and five
domains. In the Step 4, the information included can be divi
ded into three ca
t-
egories; “1) Information: about who collected the story and when the events
occurred, 2) Description: of the story itself (what happened) and, 3) Signif
i-
cance: (to the storyteller) of events described in the story” (Dart and Davies,
2005:
25). The first category later can help as a follow up of the stories.


Because the technique uses a question to generate the telling of the story,
which usually is “
During the last month, in your opinion, what was the most
significant change that took pla
ce for participants in the program”, sometimes
it can be confusing for the person responding. If this is the case, then it is re
c-
ommended to “re
-
phrase it carefully and, once a good way is found in the local
language, one must stick to it” (op.cit.:46).


For MSC to be successful or to be used properly, an organization may
have to evaluate if it has what is needed. Dart and Davies, 2005 consider stra
t-
egies that can help, a) building the capacity of the champions, b) building the
capacity of the staff and, c
) consideration of costs and time.



26

2.9 Analytical Framework


The theory and experiences presented are valuable from their own perspective
and as everything else that has been done; it has a reason for being a certain
way. Table 2.3 gives an
overview of t
he approaches. These

are the ones that
have been implemented in the area of Totonicapán in different years and
through different interventions. The elements identified from the literature are
the ones analyzed in the case through the experiences of the MSP
AS, the Go
v-
ernment and the local NGO.


Table 2.3: Overview to the approaches

Approach

Actions

Desired Goal

Social Marketing



Information dissemination.



Planned Activities (from a
ce
n
tral level)



Elaborated messages



Production and distribution of
materials



Target groups / audiences



Communication = info
r-
mation

Influence a target
audience to change
their behavior.

IEC/CC



Identifies audiences.



Elaborated messages.



Transmission of messages.



Production and distribution of
materials.

Change people’s b

桡癩潲v

C潭浵湩捡瑩潮í
景f⁄敶敬潰浥湴



Provide spaces to access i
n-
formation.



Participatory planning of acti
v-
ities.



Participatory elaboration of
messages.



Spaces for dialogue.



Key and/or direct and strat
e-
gic partners.



Right to communication =
dialogue.

Strengthening the
capacities of local
actors and provide
useful information
so people can make
the decision to
change a behavior.



Social Marketing and some activities are analyzed by the actions and plans
from MSPAS. IEC/CC has also been identified in
the actions from the Go
v-
ernment, especially in the ones by SESAN and
is

also analyzed. In the case of

27

Communication for Development, is identified in the project of the local
NGO. The main difference within the three approaches lies in the understan
d-
ing of

communication and participation.


The literature showed that in Social Marketing and IEC/CC, participation
is not as relevant as it is in Communication for Development. Following these
approaches, the actions have been implemented in Totonicapán achievin
g di
f-
ferent results. The one of Communication for Development is in the interest
in order to analyze in depth the participation and integration of the local actors
in a project. Table 2.4 is a summary of the indicators identified from the liter
a-
ture in eac
h of the approaches and that can be found in the study case as well.


Table 2.4: Indicators that lead to the integration of actors

Indicator

Social Marketing

IEC/CC

C4D

Integration of a Commi
s-
sion of Communication








P污湳映䍯浭畮楣a瑩潮







*

P牯摵捴楯渠慮搠摩s瑲楢

瑩潮t慴 物慬s






*

M潮楴潲楮i⁡湤⁅癡汵

瑩潮







*

A畤楥湣ns







Pa牴湥牳








To achieve Local Development in a territory, it can’t be done from the e
f-
forts of just one institution, organization or a single actor.
The participation of
all the local actors, who are sharing a territory and therefore a reality, has to be
taken into consideration for the strategic planning of future activities. To re
c-
ognize the experience from each local actor is a must when planning an
d to
value these experiences and respect the background will contribute to reach a
consensus to address the issues that affect the territory.


From the Communication for Development approach (*), the plans of
communication are planned together with the lo
cal actors that have integrated
the Commission of Communication and that are assuming an active role.






28

Chapter 3
:
Study Case: Totonicapán, Guatemala

This chapter gives a description of the department of Totonicapán, which is
the area of interest.
Brief

context information is provided followed by the i
n-
formation related to malnutrition in Totonicapán.


3.2 Totonicapán, Guatemala


Figure 3.1: Totonicapán’s Municipalities




The population in Totonicapán, in its majority is Maya K’iche’, and ther
e-
fore the language that is used the most is K’iche’. Most of them live in the rural
areas, but there is also a considerable number living in the urban areas; rural
population 64% and urban population 36%.


Within the economic activity of the locality, the
industry is diverse man
u-
facturing; fabrics, furniture and pottery. The population density, the low
productivity of the land and the inadequate use of it, makes the family maint
e-
nance a problem. This has caused the population to seek for other or additio
n-
al

occupations, even temporarily migration to the plantations in the Coast Area
of the country, in order to make the family budget. In the department there are

29

great forest extensions in which fir and pines trees have been abundant.
In the
Appendices (Table
3 and 4)

more information of Totonicapán

can be found

regarding its characteristics and the economic activity.


3.3 Malnutrition in Totonicapán


According to the Nutritionist from the Ministry of Health for the area of T
o-
tonicapán, chronic malnutrition
is when children have an inadequate height for
their age and she explained that in Totonicapán, 69.7% of the children have
chronic malnutrition. It is has been mentioned that one of the reasons for this
problem is because people in the communities don’t ha
ve good access to food
and also because the families are numerous. Language has limited the access to
information and to reach more people. There are some cases of severe maln
u-
trition in Santa María Chiquim
ula and Santa Lucía La Reforma (the info
r-
mation in

detail of percentages of malnutrition can be found in Appendices
Tables 5, 6, and 7).
Table 3.1 illustrates where

these municipalities stand co
m-
pared to the rest of the country. The order goes from 1 to 333 (the number of
municipalities in the country) an
d 1 stands for lowest.


Table 3.1: Municipal Priority, according to Quality of Life

No. of
Order

Quality
Criteria

Municipality

Population

(2002)

Projection

(2008)

11

Very low

Santa Lucía La Refo
r-
ma

13,479

18,862

27

Very low

San Francisco El Alto

45,241

57,926

40

Very low

San Andrés Xecul

22,362

30,272

46

Very low

Momostenango

87,340

113,120

54

Low

Santa María

Chiquimula

35,148

43,562

155

Average

San Cristóbal

Totonicapán

30,608

35,326

168

Average

San Bartolo Aguas C
a-
lientes

8,684

14,432

186

Average

Totonicapán

96,392

120,250



TOTAL

339,254

433,750






30

3.4 Consequences of Malnutrition


Information provided by the Nutritionist from the Ministry of Health for the
area of Totonicapán, indicates that the consequences can be intellectual
deficit,
when the children grow up they will be less productive, in the childhood they
tend to fail the school year, and all of these because their development has