The Knowledge Management Infrastructure

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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The Knowledge Management

Infrastructure

Prof.E.Vandijck

“ If we only knew what we know at TI “



Jerry Junkins


Former chairman ,


President and CEO of TI

Knowledge


Knowledge is a broader and more
difficult to define concept than
information.




We obtain knowledge when the
information is also interpreted and
therefore made usable. We get
knowledge by creating associations and
by earning insight.


The Pyramid

Data

Information

Knowledge

Wisdom

Types of Knowledge


We can distinguish between two major types of
knowledge



Tacit Knowledge



Explicit Knowledge

Tacit Knowledge


Tacit knowledge: resides in someone
´
s head, it
does not exist in explicit form and is not easily
transferred to others.


Undocumented


In people
´
s heads


A source of explicit knowledge



The highest
-
value knowledge is that held by
employees


Experience


Insight


expertise


Explicit Knowledge


Explicit knowledge is stored in digitized form so that it
can be viewed, read, used and applied.



Structured


Books, reports


Databases


Drawings


Methodologies


Trend analysis


Unstructured


Illustrations


Articles


E
-
mails, news



More directly usable

Forms of Knowledge
Conversion

Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge

Tacit

Knowledge




Explicit

Knowledge

Socialization

Externalization

Internalization

Combination

Externalization of Tacit
Knowledge




Best for:



Advantage:


Limits:



Examples:


Capture and Codify
Knowledge


Multiple,

Repeatable solutions


Sharable by many


Major conversion and
maintenance


Supply chain mngt

SAP install


Provide guide to
experts


Innovative

Unique solutions


Low KM solution cost


Demand on availability
of experts


Investment banking

Strategic consulting


Source: Gartner group

Benefits of Explicit Knowledge



Payoff:



Internal

Sources:




External

Sources:


New Intelligence


Discover trends

Anticipate

Improve strategic action

Employees, product,
service and customer
analysis

E
-
commerce feedback


New feeds

Internet research


Asset Management


Reuse elements

Protect from loss


Key employees

Critical databases

Critical business
processes


Market analysis

Internet research

Source: Gartner group

Benefits of Tacit Plus Explicit
Knowledge


Solution support


Applying pragmatic experience to replicate decision
making for complex problems



Examples


Complex contracts or decisions


Diagnosis and treatment in healtcare


Building direct
-
marketing campaigns



Payoff


Improve process and service performance


Best practices databases

Knowledge Management

What is Knowledge
Management ?


Knowledge management is not


The implementation of a technology



Knowledge management is


a multidisciplinary approach


that integrates


Business strategy


Cultural values


Work processes



Good technological support is crucial, but is not
enough to create a good knowledge environment.

Knowledge Management


The broad process of identifying, capturing,
organizing, transferring and using knowledge .


Knowledge management promotes collaborative
approach and group work.

Framework:

Leadership

Organizational

Knowledge

Adapt

Apply

Create

Identify

Collect

Organize

Share

Leadership

Measurement

Culture

Technology

Process

Enablers

Source: American Productivity & Quality Center
-

Carla O’Dell, C.Jackson Grayson

Facts


Enterprise invested in KM
-
relevant technology


Intranets


Groupware


Data warehouses


Data mining



Enterprises forgot the non
-
technical work


Aligning knowledge to business goals


Mapping knowledge content


Creating networks of knowledge users


Changing culture and defining KM role


Business Benefits of KM


KM generates economic and business benifits by:


Providing broad and easy access to enterprise knowledge


Leveraging knowledge trough improved collaboration
processes and technologies


Integrating KM into work tasks and processes of employees


Stimulating innovation and the creation of new knowledge



Gartner group study showed that 60% of knowledge
management programs resulted in success

Aspects of Knowledge
Management


Knowledge discovery


Generating knowledge from data


Knowledge representation


Human
-
readable knowledge


Machine
-
readable knowledge


Ontologies (study of being, general properties)


Knowledge filtering


Knowledge searching


Search engines


Intelligent agents


Visualization models

Within the Company


Companies try to manage and use this knowledge in a
more systematic way.


Required actions.


define which knowledge is required in order to define and
execute the strategic business plan;


organizations must implement a system that assures a
continuous flow from the members of the organization, the
knowledge workers, towards the infrastructure that supports
the knowledge management;


there has to be an integration of the strategy, the processes,
the cultural
and

technical aspects of knowledge management

.


Setup of an Enterprise Knowledge Architecture.



.

KM Success Is Focused on the
Business


Do first


Determine role of knowledge in achieving company goals


Select mission
-
critical business areas for high KM impact


Knowledge
-
enable key processes and decision making


Try to make the link between improved knowledge and
business results


Start small projects within the business culture



Do then


Encyclopedia of R&D or operations knowledge


Know
-
how of departing experts


Capture tacit knowledge in explicit form


Business Architecture

Knowledge Architecture

Information Architecture

Data Architecture

IT Architecture

Enterprise

Architecture

The Enterprise Architecture


The IT architecture:

basis for the other
components.


Hardware.


Network and communication
environment
.


The system management tools.


The middleware and the basic software.


The data architecture.


How data will be collected, stored and distributed.


Those data are raw data in an updateable form,
needed for later interpretation and usage.


Important aspects here are reliability, integrity and
security.

The Enterprise Architecture


In the information architecture:

basis and the guideline
for the ICT
-
management.


The ICT
-
strategy of the enterprise is captured.


It is the translation of the enterprise business strategy into
high
-
level information needs.


A set of applications that are build to fulfil business needs.


The knowledge architecture.


How and where the organization creates and distributes
knowledge in all the forms.


The business architecture.


The way the enterprise planned to achieve its business
strategy.


This strategy includes goals and objectives, seen in the
context of the environment of stakeholders, employees,
competitors and other internal and external factors.


Knowledge

Architecture

Knowledge

Management Infrastructure


Gathering.


Document management.


Office systems.


Data entry.


Dissemination.


Email, voice mail, …


Web.


Inquiry systems.


Data warehouse, data mart.


Networks.


Lan, wan,


Internet, intranet, extranet.


Storage.


Databases, files, ...


Meta data, dictionaries, …


Groupware.


Collaboration tools.


Conferencing tools.


Analysis.


Data mining.


OLAP.


Visualization.


extract


combine


transform


derive


analyze


present

Data Layer






Metadata

-

Data Structure




-

Taxonomy

-
Data Content





-

Knowledge maps

-

Thesaurus

Data Sources



Groupware repository


Document management


Intranets


File servers


WWW





Data Types



Relational databases


Text files


Audio/video


Web pages


E
-
mails





Data Formats



XML


HTML


ASCII


GIF


MPEG





Portals


Provide a window into information, systems and
processes of an organization




Portals are essential to support KM


Enterprise portals


Personal portals


A portal provides a uniform access to


Documents (unstructured data)


Databases (structured data)


Applications





Based on a knowledge map, repositories and indexes


Build
-
in filtering mechanisme


To be combined with

Push Technology

The Knowledge Framework in Practice


The components of a technologic
knowledge architecture


Knowledge repositories and libraries


Knowledge carthography


Communities of knowledge workers

The Knowledge Flow

Knowledge
-

repositories

and

Libraries

Knowledge

Carthography

Communities

of

knowledge
-

workers

The

Knowledge

Flow

Source:Borghoff 1998

Organizing available

Explicit knowledge

e.g. case based reasoning


Also tacit knowledge

of specific experts

Meta
-
knowledge.

Map of knowledge

domains

Technological
applications for
exchanging tacit

knowledge

Technology that supports

conversion from tacit to
explicit knowledge and
the other way around

Explicit Knowledge in Document Format


Documents is a traditional method for the
codification of knowledge


Better usage of already available documents


On
-
line document databases


Lessons
-
learned archives


Best practices databases


Document knowledge bases for knowledge
domains without unique answers




Development of a knowledge repository


Setup of a Knowledge
Repository


What documents are we going to store, and why?


Manuals to support maintenance


Client documentation for marketing





Avoid overload


Selection based on predefined criteria


Alternatives


Special task to select documents


Everybody can add documents


Organizing Documents


Values in an index or meta
-
knowledge


Attributes of a knowledge document


Activities


Keywords


Type of document


Product or service


Authority (owner, usability, quality, …) of the
knowledge


Time and validity period

The Knowledge Flow


Support the knowledge flow is the basic goal of
knowledge management.


It is the central component in the framework, and the
the link between the three other components.


It stimulates the interaction between:


The tacit knowledge generated and exchanged between the
community of the knowledge workers;


The explicit knowledge in the knowledge repositories;


The explicit meta
-
knowledge used as the corporate knowledge
map.



The basis for the technological structure.


are the itelligent agents.


Intelligent Agents


Intelligent agents:


perform tasks on behalf of something else like e.g. a person, a
system or a business proces;.


it is a small computerprogram that can perform tasks on his
own, including take some decissions;


an agent can react on events;


it can contain simple rules or it can be based on more complex
techniques like neural networks;


they run in background, often without being seen by the users.



Useful in two of the components of the framework:


in knowledge repositories;


in knowledge carthography.

Intelligent Agents in Knowledge
Repositories


Personal agents


To master information overload;


To switch from pull to push mode;


Personalized content filtering;


User profile, based on a personal thesaurus and
intelligent search algorithms;



Technical agents


Automatic document indexing;


Important in case
-
based reasoning systems;

Intelligent Agents in Communities
of Knowledge Workers


Personal agents


Responsible for activity planning (workflow environments);


Interaction with actor agents that define the role of the worker
in the business process;



A workflow agent


tries to find a personal agent that can perform a certain task;


Asks the personal agent whether this task fits in planning of
the specific knowledge worker;



A deliberation agent


will check the requests against the availability of the personal
agents;


An instance of the actor, containing the goals and activities of
the task, is added to the personal agents.

Integration of the Components

Using Intelligent Agents

Knowledge repositories




Technical agent



(e.g.indexing)




Personal agents


Explicit


䕸Eli捩t

Knowl敤g攠Wor步ks




Technical agent



(e.g.workflow agent)




Personal agents


Tacit


T慣at

Knowledge carthography



Agents / Profiles


Definition


Personal agents


Communities


Processes

1. Add explicit knowledge

2. Inquiry for explicit knowledge

4. Input for profiles


of people and


communities

6. Input for profiles


of people,


communities


and processes

3. Inquiry for profiles


of people and


communities

5. Inquiry for profiles


of people,


communities


and processes

Dynamic adaption and creation

Building the Environment

Decision Framework for KM
-
project

Identify Key Values

Source: Gartner Group

Evaluate Enterprise

Strategy/direction for KM

«

Values

»


Business model


Service goals


Identify business goals for KM


Select a knowledge recovery



strategy


Evaluate potential for Cultural


and business shift


Evaluate potential benefits


Set performance measures


Determine cost and other


resources for KM


Ensure business unit support


and funding

Analyse Benefits/measures

Define KM strategy


Explicit knowledge apps.


Tacit knowledge apps.


Combined apps.


Set performance goals

Set KM performance goals

Critical Success Factors


KM strategy


Mission, goals, vision, alternatives, responsibilities, …



Resources


Budget for staff, development, …



Technology


Network, user delivery, tools, maintenance, storage



Motivation


For sharing knowledge



Promotion and Training


Cultural Success Factors


Combine value contributed by individual with value of
contributions by groups.


Face
-
to
-
face meetings are still required to bring
contributers together.


Consistent terminology and models are critical.


Communities of practice and experience on processes
and knowledge.


Cultural change is required.

Citation

There is nothing more difficult to plan ,
more doubtful of success,
nor more dangerous to manage
than the creation of a new system.

For the initiator has the enmity of all who
would profit by the preservation of the old
system and merely lukewarm defenders in
those who would gain by the new one.


Machiavelli, 1513

Computer Technologies for KM


Groupware: mail, Lotus Notes, Intranet,Chat
boxes, …


Multimedia, video, …


Documentation systems and XML


Expert systems


Artificial Intelligence systems


Data Warehousing, OLAP, data mining, statistics


Search engins, encyclopedia, in
-
text search


Case
-
based reasoning


Agents


Computer based training



Mentioned reasons for KM

In decreasing order of importance:


Integrate multiple sources of data


Marketing and sales


Growth and innovation


Business process inprovement


People orientation


Service improvement


IT orientation


Information Management orientation


Cost savings

Source: Gartner group

Think about this !

Knowledge management technology

does not equal

Knowledge management


for the same reason that


an exercise machine

does not equal

exercise