The Knowledge is in the Network

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

The Knowledge is in the Network

Patti Anklam

June Holley

Valdis Krebs

Using Network Analysis to
Understand and Improve Knowledge
Management


copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

2

Our Three
-
Part Conversation


Overview of Network Analysis for Knowledge
Management


Patti Anklam, Hutchinson
Associates


Using Network Analysis to Manage Networks
of Partnerships


Valdis Krebs, Orgnet


Sustaining a Development Network


June
Holley, Executive Director, ACEnet



copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

3

So what is Social Network Analysis (SNA)?


Social Network Analysis is a mathematical and
visual analysis of relationships / flows / influence
between people, groups, organizations, computers
or other information/knowledge processing entities


Valdis Krebs


A targeted approach to improving collaboration and
network connectivity where they yield greatest
payoff for an organization


Rob Cross & Andrew
Parker

When applied to organizations, often (and increasingly) called
Organizational Network Analysis (ONA)

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

4

Networks Matter


The complexity of work in today’s

world is such that no one can

understand


let alone complete


a

task alone


Individual
-
individual


Team
-
team


Company
-
company


Strong networks are correlated with
health:


People with stronger personal networks
are healthier, happier, and better
performers


Companies who know how to manage
alliances are more flexible, adaptive and
resilient

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

5

Network maps provide insight and
prompt questions


Knowledge flows along
existing pathways in
organizations.


To understand the

knowledge flow, find

out what the patterns are.


Create interventions to create,
reinforce, or change the
patterns to improve the
knowledge flow.


I frequently or very frequently receive
information from this person that I
need to do my job.

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

6

ONA Basics


Know
-
about


Information


Communication


Trust


Problem
-
solving


Decision
-
making


Sense
-
making


Distance (degrees of
separation)


Density (overall
connectivity)


Positional importance
of individuals

What’s the Question?

What’s Important to Know?

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

7

Basic Steps in an ONA


Identify the business problem and the scope
of the network


Collect data about the relevant relationships


Use computer analysis tools


Validate the findings through interviews and
workshops


Design and implement interventions to
change the network


Follow up

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

8

Starting points for network analysis


Improving collaboration within and across given
groups


Understanding individual contributions to a group


Recognizing the work of central people


Speeding the inclusion of peripheral people


Staffing teams and temporary projects


Considering succession


Preparing for and facilitating organizational change

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

9

Data Collection Methods


Qualitative


Surveys


Ethnographic research or interviews


Quantitative


Transaction analysis (emails, phone calls, web
usage logs)


Analysis of information artifacts (email,
documents, search strings) to identify similarity of
interests

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

10

Qualitative Survey Example

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11

Use Software to Analyze

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12

Assess the Context


What is impact of
geographical
distribution?


How connected are
people within each
country?


Are the people in the
middle connectors or
bottlenecks?

Source: http://www.robcross.org/sna10.htm

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

13

Identify Key Patterns


Overly central people


Outliers


Disconnected

networks


Internally focused

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14

Analyze and Interpret

I frequently or very
frequently receive
information from
this person that I
need to do my job.

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

15

Metrics Derived from the Same Data


Average distance (degrees of separation)


Individual position in the network structure


How central certain individuals are


Which individuals are “between” most others


Who has the shortest average path to everyone
else in the network?


Who has the most power?


Ratio of connections between internal (to
group) and external (to other groups)

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

16

Metrics

Density


The percentage of ties that exist out of the
total possible that could exist

SmA
Ops
PL A
PL B
PL C
LgA
10
5
8
8
9
10
Small Accounts
72%
2%
11%
0%
2%
5%
Operations
4%
85%
10%
5%
7%
12%
Product Line A
8%
3%
77%
0%
1%
4%
Product Line B
0%
13%
2%
73%
0%
17%
Product Line C
2%
16%
1%
3%
54%
17%
Large Accounts
2%
18%
5%
16%
12%
73%
copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

17

Identify Actions to Take


Organizational


Leadership work


Restructuring and process redesign


Staffing and role development


Developing Networks


Tools and technologies (expertise
locators, discussion forums, and so on)


Collaborative knowledge exchange and
getting acquainted sessions


Individual action


Personal and public


Personal and private


copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

18

ONA has been used to address a variety of
knowledge
-
related business problems


Team building


Assessing communications and connectivity across
groups


Connecting overlooked knowledge assets


Finding key connectors in organizations


Generating leadership networks


Performance benchmarking


Facilitating mergers and acquisitions


Diagnosing patterns in communities of practice


Competency assessment


Addressing the “lost knowledge problem”

copyright © hutchinson associates 2005

19

The Bottom Line


ONA doesn’t give answers, but it leads you to ask
important questions


ONA methodology uses a complexity model:


Detect patterns; dive deeper to understand


Make interventions; see what new emerges


You cannot predict the outcome; but you can reinforce
positive patterns and alter the negative ones


ONA is a
diagnostic

tool


Positioned within a KM practice it can focus KM project
resources where they will make the most difference


ONA is also an intervention


use it wisely