Presentation - Career and Technical Education

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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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CHAPTER5:

FINAL DESIGN CHALLENGE

Engineering Mathematics

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Introduction/Description

2

Individually and/or in teams, you will


complete hand
-
drawn or CADD diagrams and
drawings to scale,


build a scale model, and


present a 30
-
minute multimedia exhibition of your
work.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Chapter 5: Outline

3

1.
Beams

2.
Supports

3.
Stress and Buckling

4.
Truss Analysis


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Objectives and Results

4


Students will identify the different types of bridges
and the strengths and weaknesses of each design.


Students will use critical thinking, problem solving, and
team work to design, engineer, and troubleshoot a
functional bridge truss design.


Students will develop public speaking and
presentation planning skills.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Schedule of Assignments

5

Class
Period(s)

Topic(s)
Reading

Assignment

1
-
2


The Engineering Design
Process
-

quick
r
eview


Student
background of

the Capstone Project


Vocabulary

Chapter 5.1

#
1
-
Individual:

EDP review, vocabulary,

capstone Project Handout

3
-
5


Introduction to truss
analysis

Chapter 5.2

#2
-
Individual:
Truss Analysis Handout/Worksheet


6
-
30


Scale diagrams and
drawings


West Point Bridge Design
(WPBD)


Chapter 5.2

#3
-
In teams of 2
-
3; Do drawings either

by hand or in CADD for your project

and build your scale model of a truss bridge.

Use WPBD to test and

modify your designs to

hold the most weight possible

(Major)


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Schedule of Assignments, cont.

6

Class
Period(s)


Topic(s
)

Reading

Assignment

31
-
60


Model: design and
build

Chapter 5.3

#4
-
In teams of 2
-
3; Apply the engineering

design process to the scenario given;

complete
the
model for
your design following

the
rubric
given

(Major)

61
-
80


Presentation
preparation on truss
designs

and analyses

Chapter 5.3

#5
-
In teams of 2
-
3;
Complete
the engineering

design process
for the
scenario given;

complete
a
presentation

following
the

rubric given

(Major)

81
-
90


Presentations


Destructive testing of

bridge truss designs

Chapter 5.4

#
6
-
In teams of 2
-
3; complete the engineering

design process for the scenario given;

deliver the multimedia presentation

of your design following the rubric given.

Test bridge designs using destructive

testing

equipment as instructed.

(Major)

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Results

7

Students will present a design, drawings, model, and
other information about bridge truss design, using
appropriate mathematical formulas, mathematical
design analysis, and associated programs.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Vocabulary

8


Arch bridges


Beam


Bridge


Bracing


Catenary


Deck


Deck Truss


Forms, or Types of Bridges



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Vocabulary, cont.

9


Materials


Model


Parabola


Pony truss

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Vocabulary, cont.

10


Quadratic Equations


Span


Stringer


Strut


Suspension Bridges


Symmetry

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Vocabulary, cont.

11


Technical drawing


Tie


Truss


Truss bridges



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Engineering Problems and Solutions

12


Often, engineers encounter problems and must solve
these problems using mathematical formulas and test
data analysis.


You and your teammates will be solving similar issues
by addressing the crucial elements of the engineering
design process and using
mathematical
analysis
and
mathematical
formulas for bridge truss
design.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Mathematics in Construction

13


Obviously, architecture is geometric


a clear link to
mathematics.


Consider
blue
prints,
for example. A blue print is the
paper layout, drafted by an architect, which
illustrates the design of a building.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Mathematics in Construction, cont.

14


Math also provides architects with a solution to the
question of possibility.


Think
of yourself as an architect.


In
your mind,
dream
up a beautiful
building

that you
can actually picture
in
your head.


How
does that dream building become a blue
print?
Or become
an actual structure
?




Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Math in Everyday Construction

15


It is not only architects who design and build practical
structures.


Every day
people commonly do construction work to
their houses and yards.


It
would be very expensive to hire an architect if you
just wanted to build a fence or a new deck.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Sample Problem

16


For example, imagine you are redecorating your
living room.
You
want to hang three pictures on the
wall in a triangular shape
.


You
realize that you must put the nails in the vertices
of an equiangular triangle in order to create the
shape you want.
However
, the studs in the wall are
spaced
40 cm
apart.


How do you figure out where to put the nails?

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Solution to Sample Problem

17

60
°

60
°

60
°

40cm

40cm

x

Solve for x: tan60 =
x







40





Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Bridges Overview

18

A
bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles
such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the
purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Bridge Factors

19

There are
four main factors
that are
used in describing
a bridge
.


Span
(simple, continuous, cantilever
)


Material
(stone, concrete, metal, etc
.)


Placement
of the travel surface in relation to the
structure (deck, pony, through
)


Form/type
(beam, arch, truss, etc
.)


Bridge Identification Factors

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Curves in Bridge Design

20

There are two curves with very similar shapes that are
important in bridge
construction:



Catenary



Parabola

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Symmetry

21


Symmetry is
a way to describe shapes and design
and to organize geometry.


Architecture
encompasses
basic line symmetry and
other types, such as


rotational


spiral,


c
ylindrical,


chiral,


s
imilarity, and


translational.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Forms (Types) of Bridges

22


While there
are many different types of
bridges, we
will focus on truss bridge designs.


With over 30 different types of truss designs, we will
cover 10 of them.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Types of Bridges

23

Three main types
of
bridges
are

1.
arch,

2.
truss, and

3.
suspension.

1

2

3

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design #1: Pratt Truss

24

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design #2: Warren Truss

25

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design #3: Whipple Truss

26

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design #4: Parker Truss

27

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design #5: Baltimore Truss

28

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design
#6: Pauli or Lenticular

29

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Truss Design
#7: Bailey Truss

30

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design
#8:
L
attice Truss

31

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Truss Design
#9: Parker Camelback

32

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Truss Design
#10: Howe
Truss

33

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Bridge Analysis Factors

34


Span


Load


Environmental influences


Budget


Soil characteristics


Building time frame

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Analyzing Bridge Designs

35

Analyze the bridge designs based on the following
elements:


Length of span


Height


Materials to be used


Tools available


Weight to be held


Racking

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Creating a Scale Drawing

36


A scale drawing is a
drawing that shows a real object
with accurate
sizes.


Sizes are reduced
or enlarged by a certain amount
(
the
scale
).


The example drawing below has
a scale of "
1:10."



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing and Ratios

37


Scale of a drawing = drawing length : actual length


For example, a map cannot be of the same size as
the area it represents. A ratio is used.


A
scale is usually expressed in one of two
ways:


using units or


1
cm to 1 km


1” = 1’


w
ithout
explicitly mentioning
the measurement units.


1:100,000


1:10


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing in Architecture

38

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Engineering Drawing Example

39

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawing Practice

40


Complete scale drawings for your project.


Follow your instructor’s directions to complete either
hand
-
drawn or CAD drawings of your project,
according to the scenario and team project outline
and rubric.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Models

41


A scale
model is a physical
model. It is a
representation or copy of an object that is larger or
smaller than the actual size of the
object.


A scale model maintains
the
related
proportions
(or
the scale) of
the physical size of the original object.


Usually, the
scale model is used as a guide to making
the full
-
sized object.


You will be creating scale truss bridge models.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Model Examples

42

A model is a three
-
dimensional (3
-
D) alternative for a
2
-
D
representation. An
example
of a scale 3
-
D model
versus a scale drawing would
be a
globe,
which is
the
3
-
D
alternative to a
flat 2
-
D
world map.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Model Examples

43

From Scale Model



To Construction


To Completed Building

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Creating a Scale Model

44

Much like creating a scale drawing, when creating a
scale model, you have to decide on certain crucial
design components, such as


measurement (length, height, width, depth, etc.),


real life applications,


design constraints,


design requirements,


materials, and


scale.

Building a Scale Model

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Four Forces and Bridge Design

45

Several forces and formulas should be considered when
designing:


Compression


Tension


Torsion


Shear

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Formulas and Bridge Design

46


Compression and tension caused by a bridge’s load
can cause racking.


Analyze and counteract racking in your design.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

West Point Bridge Design (WPBD)

47


West Point Bridge Design Contest


The program is available for free
download at
http://
bridgecontest.usma.edu/download.htm
.


Visit the WPBD
tutorials

to learn how to use the
software.


Visit the WPBD FAQs at
http://bridgecontest.usma.edu/qcontest.htm
.


WPBD YouTube
video
.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Bridge Truss Models

48


In teams, after analyzing the various designs and
their strengths and weaknesses, design the strongest
and lightest weight bridge to the specifications
indicated in the student design brief.


In teams, create your bridge truss using 100 Popsicle
sticks and glue only.


Get approval for using your design with your
instructor.


Build your bridge.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Scale Drawings

49


Complete
hand
-
drawn or
CAD
scale diagrams and
drawings.


Your group should be prepared to present the
following to your instructor and your class:


Problem statement and how you solved your problem using
the engineering design process


Scenario


Original design of your system


Working model of your system



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Racking and Geometric Figures

50


Explain how your design counteracts racking based
on geometric and algebraic principles.


Which type of geometric figure is the best to
counteract tension and compression?


Analyze which type of figure is the most efficient.

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Build
a
Scale Model

51


See the grading rubric for more specific grading
criteria
.


You should complete a CAD or hand
-
drawn design on
paper and have a design approved by your
instructor before receiving your materials to build.


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Weights and Measures

52


Weigh 20 popsicle sticks using a scale.


Convert the sticks’ weight into pounds.


Estimate the final weight of your bridge based on the
following different configurations.


45 sticks


60 sticks


100 sticks

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Weights and Measures, cont.

53


Measure your bridge truss design using a ruler or
yardstick.


Record the metric and English standard measurements
for your bridge’s


o
verall length,


t
otal height, and


t
otal width.



Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Orthographic Drawing Example

54

Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Bridge Design Presentation

55


P
resent a
30
-
minute
multimedia exhibition of
your
team’s bridge design work.



See
the grading rubric for more specific grading
criteria
.


View the websites below, before giving presentation.

How to Increase Self
-
Confidence in Public Speaking

Public Speaking Tutorial

Enhancing Your Presentation Skills




Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Credits

56


ClipArt;

http://www.clipart.com/en/


Images;

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page


Slide 44

Building a Scale Model video; from YouTube user;
Steve Maxwell;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d27tOwET0SU


Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Credits, cont.

57


Slide 47


How to Set Up a Bridge Design Using WPBD video;
from YouTube user;
Learninreturn
;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RFOo8uuDh4



Slide 55

How to increase self
-
confidence in public speaking
video; from YouTube user;
VideoJug
;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhE_bCFxDp8





Copyright © Texas Education Agency 2012. All rights reserved.

Credits, cont.

58


Slide 55, cont.

Public speaking tutorial video; from YouTube user;
Camille
Valvo
;

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MyKGbsbipqA


Enhancing your presentation skills video; from
YouTube user; J Douglas
Jeffreys
;
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=whTwjG4ZIJg&N
R=1&feature=endscreen