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26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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2013. Namibia

Group IPF
-
MICONS
--

MLGHRD


Group IPF
-
MICONS INSTITUTION MLGHRD

AUTHORS: ENG.SERGIO HERNANDEZ PUENTE


MSC MARILYN GONZLEZ SILVA



The

terrain

is

flat

topography,

soils

of

sandy

material

corresponding

to

the

type

of

soil

and

sand

of

the

Kalahari,

combinations

of

neem
,

loam

and

clay

INTRODUCTION




GENERALS

OBJETIVES
:


Expose

this

situation,

give

examples

and

solutions

to

these

cases
.



SPECIFIC

OBJETIVES
:


Provide

constructive

solution

and

project

to

help

stop,

remove,

prevent

the

rise

of

these

problematic

presented
.


Incorporate

into

the

use

of

steel

foundation

for

greater

flexibility

to

the

base

of

buildings
.


In the Caprivi region, some buildings have cracks, fissures, and
the age of the buildings in good condition not exceeding 20 years.

How to solve this situation?

GENERAL PROBLEM:

SOLUTION
:

Modify

the

foundations

of

the

projects

to

be

built,

following

the

recommendations

given
.



UTILITY
:

For

the

people

who

run

their

homes

or

running

construction

companies

and

facilities

housing

works
.


FEASIBILITY
:

Presentation

and

delivery

of

the

document

to

the

Department

of

Planning

and

Regional

Development

Council

for

approval

and

implementation,

making

it

comply

with

building

regulations

for

projects
.

INVESTIGATION’S

METHOD
:


The

observation

qualitative

and

analysis

of

the

situation

in

cases

of

study

with

the

constructor

in

the

place

and

practical

solution
.


Emergence

of

cracks

essentially

45

°

from

the

top

towards

a

lower,

wall

corners

upwards

towards

corners

of

window

and

door

openings,

walls

collapse
.


Top

longitudinal

walls

break

and

move

out

and

in,

on

average

3

to

4

cm
.



No

exact

fulfilment

of

the

requirements

of

projects

in

the

foundation
.

No

excavation

shoring
.

DEVELOPMENT


Do

not

use

the

steel

strip

foundations

and

project

wide

and

thin
.

(Concrete

is

good

in

compression,

but

only

10
%

to

resists

fraction
.


Great

weight

compact

block

walls

(concrete

blocks,

with

height

above

3
m

and

thickness

of

them

with

more

than

20

cm
.


Not

used

reinforced

concrete

columns

at

corners

and

transverse

joints
.


Beams

are

not

used

concrete

enclosure

as

upper

closure

element

for

the

longitudinal

and

transverse

clamping

and

supporting

walls,

retaining

covers
.

Start of the
construction at a
classroom.


Small

metal

joints,

No
18

sweet

mayan

wire

used

for

clamping

between

walls

is

insufficient,

given

the

weight

of

the

walls

of

concrete

blocks

used
.


Too many vertical joints in corners of windows and doors.


Misalignments

of

doors

that

do

not

work

up

the

floor
.


Beams

are

not

used

concrete

enclosure

as

upper

closure

element

for

the

longitudinal

and

transverse

clamping

and

supporting

walls,

retaining

covers
.



No

steel

is

used

to

sew

the

cracks,

when

they

begin

to

separate
.



During

the

work

of

checking,

inspection

of

construction

progress

and

housing

installations,

technical

advice

and

guidance

to

works

in

progress

as

the

ongoing

construction

of

classrooms,

facilities

and

health

services
.

It

has

been

observed

in

almost

all

works

the

presence

of

cracks

and

fissures

CASE STUDY

Nsundano

Primary school.
Bukalo

settlememnt

.

School

inspection

and

signing

of

contract,

to

repair

cracked

classroom

and

shabby

construction
.


It

is

noted

foundation

movement

downwards

by

the

weight

of

the

walls

of

the

fracture

is

likely

to

run

from

the

foundation

plate
.


The

longitudinal

walls

have

outward

movement,

the

bulging

and

cracking

floor,

roof

trusses

have

endured

some

form

of

motion

of

the

walls,

like

the

transversal

walls
.

The

roof

support

trusses

are

wood,

joints

and

incorrect

use

tiptoed

are

spaced

between

1200
-
1500

mm
.

The

mean

runner

wood

trusses

are

rotting

by

80
%

needed

all

change

in

all

classroom
.

Recommendations for solution of problems

Nsundano

Primary

school
.



Use

grooving

of

tungsten

electric
-
drive

to

make

the

grooves

perpendicular

to

the

cracks

to

100

mm

deep

in

the

walls
.



Use

corrugated

steel

13

mm

diameter

and

200

mm

long

U
-
shaped

(bent

legs)

4
º

-

12
º

-

4
º

and

placed

at

300

mm

from

each

other

perpendicular

to

the

cracks,

starting

50

mm

from

the

beginning

and

end

of

each

crack

.


Placed

steel

(the

crack

is

like

sewing

steel)

filling

the

space

with

sand
-
cement

mortar

(
1
:

2
)
.



Excavate

the

corners,

hollow

1000

x

1000

x

400

mm

below

the

foundation

and

filled

with

concrete

current

of

15

MPa
.

Wet

thoroughly

with

water

the

actual

foundation

before

pour

the

new

concrete
.

Repair

concrete

perimeter

sidewalks
.


They

must

repeat

these

excavations

center

transverse

walls,

corners

of

classrooms

(exterior)

and

under

each

joint

with

longitudinal

transverse

wall
.

This

job

should

run

on

the

outside
.



Change

all

external

trusses

on

average

corridors

between

classrooms

and

reinforce

the

rest,

for

it,

place

steel

clamps

attached

to

each

16

mm

wood

truss,

projecting

out,

bending

down

steel

300

mm

and

embedding

in

wall

or

overlapping

weld

bolt

100

mm,

putting

washer

plate

2

mm

thick,

300

mm

x
300

mm

area

at

each

end,

put

the

bolts

nut

and

washers
.


Stucco

the

walls,

removing

first

the

current

stucco,

the

paint

finish
.


Demolish

all

interior

floors

and

re
-
melt
.

(Cracked

and

bulging)
.

Mavuluma

Junior,
school

in Katima Mulilo.

At

the

left

end

cracks

in

the

longitudinal

wall

of

separation

of

2
.
3

cm

at

the

top

and

descends

this

±

45

°

to

the

foundation
.

In

the

upper

horizontal

cracking

is

40

cm

below

the

cover

and

close

to

the

separation

0
.
8

cm
.


At

the

bottom

on

foundation

beam

and

wall

block,

cracks

of

5

mm,

the

longitudinal

wall

has

moved

back

out

3

cm

at

the

top

and

separation

was

observed

in

lateral

view

from

the

window

frame,

and

for

this

end

of

the

same

construction

and

the

front

from

cracks

appear

less

pronounced

downward

window

openings
.


Demonstrably

structural

failure

of

the

foundation,

in

the

left

corner

of

this

building




Cracks, fissures

Mavuluma

Junior
school
, in Katima Mulilo.

Cracks appear in all transverse walls become large (2.0 cm wide)
and right administrative local.

Door frame wall on more than 3 cm from the wall, the separate
metal frame and the door closes.

The raised floor and cracked lengthwise and near the
center

of
these classrooms.

Cracks, in School

Mavuluma Junior, Katima Mulilo.


We

consider

these

simple

recommendations

should

apply

to

areas

and

regions

with

sandy

clay

something

so

that

the

constructions

are

more

resistant

and

durable
.

Without

having

to

demolish

the

facility

as

has

happened

in

some

cases,

mainly

in

the

area

of

​​classroom

education
.

CONCLUSIONS.


Adding

and

/

or

modifying

the

foundations

of

the

projects

to

be

built

by

first

time
.


Add

massive

concrete

blocks

or

concrete,

in

the

transverse

joints

and

corners

of

buildings,

below

lugs

projecting

concrete
.


Vary

the

foundations

of

700

mm

(width)

x

230

mm

(thickness)

by

500

mm

(width)

x

300

mm

thick

by

placing

at

least

two



13

mm

straight

to

100

mm

from

the

bottom

to

pass

over

the

concrete

blocks

added

and

have

not

less

than

650

mm

from

the

steels

splice

joints

in

corners

and

transverse

to

take

the

tensile

stresses

in

the

concrete
.

TECHNICAL

APPLICATIONS

TO

SOLVE

THE

PROBLEM

OF

BUILDINGS
.

GENERALS RECOMMENDATIONS


Whenever

possible

in

a

vertical

line

through

the

middle

with

the

concrete

blocks

of

section

1
.
1
,

running

concrete

columns
.


Employing

steel

reinforcement

beams

inside

enclosure

as

constructive

element

and

closure

walls

support

different

roof

structures
.


Use



corrugated

steel

10

mm

or

13

mm

in

horseshoe

shape

(
50

mm
-
200

mm
-
50
mm)

recessed

to

100

mm,

minimum

wall

and

perpendicular

to

crack
.

coated

with

mortar

1
:

2

(cement

-

sand)
.

Section

B
-
B

Using

concrete

supports

transverse

joints

in

corners

and

under

beams

with

use

of

steel

foundation
.

Bibliography



Eng.
Maximiliano

Izoba

and Eng. Babe. Calculus
manual of engineering.


Eng. F.
Sower
. Mechanics of soils.


Experience acquired in works of engineering,
checking and express an opinion for the foundations
of edifications.


Planning Commission. Namibia. Elimination of
Poverty in Caprivi Regions. 2004.

COMMENT:


F
or

Namibia

and

fundamental

Caprivi

region,

we

do

consider

to

be

an

application

and

you

want

to

carry

discussion

and

analysis

with

other

professionals

in

the

IPF

group

MICONS

and

analyze

this

problem

if

it

behaves

the

same

way

in

all

regions

and

help

establish

its

solution
.