Chapter 7 Methods of Residential Construction and Floor Framing

plantcitybusinessΠολεοδομικά Έργα

26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

85 εμφανίσεις

Chapter 7

Methods of Residential
Construction and Floor Framing

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Objectives

After completing this lecture, you will be able to:


Identify the methods used in residential construction.


Identify the structural elements of wood frame construction, and
visualize the materials used and their orientation in a wood
frame building.


Read and apply floor framing information found on construction
drawings.


Locate and interpret information about columns and beams as
indicated on construction drawings.


Analyze and interpret information from construction drawings for
the purpose of laying out a floor system.


Identify, analyze, and apply sound framing methodsthat meet the
minimum standards of the NBC.


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Methods of Residential
Construction


Wood frame construction


Platform (Western)


Brick veneer


Balloon


Timberframe


Insulated concrete form (ICF)


Lightweight structural steel


Solid masonry

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Platform Construction


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Platform construction components


Platform construction


Most popular method
of framing houses,
one floor/platform at a
time


Easy and fast to erect


Metal bracing is
commonly used


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Platform construction with brick
veneer


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Lightweight structural steel framing used in a low
rise condominium project


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Section drawing of balloon framing


Not commonly used
anymore.


Advantage that there are
less effects due to
shrinkage.


Studs run from foundation
to roof.


Not as easy to construct
as platform construction.


Firestops must be placed
between floors.


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Timber frame construction


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF)


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Section detail drawing of a solid masonry wall
using brick with a block backup


Block and brick tied
together with brick
ties, or other type of
tie system.


On older walls a
header brick is used
to bond the wythes
together.


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Dimensional lumber sizes


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Grading Stamp


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Rough Framing:


Refers to the building of the wood structural
elements


Is not visible when the project is complete


Requires accuracy in installation because
finishes are not always able to hide errors in:


Layout


Level (horizontal) and Plumb (Vertical) of framed
members (floors, walls, ceilings, and roofs)


Is performed by Carpenters, often when a
carpenter specializes in framing they are
referred to as Framers

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Floor Framing


Begins on top of the foundation wall with the sill plate. Usually a 2 x
4 anchored to the foundation wall with anchor bolts

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Floor Framing


Floor Framing Spacing


Spacing is usually 400mm or 16” On Center


Spacing can also be designed for 300mm
(12”) O.C. or 600mm (24”) O.C. or 19.2”


The length that the floor joist spans is the key
issue from which the size of joist, the type of
material, type of bridging, and the spacing is
determined.

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

On Center Spacing


The multiples of 12”, 16”, 19.2 and 24” are used
for spacing because they divide evenly into 48”
and 96”. The size of a sheet of plywood.


On Center means:


from center of Joist to center of Joist


from left side of joist to left side of joist


from right side of joist to right side of joist.


It is all the same thing


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

On Center Spacing


The goal is to be able to lay down the sub
-
floor with as few cuts as possible


This makes the installation more efficient


Because the sub
-
floor (plywood) starts
directly over the first joist (end joist or
perimeter joist). The first measurement
should be 15 ¼” from the edge of the sill to
the start point of the first joist.

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

On centre (OC) layout (16”) of floor
joists


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

On centre layout (16”) of offsetting
joists over beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Minimum bearing of floor joist


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Beams


Most residential structures require the use of
beams to increase the size of floor space.


For example it is impossible to legally span a
floor much more than 20’using dimensional
lumber.


However with the use of beams this can be
accomplished quite easily (beams usually will
require posts which can obstruct clear spans).


Other manufactured products such as truss
joists will provide for wider spans than
dimensional lumber

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Beams


Today beams are generally made from:


Steel


Built up wood beams


Paralam beams (PSL) a manufactured wood
fibre beam


Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) a
manufactured wood fibre beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Beams


Beams can be fastened and placed in
many different configurations


Design depends on issues such as


Ease of placement


Headroom requirements


Type of materials being used


NBC Minimum Bearing 89 mm or 3 ½”


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Example of a built
-
up wood beam indicated on a drawing;
this beam consists of three pieces of 38 x 184 #2 spruce
and is installed flush


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Built up wood beam flush with
ceiling, note the joist hangers


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Manufactured beams (laminated veneer lumber
LVL) used over garage door openings


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

LVLs nailed together to form a
beam that supports roof trusses


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Manufactured joist system tied into
an LVL built
-
up beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Manufactured joist system framed around a
stairwell opening with LVLs, opening temporarily
filled in for safety purposes


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Manufactured joist system resting
on a wide flange I beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Metric Beam Size


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Imperial Beam Sizes


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Steel beam on drawing


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Steel beam with beam pocket filled in


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Steel beam supported on wood column, resting on
footing wrapped at base with polyethylene


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Joists fastened to ledgers
supported on steel beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Framing details between joist and
beam


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Point Loads (PL)


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Floor frame layout


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Bridging and Strapping used to
strengthen the floor system



Top left: Solid bridging


Bottom left: engineered
bridging


Top right: cross bridging
and strapping

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Floor framing layout


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Cantilevered joists


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Doncaster drawing box window
cantilever


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Doncaster boxed window inside and outside views
with section detail


Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Doncaster drawing boxed window
framing



Top left: exterior view of cantilever


Bottom left: interior view looking
from left to right


Bottom right: interior view looking
toward outside

Copyright © 2008 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited

Sub
-
floor panel orientation, note panels placed
perpendicular to joists