Passage Two - 精品课程 - 常州纺织服装职业技术学院

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1

U
n
it One


Textile Fibers


I.
Main Tasks

This unit explains

what textile fiber is and its

classification
.

It aims to get students familiar
with

the primary properties of the fiber.


II. Text

Fibers

A Fiber is a pliable hairlike
strand
1

that is very smal
l in diameter in relation
to its length. It is defined as “units of matter characterized by flexibility,
fineness, and a high ratio of length to thickness.” In individual textile fibers, the
汥湧瑨t睩摴栠牡瑩漠楳ia琠汥a獴s㄰〰⼱⸠f映瑨攠晩扥爠楳i瑯t扥 畳ud

景f 瑥t瑩汥le湤n畳u猬
楴畳 ⁰潳獥獳⁣e牴r楮⁥獳i湴na氠灲潰l牴楥猠潲sc桡rac瑥t楳i楣献


c楢敲猠a牥 瑨攠晵湤f浥湴慬n畮楴猠畳u搠楮i 瑨攠浡歩湧 o映瑥t瑩汥l ya牮猠and
晡扲楣献s cab物r 楳i 浡me f牯洠ya牮Ⱐa湤nya牮r 楳i ma摥 f牯洠晩扥牳⸠周qse f楢敲猠
ca渠扥 摩癩摥搠i
湴漠瑷t 浡橯m g牯異猬r 湡浥my
湡瑵牡氠晩扥牳
2

and
man
-
made
fibers
3
.

Natural fibers include animal fibers (e.g. wool and silk),
vegetable fibers
4

(e.g. cotton and jute) and
mineral fibers
5

(e.g. asbestos). Man
-
made fibers are
either
regenerated
6

or
synthetic
7
. The regenerated fibers are those in which the
fiber
-
forming material is of natural origin; the synthetic fibers are made by the
chemical synthesis of simple polymer
-
forming materials. For example,
viscose
rayon
8
, based on
regenerated cellulose
9
, is man
-
made but not synthetic


睨楬攠
灯pye獴sr
10
,
polypropylene
1
1

and
nylon
1
2

are all synthetic fibers.

Fiber properties contribute to the properties of a fabric. These primary
properties include
tenacity
1
3

or adequate
strength
1
4
;
flexibility
1
5

or pliability;
cohesiveness
1
6

or spinnin
g quality; and uniformity. The secondary properties



1
条子







2
天然纤维
3
化学
纤维

4
植物纤维

5
矿物纤维

6
再生纤维
/
7
合成
纤维

8
粘胶

9
再生纤维素

10
涤纶
/
1
1
丙纶
/
1
2
锦纶

13
强度
/
14
强力
/
15
柔韧性
/
16
抱合力
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2

include
physical shape
1
7
,
density
1
8

or specific gravity,
luster
1
9
,
moisture regain
20
,
elastic recovery
21
,
elongation
22
, thermal behavior, resistance to biological
organisms and etc. For example, strong fi
bers make durable fabric ; absorbent
fibers are good for skin
-
contact apparel and for towels and diapers; fibers that
are
self
-
extinguishing
23

are good for children’s sleep
-
wear, protective clothing,
and decorative fabric.

1
7
物理形态
/
1
8



/
1
9
光泽
20

潮率
21
弹性恢复

22
伸长

23
自熄性


III. Language Tips

1.

animal fibers
,动物纤维,又称
protein fiber

vegetable fibers
,植物纤维,又称
cellulose
fiber.

2.

tenacity
强度,指的是单位细度的强
力,单位是克
/
旦尼尔、牛
/
特克斯等。
Strength
,强
力、强度。

3
. self
-
extinguishing,
自熄性,即阻燃性。其主要的指标是极限氧指数。


IV
. Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(1)
What’s the definition of fibers?

(2)
How many groups can the textile fibers be classified to ?

(3)
List some subgroups of the man
-
ma
de fiber.

(4)
Is viscose a kind of regenerated fiber?

(5)
What are the main properties of textile fiber?

2
.
Translate the following phrases into English


(1)
天然纤维


(10)
强度


(2)
纤维素纤维


(11)
伸长


(3)
蛋白质纤维


(12)
柔韧性


(4)
矿物纤维


(13)
抱合力


(5)
化学纤维


(14)
密度


(6)
再生纤维


(15)
光泽


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3

(7)
合成纤维


(16)
回潮率


(8)
粘胶


(17)
弹性


(9)
涤纶


(18)
自熄性


3. Translate the following sentences into Chinese

(1)
A Fiber is a pliable hairlike strand that is very small in diameter in relation to its
length.

(2)
The regenerated fibers are those in which

the fiber
-
forming material is of natural
origin; the synthetic fibers are made by the chemical synthesis of simple polymer
-
forming
materials.

(3)
Natural fibers include animal fibers (e.g. wool and silk), vegetable fibers (e.g. cotton
and jute) and minera
l fibers (e.g. asbestos) .

(4)
These primary properties include tenacity or adequate strength; flexibility or pliability;
cohesiveness or spinning quality; and uniformity.


V
.
Extensive Reading

Passage One

Cotton

Cotton fiber is a
seed
-
hair fiber
24
. There

are numerous varieties of
cotton grown all over the world. Such basic characteristics as length and
fineness of the cotton fiber are dependent on the type of the seed used.
However, fiber properties are also sensitive to changes in environmental
condition
s during the growth period.

The proportions of short and immature fibers in cotton are a major
factor in determining its quality and are a source of
nuisance
25

during
processing.
Maturity
26

of cotton is characterized by the degree of the
development of ce
ll wall. If cotton has a well developed wall thickness, it is
said to be mature; on the other hand, a cotton fiber with thin and poorly
developed cell wall is said to be immature.





24
种子纤维









25
损害、妨害

26
成熟度






27
纤维品质长
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4


Technically the most important fiber length is called the “
staple
length


27
. There are several methods that have been developed over a
period of years for the measurement of fiber length. These include:

1.

Individual fiber methods.

2.

Comb sorters
28

methods.

3.

Scanning methods.

The
linear density
29

of a sample of fibers can be determin
ed either by
an individual fiber method or by the cut middles method. The former
method can be combined with the individual fiber method used for
measuring the fiber length, a known number of fibers whose length has
been measured is weighed the weight divi
ded by the total length then gives
the linear density of fibers. From each group, approximately 100 fibers are
obtained. From the weightings, the mean fiber linear density is calculated.

In the cut
-
middles method, a known length (generally 1 cm) from the
m
iddle of tufts of parallelized fibers is sliced out. Fibers in groups of 100
are counted from each of the tufts and weighed, care being taken to avoid
fibers shorter than 1 cm. These methods are not suitable for highly
crimped
30

fibers because of the error

introduced into the length
measurement.








28
梳片式长度
分析器


29
线密度



















30
卷曲


1. True or False

(1)
Cotton fiber is a kind of hair fiber.

(2)
Fiber properties are not sensitive to changes in environmental conditions .

(3)
Length and fineness are t
he basic properties of the cotton fiber.

(4)
A cotton fiber with thin and poorly developed cell wall is said to be mature.

(5)
In the cut
-
middles method, 1 mm fiber from the end of tufts of parallelized fibers is
sliced out.

2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠·×r慳
e猠潲⁳ n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥

(1)Such basic characteristics as length and fineness of the cotton fiber are dependent on
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5

the type of the seed used.

(2)

Maturity of cotton is characterized by the degree of the development of cell wall.

(3)

Technically the mo
st important fiber length is called the “staple length”
.

(4)

The linear density of a sample of fibers can be determined either by an individual fiber
method or by the cut middles method.


Passage Two


Moisture regain and
moisture absorption
31

Textile fiber
s, in general, have a certain amount of water as an integral
part of their structure. ASTM defines moisture regain as “the moisture in a
浡瑥物r氠 摥瑥t浩湥搠 畮摥爠 灲p獣物扥搠 c潮摩o楯湳i a湤n ex灲p獳敤s a猠 a
percentage of the weight of moisture free specimen.”

䵯楳瑵牥 牥ga楮i 楳i 摥te牭楮r搠 a猠 景汬潷献f c楢敲猠 are c潮摩o楯湥i
瑨潲潵t桬y 瑯t a楲i 摲y 睥楧桴h a琠
獴慮sa牤r c潮摩d楯湳
32

of 65 percentage
relative humidity and 20

⸠周T 獡浰me 楳iwe楧×e搬d摲楥搠瑯t扯be
-
摲y 獴慴e
楮ia 摲y楮· 潶o測nre睥i·桥搬dre摲楥搬da湤n牥睥i·桥搠瑯tc潮獴a湴n睥楧桴⸠
周T⁲ 条楮⁩猠sa汣畬l瑥搠acc潲摩o·⁴漠 桥⁦潬汯睩 朠景·浵ma:

䵯楳瑵牥 c潮瑥湴Ⱐa汴桯畧栠獩s楬a爠瑯t 牥条楮Ⱐ楳i 摥瑥t浩湥搠畮摥r
ce牴ri
渠p牥獣物扥搠c潮摩o楯湳ia湤n楳i畳畡汬y ex灲e獳敤sas a pe牣e湴n·e 潦
瑨攠浡獳映瑨攠浯楳s畲u 浡瑥物r氮l周T 景f浵ma⁩猺

F楢敲猠睩瑨w·潯搠浯m獴畲s re·a楮i睩汬 acce灴pdye猠a湤 晩湩獨敳f浯me
牥a摩dy 瑨慮 晩扥牳 睩瑨w汯眠牥·a楮i A 晥眠晩扥牳 桡癥 湯nre·a楮Ⱐan
搠瑨t猠
c牥ate猠灲潢汥浳m楮 灲潣e獳s湧⸠周e 牥污瑩潮l潦 f楢敲 獴牥n·瑨t瑯 浯m獴畲s
c潮瑥湴o楳i a渠業灯牴p湴 c潮獩摥牡瑩潮o楮ie癡汵慴楮l 晩扥爠扥×a癩潲⸠S潭o
晩扥牳rare 獴牯s·e爠睨w渠睥琠瑨慮t摲yⰠ潴桥o猠a牥 睥a步爠睨w渠睥琬ta湤n獴s汬


31
含水率






32
标准温湿度

















100
dry weight
dry weight
-
weight
d
conditione
regain

Percentage


100
weight
d
conditione
dry weight
-
weight
d
conditione
moisture

Percentage


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6

others exhibit no differ
ence in strength between wet and dry states. These
variations do mean that care must be taken in maintaining textile products.
Fibers that are weaker when wet than dry require careful handing during
maintenance in order to reduce the danger of damage. A ty
pical example is
the fiber rayon, which is considerably weaker when wet than dry. Because
of the

c
haracteristic, gentle care is needed to prevent damage to the textile
product, particularly to avoid
stress
33

on the product that could break the
fibers.

Cott
on is stronger when wet than dry; thus, cotton can be laundered
with ease since the potential for damage is reduced when it is wet. A fiber
with little or no regain will wash and dry quickly, as little or no water is
absorbed during laundering.





33
应力



1.
Questions and Answers

(1)What’s the difference of moisture regain and moisture content?

(2) What are the standard conditions?

(3)
C
an Fibers with good moisture regain accept dyes and finishes easier?

(4)

Cotton is we
aker when wet,

while rayon is stronger when dry
. I
s it true?

2.
Translate the following phrases or sentences into Chinese

(1)

ASTM defines moisture regain as “the moisture in a material determined under
prescribed conditions and expressed as a percentage o
f the weight of moisture free specimen.

(2)

Fibers with good moisture regain will accept dyes and finishes more readily than fibers
with low regain.

(3) Fibers that are weaker when wet than dry require careful handing during maintenance
in order to reduce
the danger of damage.

(4) A fiber with little or no regain will wash and dry quickly, as little or no water is
absorbed during laundering.



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7

U
n
it
Two

Yarns


I.
Main Tasks

This unit
introduce
s

various types of yarns.

It
aims to
enable students to
identif
y

s
taple
and filament yarns,

simple and fancy yarns, single and ply yarns, pure and blend yarns
.


II. Text

Classification of Yarns


Yarns producers or spinners buy in natural and/or man
-
made fibers to make
these into yarns of different sizes and characters.

These yarns may be
simple
1

or
fancy yarns
2
,
single
3

or
ply
4
, pure or blend, highly twisted or loosely twisted.
Yarns composed of short staple
-
fibers may be called either
spun yarn
5

or
staple
-
fiber yarns or simply staple yarn. These terms will be interchan
geably.
Yarns made from filament fibers may be identified as
filament yarns
6
. Yarns
composed of both staple and filament
-
length fibers may be identified by various
terms depending on the process used in their manufacture, such as
core
-
spun
yarn
7
,
cover spu
n yarn
8

and so on.

Core
-
spun yarns have a central
core
9

with a second layer or
sheath
10

of
fibers wrapped around it. Both core and wrapping may be of the same fiber type,
or two different fiber types (or more) may be used. Further, one part may be of
filam
ent fibers while the other is of staple fibers; or both parts may be of either
filament or staple
-
length fibers. The outer sheath may completely cover the core.
When the outer sheath does not hide the center completely, the two components
create interestin
g appearance effects.

Blend and combination yarns are those in which two or more generic
types of fibers are used. These different types of fibers can be combined in the
following ways:





1
普通纱

2
花式纱
/
3
单纱
/
4
股线
/
5
短纤
维纱

6
长丝纱


7
包芯纱
/
8
包覆


9
纱芯
/
10
外皮










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8

1

Two or more different types of fibers can be blended into a single yar
n.

2

Single yarns, where each single is of a different fiber type, can be plied
together to form a combination ply yarn.


T h e a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f a b l e n d a s c i t e d b y A S T M i s “ a s i n g l e y a r n s p u n
f r o m a b l e n d ”. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n, o n l y

t h e f i r s t t y p e o f b l e n d
c i t e d a b o v e q u a l i f i e s a s a b l e n d y a r n.

F o r ma n y y e a r s t h e ma i n s p i n n i n g s y s t e ms c o u l d b e g i v e n a s
w o l l e n
11
,
worsted
12

and cotton, and these systems gave rise to the wollen, worsted and
cotton industries. Developments in spinning, h
owever, have led to new spinning
systems including “
open
-
end

1
3
, “
self
-
twist

14

and “
jet spinning

15
.


Ya r n p r o d u c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b o u t t a k i n g f i b e r s, o r g a n i z i n g t h e m s o t h a t
t h e y l i e i n a l e n g t h w a y s d i r e c t i o n a n d t w i s t i n g t h e m t o c r e a t e a y a r n. B y
c
o mb i n i n g f i b e r t y p e s, a n d u s i n g d i f f e r e n t s p i n n i n g s y s t e ms a n d ma c h i n e r y,
y a r n s c a n b e d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l
p r o f i l e s
16

suitable for vast range of end
uses. Regular or simple yarns are those that have a regular straight profile and
these can be twisted

together, making “
two
-
fold


17

or “
three
-
fold


1
8

yarns for
example. Fancy yarns can be created by deliberately introducing irregularities or
intermittent effects along length. Yarns can be combined together as components
of new yarns with different effec
ts and properties from their component parts.
As well as changing the appearance of a fabric, the introduction of a fancy yarn
will affect the
handle
19

and
performance
20

of that fabric.








1
1
粗纺
/
12
精纺



13
自由端纺纱
/
14
自捻纺纱
/
15
喷气纺纱


16
外形


17
双股
/
18
三股





19
手感
/
20
性能



III. Language Tips

1.
core
-
spun yarn

包芯纱,
cover spun yarn
包覆纱,属于复合纱线。

2
. wollen,
粗纺纺纱;
worsted

精纺纺纱;这是毛纺的两大纺纱系统。棉纺系统主要可以
分为普梳系统和精梳系统。

3. two
-
fold
双股线,例如
21
S
/2
表示有两根
21
S
的单纱合股加捻成的股线;
13tex×2
表示
有两根
13

tex

单纱合股加捻成的股线。

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9

IV
. Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(1) W
hat is yarn and what are staple and filament yarns?

(2)
How
can

fibers

be

convert
ed

into yarn? How many spinning systems are there?

(3)
What is the definition of a blend yarn? Give some examples.

(4)
What are simple yarns and how can they be described and classified?

(5)
What are fancy yarns?
L
i
st the
classification
s

and usage
s

of the fancy yarn.

2 .
Translate the

following phrases into English

(1)
花式纱

(2)
单纱

(3)
股线


(4)
纯纺纱

(5)
混纺纱

(6)
粗纺

(7)
精纺

(8)
自由端纺纱

(9)
包芯纱

(10)
包缠纱

3
.
Explain the meaning of the code

(1) T/C 65/35 14.5tex (2) JC40
s

(3) 60Nm (4) 32

s
/2

(5) 13te
x×2 (5) W/R/T 65/30/5 20 Nm

4
. Translate the following sentences into Chinese

(1)
Yarns composed of both staple and filament
-
length fibers may be identified by various
terms depending on the process used in their manufacture, such as co
re
-
spun yarn, cover spun
yarn and so on.

(2)
Single yarns, where each single is of a different fiber type, can be plied together to
form a combination ply yarn.

(3)
Core
-
spun yarns have a central core

with a second layer or sheath of fibers wrapped
around
it. Both core and wrapping may be of the same fiber type, or two different fiber types
(or more) may be used.

(4)
Fancy yarns can be created by deliberately introducing irregularities or intermittent
effects along length.


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10

V
.
Extensive Reading

Passage One


Simple yarns

Yarns that are even in size, have an equal number of
turns
21

or twists
per inch throughout, and are relatively smooth are called simple yarns. A
simple single yarn is the most basic assemblage of fibers suitable for
operations such weaving a
nd knitting. These yarns can be made from any
of the fibers and by any of the basic systems.

A simple ply yarn is composed of two or more simple single yarns
plied or twisted together. In naming a ply yarn, the number of singles
included usually precedes t
he word ply. For example, if two singles are
used, the yarn is called a 2
-
ply; if three are used, a 3
-
ply. When more than
three singles are used, the term
multi
-
ply
22

or multiple ply may be used.

Simple
cord
23

or
cable yarns
are composed of 2 (or more) ply

yarns
twisted together. In identifying a cord, it is necessary to indicate the
number of plies and singles in the cord. Thus a 3,5
-
ply cord indicates that
each ply has five singles and that three of these 5
-
ply yarns are combined in
making the cord.

Crepe

yarns
24

are a variation of simple yarns. However, a crepe yarn
possesses a high degree of twist, so the yarn tends to
kink
25

or coil. This
kinkiness results in the rough texture characteristic of crepe fabrics. As
these yarns are evenly twisted and unifor
m in size, they are identified as
simple yarns rather than
complex
26

or novelty yarns.

Except for the
textured effect
27

achieved by crepe yarns, simple yarns
in themselves do not create variation in fabric appearance. Generally
speaking, a simple yarn prod
uces smooth fabrics. However, a combination
of simple yarns of different size, different amounts of twist, and/or different
fiber content can produce many interesting effects. The arrangement of
yarns in groups can also yield visual variety. Other changes
in appearance






21
捻回









22
多股线

23
缆线





24
绉纱

25
打圈



26
花式纱

27
花式效应

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11

depend on the number of warp and filling yarns per inch and type and
amount of twist.



1. True or False

(1)
Those yarns that are evenly twisted and uniform in size are identified a
s simple yarns.

(2)
A simple ply yarn is composed of two or more simple single yarns plied or twisted
together.

(3)
Crepe yarns are a kind of simple yarns.

(
4) Simple yarn can’t
create variation in fabric appearance.


2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮朠·×r慳a猠潲⁳
en瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥

(1) Yarns that are even in size, have an equal number of turns or twists per inch
throughout, and are relatively smooth are called simple yarns.

(2) In naming a ply yarn, the number of singles included usually precedes the word ply.

(
3) Crepe yarns are evenly twisted and uniform in size, they are identified as simple yarns
rather than complex or novelty yarns.

(4)

A combination of simple yarns of different size, different amounts of twist, and/or
different fiber content can produce man
y interesting effects.


Passage Two


Fancy Yarns

Fancy, complex, or novelty yarns are usually uneven in size, varied in
color, or modified in appearance by the presence of irregularities
deliberately produced during their manufacture. Single novelty yarns
are
produced by the inclusion of
slubs
28

or knots. In plied complex yarns the
irregularities are the result of variable delivery of the component parts and
irregularities in size of each of the component single yarns.


Complex yarns are made for their appe
arance value, and they may be
single, ply, cord, or modified cord construction. Complex ply yarns are








28
粗结






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12

usually composed of the following:
a base
29

or core,
an effect
30
, and
a tie
31

or binder. The base yarn controls the length and stability of the final yarn
.
The effect yarn forms the design by the way in which it is applied to the
base yarn. The tie or binder yarn is used to attach the effect yarn so that it
will remain in position during use and care.

The strength of fancy yarns frequently is variable, as t
he irregularities
built to create the novelty effect may produce uneven distributions of
stress; this may result in yarns that are considerably weaker in some areas
than in others, causing breakage to occur easily at the weak points.


29


/
30
饰纱
31
固纱



1.
Questions and Answers

(1)What are the compositions of the fancy yarn?

(2)The strength of fancy yarns is stronger than simple yarn
. I
s it true?

(3)Can you
make a
list
of

classification
s

and usage
s

of the fancy yarn
?

2

Tr慮s污瑥⁴桥⁦潬o潷楮
朠·×r慳a猠潲⁳ n瑥nce猠楮瑯⁃×楮e獥 ⁅n杬·s×

(1)

In plied complex yarns the irregularities are the result of variable delivery of the
component parts and irregularities in size of each of the component single yarns.

(2)

Complex ply yarns are usually comp
osed of the following: a base or core, an effect,
and a tie

or binder.

(3)

The effect yarn forms the design by the way in which it is applied to the base yarn.

(4)

The tie or binder yarn is used to attach the effect yarn so that it will remain in position
during use and care.






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13

U
n
it
Three

Fabrics


I.
Main Tasks

This unit focuses on
introduc
ing

the woven fabrics
, which are divided into

two
sets of
threads

called
the warp and
the
weft.

It also explains the five steps of t
he weaving
operation
.



II. Text

We
aving

Weaving is probably the oldest form of fabric construction. Woven
fabrics consist of two sets of threads, the warp and weft, which are
interlaced at right angles to each other. The warp threads run parallel to the
selvedge down the length of the clot
h, and each warp thread is known as an
“end”. The weft threads are called “picks” and run across the cloth,
睯w歩湧 畮ue爠a湤n潶e爠t桥 睡牰re湤猠晲潭o獥汶l摧e 瑯t獥汶敤来⸠oe瑡楬敲猠
a湤n c潮獵oe牳r c潭o潮oy 畳u 瑨t 瑥t浳m 睡牰r a湤n 睥晴Ⱐ 睨erea猠
浡湵mac瑵te牳r
a湤nc潮癥牴r牳⁵獵r汬y⁵獥⁴桥⁴ 牭⁥湤猠n湤⁰楣歳n


周q 扡獩s 睥a 癩湧v 潰o 牡瑩潮o c 潮獩獴s 潦 晩f e 獴数猠 r e g a 牤r e 獳s 潦o 瑨 e
歩湤k 潦o 汯潭⸠ 周q y a r e
獨s 摤楮d
1
,
p i c k i n g
2
,
b e a t i n g
-
u p
3
,
l e t
-
o f f
4

a n d
t a k e
-
u p
5
.


( 1 ) S h e d d i n g i s t h e r a i s i n g a n d l o w e r i n g o f t h e w
a r p e n d s b y m e a n s o f
t h e
h e d d l e s a n d h a r n e s s e s
6

t o f o r m t h e
s h e d
7
, t h e o p e n i n g b e t w e e n w a r p
y a r n s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e w e f t y a r n c a n b e p a s s e d.


( 2 ) P i c k i n g i s a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e o f p l a c i n g t h e w e f t t h r e a d o r p i c k t h r e a d
i n t o t h e s h e d.


( 3 ) B e a t i n g
-
u p, s o m e
t i m e s c a l l e d b e a t i n g, b e a t i n g
-
i n. I t i s p u s h i n g t h e
n e w l y i n s e r t e d w e f t, k n o w n a s t h e p i c k, i n t o t h e a l r e a d y w o v e n f a b r i c a t a


















1
开口
/
2
投梭

3
打纬
/
4
送经

5
卷取


6
综框
7
梭口









8
织口

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point known as the

fell
8
.


( 4 ) L e t
-
o f f ( w a r p c o n t r o l ) i s d e l i v e r i n g w a r p t o t h e w e a v i n g a r e a a t t h e
r e q u i r e d r a t e a n d a t a s u i t
a b l e c o n s t a n t
t e n s i o n
9

b y u n w i n d i n g i t f r o m t h e
w e a v e r ’ s b e a m
10
.


5

Take
-
up (or cloth control), this motion withdraws fabric from the

weaving area at the constant rate that will give the required pick
-
spacing
and then winds it onto the
cloth beam
11
.




9
张力


10
织轴




11
(卷)布轴


III. Language Tips

织物按照成形工艺不同,可以分为机织物
(woven fabric)
、针织物
(knitted fabric)
和非
织造织物
(nonwoven fabric)
。机织物的分类有不同的标准,按照所用原料的不同,可以分
为纯纺织物
(pure fabric)
、混纺织物
(blended fabric)
和交织物
(mixture)
;按照所
用经纬纱的
不同,可以分为纱织物
(single fabric)
、线织物
(thread fabric)
和半线织物
(semi
-
thread fabric)

按照织前纱线漂染加工分,可以分为本色坯布
(gray goods/greige)
和色织布
(coloured yarn
fabric)
等。


IV.
Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(
1)
What’s the warp yarn?

(2) How many weaving motions are there in the we
aving?

(3)
Retailers and consumers commonly use the terms warp and picks, whereas
manufacturers and converters usually use the term ends and weft
. I
s
it

true?

(4) What’s the function of
p
icking?

(5)
W
ill
t
he fabric drawn from the weaving area be wound onto

the weaver’s beam
?

2.Translate the following phrases into English

(1)
纯纺织物


(6)
开口


(2)
混纺织物


(7)
投梭


(3)
交织物


(8)
打纬


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15

(4)
经纱


(9)
送经


(5)
纬纱


(10)
卷取


3

Tr慮s污瑩潮s

(1)
Woven fabrics consist of two sets of threads, the warp and weft, which are interlaced
at right angles to each other.

(2)
The warp threads run parallel

to the selvedge down the length of the cloth, and each
warp thread is known as an “end”.

(3) The basic weaving operation consists of five steps regardless of the kind of loom.
They are shedding, picking, beating
-
up, let
-
off and take
-
up.

(4)
Let
-
off (warp
control) is delivering warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at
a suitable constant tension by unwinding it from the weaver’s beam.


V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One


Elementary Weaves

Woven fabric is “a fabric made by interlacing two or more
sy獴e浳m潦
yarns at essentially right angles to each other.” This separates woven from
nonwoven and felt. The term “essentially right angles” separates woven
晲潭湩琬⁢牡楤ⰠiaceⰠan搠灬慩瑥搮

周q牥 are 瑨牥e ty灥猠 潦o 晵湤f浥湴a氠 睥a癥猺
灬慩p
12
,
twill
13

and
sateen
14
.

PLAIN WEAVES

This is the simplest type of weave. In making plain
weave, the weft (filling) yarns are carried over one warp yarn and under the
next alternately across the width of the fabric. The first warp thread cross
over the first weft th
read and passes under the second weft thread; and the
second warp thread passes under the first weft thread and cross over the
second one, and so on. The plain weave produces equal number of warp
and weft floats in a weave unit.


A p l a i n w e a v e f a b r i c c
a n b e e i t h e r b a l a n c e d o r u n b a l a n c e d. Wh e n t h e










12
平纹
13
斜纹
1
4
缎纹














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16

warp count
15

(the number of warp yarns per 10 cm) is approximately the
same as the
weft count
16

(the number of weft yarns per 10 cm), the fabric is
considered balanced; When the number of yarns per 10cm differs

between
warp and weft, it is unbalanced. Some fabrics made from the plain weave
are listed below.

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

batiste/
细布

crepe
/


chiffon/
薄绸

buckram/
硬衬布

delaine/
薄花呢

grosgrain/
罗缎

cambric/
细纺

domet(domett)/
双面厚绒布

jasper/
芝麻绸

lawn/
上等细布

flannel/
法兰


organza/
透明纱

poplin/
府绸

panama/
巴拿马薄呢

shantung/
山东绸

voile/
巴里纱

tropical suiting/
薄形精纺呢

taffeta/
塔夫绸


T h e f a b r i c s i n G r o u p 1 w e r e c o mmo n l y p r o d u c e d f r o m c o t t o n o r l i n e n,
t h o s e i n G r o u p 2 f r o m w o o l, a n d t h o s e i n G r o u p 3 f r o m s i l k. N o w a d a y s
s o me o f t h o s e f a b r
i c s ma y a l s o b e m a d e f r o m ma n u f a c t u r e d f i b e r s.



1
5
经密


16
纬密

















1
.
Questions and Answers

(1)
Can you
tell from

the differences between woven fabrics and nonwoven fabrics
?


(2)
How
do you
distinguish woven fr
om knit, braid and lace?

(3)
How many fundamental weaves are there?

(4)
What does warp count mean?

(5)
Give the names and simple explanations of the plain weaves
.


2.
Translations

In the plain weave the values of parameters are the simplest: repeat, R=2; s
hift, S=1.
There are only two threads with opposite interlacement within the repeat.



Two heald shafts are sufficient to produce a plain weave fabric. When the number of ends
per centimeter is large, four or six heald shafts are used in the skip draft.





Because the plain weave
gives the maximum number interlacing, the fabric will be firmer
and stronger than other fabrics.

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17



A variety of decorative effects can be produced in a plain
-
weave cloth. For instance, strips
or checks.



The properties of a

fabrics are governed not only by the weave used but also by the weight
of the cloth, how close or open the fabrics is, the ratio of the number of ends to picks per
centimeter, the type of yarn used, the fiber content, and also by the finish.


Passage Two


Elementary Weaves(continued)

TWILL WEAVES

Twill weaves produces diagonal lines on the cloth.
At least three yarns are required for a pattern.

Twill weaves are expressed
in the form of a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is equal to the
number of
war
p floats
17

and the denominator is equal to the number of weft
floats within the repeat. The sum of the numerator and denominator of this
fraction is the repeat of the twill.


T w i l l f a b r i c s h a v e e i t h e r a
r i g h t
-
h a n d
1 8

o r
l e f t
-
h a n d
1 9

d i a g o n a l. W h e n
S = 1, t h e

d i a g o n a l m o v e s f r o m t h e l o w e r l e f t t o t h e u p p e r r i g h t o f t h e f a b r i c,
i t i s c a l l e d r i g h t
-
h a n d t w i l l; w h e n S =
-
1, it moves from upper left to lower
right, it is referred to as left
-
hand twill.

Some fabrics made from twill weaves are listed bellows:

Group 1

G
roup 2

Group 3

denim/
劳动布

晬f 湮n 氯
法兰绒

景畬f 牤r
薄软绸

橥j 港
三页细斜纹布

·a b a 牤楮r/
华达呢

獵牡栯
斜纹软绸

牥·a 瑴a 猯
里格特条子布

睨楰w 潲搯
贡呢、马裤呢


牥·楮愯
里津纳细斜纹布

·汥渠c 桥c 欯
小方格花纹布


摲楬氯
卡其(斜纹布)




S ATEEN/S ATI N WEAVES

I n p u r e
s a t e e n
2 0

w e a v e s t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e
c l o t h c o n s i s t s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f w e f
t f l o a t s, a s i n t h e r e p e a t o f t h e w e a v e
e a c h t h r e a d o f w e f t p a s s e s o v e r a l l a n d u n d e r o n e t h r e a d o f w a r p. T h e
s a t e e n h a s a
w e f t e f f e c t
2 1
. I n a
s a t i n
2 2

f a b r i c i t i s t h e w a r p e n d s t h a t f l o a t s o n









1
7
经浮长




18
右斜
/
19
左斜

















20
纬面缎纹




21
纬面效应

22
经面缎纹

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18

the surface. It is a
warp
-
faced
23

fabric. Filament fiber yarns
are generally
used in making satin fabrics, while staple
-
fiber yarns, often of cotton, are
more common in sateen fabrics. There are, however, exceptions; cotton
satins as well as filament yarn sateens have been made.


T h e l o n g f l o a t s o f t h e s a t e e n/s a t i n
w e a v e c r e a t e a s h i n y s u r f a c e a n d
t e n d t o r e f l e c t l i g h t e a s i l y.

S o me f a b r i c s ma d e f r o m s a t i n a n d s a t e e n w e a v e s a r e l i s t e d b e l o w.

Gr o u p 1

Gr o u p 2

Gr o u p 3

i t a l i a n/
意大利缎

d o e 獫楮 c 汯 t ×/
驼丝锦

d u c × e 獳e 獡瑩 n/
丝硬缎

獡瑩 n d 物r 氯
直贡

獡瑩 n
-
b a c k ·a b a 牤 楮 e/
缎背华达呢

獡瑩 n
-
b a c k

c 牥p e/
缎背绉

v e n e 瑩 a n/
威尼斯八枚经面缎

獡瑩 n b e 牢 e 爯
缎纹呢

獡瑩 n m a 牯 c a 楮/
波纹缎


23
经面织物






1.

Question and answers

(1)
How many twill weaves do you know according to various constructions?

(2) Do yo
u know

the difference between the twill and plain weave?

(3) Are there any

differences between the satin and the sateen weave?

(4)
What are the special characters of the satin/ sateen weave?

(5)
What are the main usages of the satin/ sateen weave?

2.
Trans
lations

Twill weaves are expressed in the form of a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is
equal to the number of warp floats and the denominator is equal to the number of weft floats
within the repeat. The sum of the numerator and denominator of this
fraction is the repeat of
the twill.




Twill fabrics have either a right
-
hand or left
-
hand diagonal. When S=1, the diagonal
moves from the lower left to the upper right of the fabric, it is called right
-
hand twill; when
S=
-
1, it moves from upper left to
lower right, it is referred to as left
-
hand twill.

Now let’s compare twill
3/1

and twill
1/3, the repeat of the weaves are both 4, the former
is a warp
-
face twill while the later has the weft effect.



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Unit four

Fabric analysis

I.
Main Tasks

Fabric analys
is is very important in determining the properties of the fa
b
ric.
This unit
deals with
the
different steps

of
fabric analysis
:

make
sample, identify the face and the back

and
the warp and weft of the fabric. The main properties such as the density of fabri
c, the
crimp, the linear density and the fabric weight are introduced in details

in this unit
.

II. Text

Fabric analysis (1)

The properties of the fabric are closely linked to fabric parameters
including the weave, the arrangement of warp and weft, the raw

materials,
the density of threads in the fabric, the characteristics of warp and weft
threads, the characteristics of fibers and cloth geometry introduced during
weaving, such as yarn crimp. In order to develop fabrics with specific
properties, it is impe
rative to work out all the above fabric’s parameters.

周q⁦潬汯睩湧⁳瑥灳 a牥⁩湶潬癥搠楮⁴桥⁦a扲楣 a湡lys楳⁰牯ie獳s


䵡歩湧⁳ 浰mes
1

The sample should properly represent the characteristics of the fabric.



Location

The sample should be selected from the

middle of the fabric. The

distance from the
Selvage
2

must be more than 5 centimeters, and the
distance from the
end of the fabric
3

must be more than 1.5 to 3 meters.



Size

The size of the sample varies depending on the characteristics of

the fabric. 15cm×1
5cm are suitable for simple structure and fabrics with
small patterns, and 20cm×20cm for fabrics with big patterns.

2. Identification of the
face
4

and
back
5

of the fabric


We c a n i d e n t i f y t h e f a c e o r t h e b a c k o f t h e f a b r i c a c c o r d i n g t o t h e















1
取样





2
布边

3
布头









4
正面
/
5
反面



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20

appearance of

the fabric. The following points is helpful for efficient
identification:



The face of a fabric has a clear colour or patterns.



For
rib or corded
6

fabrics, the face is usually more dense and
smooth.



For
pile fabrics
7
, the face has piles.



For
double clothes
8
, the faces have higher density, and use better
materials.



For
terry fabrics
9
, the faces have denser loops.

3. Identification of warp and weft


We c a n i d e n t i f y t h e w a r p a n d w e f t d i r e c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g
p o i n t s:



T h e w a r p h a s a l w a y s p a r a l l e l
w i t h s e l v a g e.



T h e w a r p ma y b e
s i z e d
10
, the weft is not.



The warp usually has a big density.



The warp direction may have
reed marks
1
1
.



The warp is more likely to ply yarn.



The Z
-
twist yarns are used for warp, and S
-
twist for weft if the
warp and weft are di
fferent in twist directions.



The warp usually has higher twisted yarns.



The warp usually has good quality yarns.



For terry fabrics, the warp forms the
loops
1
2
.



Weft can be easily arranged with different kinds of yarns.



For striped fabrics, the warp is in p
arallel with the stripes.







6
凸条



7

绒织物


8

双面织物



9
毛圈织物






1
0
上浆



1
1
筘痕











1
2






III. Exercises

1
.
Questions and Answers

(1) What’s the processing step of the Fabric analysis?

(2) How
are
sam
ples

usually made
? Why?

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(3) How
do you
distinguish face and back of the fabric?

(4)
Can you

identify the warp and weft
directions

of the fabric?

And how?

(5)

The warp
is
usually sized
. I
s it true?

2.
Translate the following phrases into English

(1)
布边


(2)

凸条织物


(3)
绒织物


(4)
毛圈织物


(5)
筘痕


(6)
条格织物


(7)
织物密度


(8)
线密度


3

Pr慣瑩te:

To give the students some
woven fabric samples and get them
identify particular
characteristics of
them
.


I
V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One


Fabric analysis (2)

4. Density meas
urement

The density of fabric is very important, as it directly affects the
fabric’s appearance,
桡n摬d
1
3
, thickness, strength and warmth retention.
There are two different methods for measuring the
fabric density
1
4
. Now
we introduce the direct measurement
.

The fabric sample is placed on the flat surface, making sure it is not
under tension or distorted. A piece glass is placed on top and the fabric
viewed through the lens. A magnified image of threads occupying the
length and width of the piece glass squar
e can be counted with the aid of a
dissecting needle to pinpoint the individual threads in warp and weft.



I f t h e p i e c e g l a s s i s 2.5 c e n t i m e t e r s q u a r e, t h e t h r e a d s i n o n e d i r e c t i o n
o f w o v e n f a b r i c w i l l b e d e t e r m i n e d b y:



T h r e a d d e n s i t y = t h r e a d s c o u n t
e d/2.5 = t h r e a d s p e r c m

5.

C r i m p
1
5

m e a s u r e m e n t








1
3
手感


1
4
织物密度















1
5
织缩

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Crimp refers to the amount of bending that is done by a thread as it
interlaces with the threads that are lying in the opposite direction of the
fabric.

Where: l
y


the length of yarn

l
f


the length of fabric


6.Linear density (tex) measurement




I t i s c o mmo n t o s p e c i f y t h r e a d t h i c k n e s s a s t h r e a d l i n e a r d e n s i t y i n
t e x. T h e t h r e a d l i n e a r d e n s i t y i n d i c a t e s t h e w e i g h t i n g r a ms o f 1 k m o f
t h r e a d. T h e f o r mu l a i s:

Wh e r e:

G


the weight of the thread in grams at t
he nominal
regain; and



L


the length of the thread in meters.

7. Fabric identification

The approach for fiber identification depends on whether a sample
consists of one type of fiber or a blend of fibers. In the case of blends the
quantitative ana
lysis
1
6

of the fibers may also be necessary. Fiber
identification may be introduced in
Extensive Reading

B.

8.Fabric weight

Fabric weight is economically important. As absorbed moisture affects
both mass and dimensions, it is important to precondition. Sam
ples are
carried out measurements in a standard atmosphere.

Mass per unit area is expressed in grams per square meter (g/m
2
), but it

is not necessary to measure a square meter of fabric. A relatively small
specimen is cut out, usually 10cm×10cm, with the
aid of a template. The
specimen is then weighed accurately.

Mass per unit area (g/m
2
)=specimen mass (g)×100
































1
6
定量分析














%
100
)

c

Crimp(



f
f
y
l
l
l
L
G
1000
(tex)
density
Linear

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1.
Questions and Answers

(1) How

do you

count the fabric
density
? I
s the warp density usually equal to the weft
density?

(2) What does crimp mean? How to measure the crimp?

(3) Can you make out the linear density of the warp or weft thread? Try to practise .

(4)
How do
you
make samples while
measur
ing

the fabric

weight
?

2.
Translations

The mass of per unit area, which is termed “areal density”, is an important characteristic
of fabric. The mass in the international system of units can be expressed in grams per square
meter. To calculate the areal density of fabri
c, the following factors should be given: the warp
and the weft linear densities, sets, and crimps. The areal density is calculated by finding the
sum of the mass of warp per square meter and that of weft per square meter. The mass threads
can be found per

square meter. The mass of threads can be found taking into consideration the
crimp or the take
-
up. When the crimp percentage, C
0
, is used, the formula for calculating the
mass of warp in grams per square meter is

G
0
=Tt
0
P
0

(1+0.01C
0
) 10
-
2

Where: Tt
0

warp l
inear density, tex;



P
0

warp sett, i.e. the number of warp threads per 10cm, ends/10cm.


The factor 10
-
2
is introduced because tex is defined in terms of g/km, and, therefore, the
length in m should be converted into km. And P
0

is multiplied by

10 to convert dm into m. So,
the resultant factor is 10
-
2
.

The mass of weft per square meter

G
y
=Tt
y
P
y

(1+0.01C
y
) 10
-
2

Where: Tt
y

weft linear density, tex;

P
y

weft sett, i.e. the number of weft threads per 10cm, picks/10cm.



The areal density G in g/m
2

is

G=G
0
+G
y
= Tt
0
P
0

(1+0.01C
0
) 10
-
2
+ Tt
y
P
y

(1+0.01C
y
) 10
-
2



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Passage Two

Test for Fiber I
dentification

Fiber identification may be carried out using the following methods:

(1)
Burning test
1
7
.



( 2 )
Mi c r o s c o p i c a l l y e x a mi n a t i o n
1
8

o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a n d
c r o s s
-
s e c t i o n a l v i e w s o f t h e f i b e r.



( 3 ) T h e u s e o f s o l v e n t s.




( 4 ) O t h e r c h e mi c a l t e s t s.



( 5 ) S t a i n i n g



( 6 ) Me l t i n g p o i n t d e t e r mi n a t i o n.


( 7 ) F i b e r d e n s i t y.

T h e B u r n i n g Te s t
a n d
Mi c r o s c o p i c E v a l u a t i o n

a r e ma i n l y i n t r o d u c e d
i n t h e p a s s a g e.

T h e B u r n i n
g Te s t


T h e b u r n i n g t e s t i s a g o o d p r e l i mi n a r y t e s t. I t
p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e d a t a r e g a r d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c a r e a n d w i l l h e l p p l a c e a
f i b e r i n t o a s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y .I t i s n o t, h o w e v e r, a t e s t t h a t c a n b e u s e d
a l o n e t o p r o v i d e e x a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c f i
b e r s. I n t h e c a s e o f y a r n s
c o mp o s e d o f t w o o r mo r e f i b e r s, t h e t e s t w i l l u s u a l l y g i v e t h e r e a c t i o n o f
t h e f i b e r t h a t b u r n s mo s t e a s i l y; i f a f i b e r i s h e a t
-
s e n s i t i v e, i t w i l l t e n d t o
me l t o r w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e f l a me, l e a v i n g t h e f l a mma b l e f i b e r t o b u r n.
R e me
mb e r t h a t t h e b u r n i n g t e s t i s a p r e l i mi n a r y t e s t t h a t i n d i c a t e s g e n e r a l
g r o u p i n g o r c a t e g o r i e s o n l y. T h e t e s t i s r e l a t i v e l y s i mp l e b u t mu s t b e u s e d
w i t h c a r e t o a v o i d i n j u r y a n d g u a r d a g a i n s t f i b e r. T h e p r o c e d u r e t o f o l l o w
i n d o i n g t h e b u r n i n g t e s t i s a s f
o l l o w s:

1. S e l e c t o n e o r t w o y a r n s f r o m t h e w a r p s o f t h e f a b r i c o r u n r a v e l a
l e n g t h o f y a r n s f r o m a k n i t t e d s t r u c t u r e.

2. U n t w i s t
19

the yarn so that the fibers are in a loose mass.








1
7
燃烧试验


1
8
显微镜检验

































1
9
解捻




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3. Hold the loosely twisted yarn in forceps; move them toward the
flame fro
m the side.

4. Observe the reaction as the yarn approaches the flame.

5. Move the yarn into the flame, and then pull it out of the flame and
observe the reaction. Dose it start to melt? Dose it shrink away from the
flame? Does it burn quickly or slowly? Do
es it have a sputtering flame, a
steady flame, no flame at all? When removed, does it continue to burn? Is it
bright red or colored to indicate that it has reached a high temperature?
Does the flame go out when removed from the source? What type of ash or
residue, if any, is formed?

6. Notice any odor given off by the fiber, both while it is in the flame
and after it is removed.

7. Observe the ash or residue formed and what characteristics it has. Is
it brittle? Bead
-
shaped? Fluffy? The shape of the yarn? O
r is there nearly
no residue?

8. Repeat for the filling yarn of woven fabrics.

Microscopic Evaluation


I t i s p o s s i b l e t o b e q u i t e d e f i n i t i v e
i n t h e

i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s o me f i b e r s t h r o u g h mi c r o s c o p i c o b s e r v a t i o n s. F i b e r a r e
mo u n t e d t o p r o v i d e v i e w s o f b o t h
t h e i r
l e n g t h w i s e
20

and
crosswise
21

dimension. Unfortunately, several of the man
-
made fibers are similar in
their microscopic appearance; therefore, additional analysis is required for
specific identification.
























20
纵向
21
横截





1.
Questions and Answers

(1) How many methods of
fiber identification

do you know?

(2) What’s the procedure of the burning test? Try to practise in the lab.

(3) What are the
lengthwise and crosswise

featu
res of the cotton, wool, ramie and
polyester?

(4) Can you identify polyester and nylon fiber through the
microscopic observations
?


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2.
Translations

(1)
The burning test is a good preliminary test. It provides valuable data regarding
appropriate care and wil
l help place a fiber into a specific category .It is not, however, a test
that can be used alone to provide exact identification of specific fibers.

(2)

Microscopic Evaluation

is possible to be quite definitive
in the

identification of some
fibers through
microscopic observations. Fiber are mounted to provide views of both their
lengthwise and crosswise
.


















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Unit five

Categorising textiles


I.
Main Tasks

Textiles can be categorized by
P
roduction
C
ompan
y
, by end
-
use and by the market.
According
to the different usages, the textiles can be divided into three groups, they are a
pparel
textiles, furnishing textiles and industrial textiles.

This unit deals with how to categorise
defferent textiles.

II. Text

Categorising
T
extiles

Textiles can be categ
orized by Production Company, by end
-
use, and
by the market for which they are designed.

The company involved in textile and clothing production can be
grouped in different ways, for example by product or by manufacturing
process. Many companies fall into
several categories. A mill may produce
fabrics but it may also convert fabric that it is uneconomical for it to
produce itself. Usually labelled by the function which they primarily
perform, i.e. as a
spinner
1
, a knitter, a weaver, etc., companies may also

be
known for the end
-
use of their fabric, i.e. as a producer of men’s
歮楴睥ar
2
,
contract furnishings
3
, etc.

Textiles are found in a hugely diverse range of products. Clothing us
from birth until death, textiles protect us and make us feel good. Our home
s
are made more comfortable by textiles that keep in heat and by textiles that
shield us from the sun. Keeping us warm at night, textiles also dry us when
we are wet and can support injured limbs. More recently specialized
textiles have been developed for
medical use as artificial replacement
ligaments
4

and
arteries
5
, and
geotextiles
6

are used in the construction of
















1
纺纱厂


2
针织服装

3
定单装饰织物











4
韧带
/
5
血管

6
土工织物

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dam and motorways. In general, textiles can be classified into three kinds,
that is
apparel textiles
7
,
furnishing textiles
8

and
industrial text
iles
9
.

Apparel or clothing market includes most garments that are worn. A
huge consumer of fabric, clothing manufacture can be split by market, e.g.
men’s, women’s and children’s clothing, sportswear, casual wear or formal
wear. However, not all fabrics fo
r garments are considered part of the
appearl market. Fabrics such as the specialised protective clothing for
fire
-
fighters, pilots and those in similar hazardous occupations are
considered part of the industrial textiles market.

The furnishing market is a
nother huge consumer of textiles, for
curtains
10
,
upholstery
11

fabrics, carpets and wall coverings, either domestic
or contract. Domestic furnishings are those found in the home, while
contract furnishings are those used in offices and public buildings suc
h as
schools, hotels and hospitals. The textiles such as
sheets
12
,
pillowcases
13
,
towels
14
, blankets, tablecloths are also considered as furnishing fabrics.

Car tyres, medical textiles and geotextiles are all examples of
industrial textiles. Industrial tex
tiles also cover such textile products as
filters
15
,
conveyor belts
16
, car safety belts and
parachute cords
17
.
Performance is of prime importance in this category.

Textiles and textile products can be categorized by the market area for
which these are inte
nded and by price. Expensive fabrics, apparel and
furnishing products may be described as “upper”, “top”. However, the
largest quantity of fabrics and textile products are sold in the middle
volume, or mass
-
market areas, and in the lower, down
-
market area
.



7
服装用纺织品
8
装饰用纺织品
9
产业用纺织品











10
窗帘

11
室内装潢




12

床单
13
枕套
14
毛巾



15
过滤材料品
16
运输带
/
17

落伞绳



III.
Language Tips

1. apparel textiles
服装用纺织品
,furnishing textiles
装饰用纺织品,
industrial textiles
产业用
纺织品,按照用途纺织品可以分为这三大类别。
产业用纺织品:广泛用于工
业,农业,
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交通,水利,医疗卫生,环境保护,人体保护,国土改造,军事和空间技术,海洋开发
等工程建设领域的纺织品。

IV.
Exercises

1.

How many groups can the textiles be classified according to their usages?

Try to classify the
following objects into different groups. Can you list some more example
s .

sportswear

para
chute

pillowcases,

pilots wear

towels

curtains

filters

formal wear

sheets

car safety belts

2.
Translationss

(1)

Textiles can be categorized by Production Company, by end
-
use, and by the market for
which they are designed.

(2)

Domestic furnishings are th
ose found in the home, while contract furnishings are those
used in offices and public buildings such as schools, hotels and hospitals.

(3)

A mill may produce fabrics but it may also convert fabric that it is uneconomical for it
to produce itself.

(4) More

recently specialized textiles have been developed for medical use as artificial
replacement ligaments and arteries, and geotextiles are used in the construction of dam and
motorways.

(
4
)

Textiles and textile products can be categorized by the market area
for which these are
intended and by price.

3. Try to collect information about the industrial textiles.


V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One

Knitting

Knitting is commonly defined as forming a fabric by means of
interlooping
18

yarns. In machine knitting, loop
s of yarn are formed with the
aid of thin pointed
needles
19

or shafts. As new loops are formed, they are
drawn through the previously shaped loops. This interlooping and the








18
套圈


19



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continued formation of new loops produce a knit fabric:
weft knitting
20
: (or
filli
ng knitting
)

21
: and
warp knitting
22
:.

In the construction and analysis of knit fabrics, two terms are used
frequently: wale and course. Wale refers to a column of loops that are
parallel to the loop axis. The wales also run parallel to the longer
measurem
ent of a knit fabric. A course is a series of successive loops lying
crosswise of the knit fabric, that is, at right angles to a line passing from the
open throat to the closed end of the loops.

Weft or filling knitting




We f t o r f i l l i n g k n i t t i n g i s a c o
n s t r u c t i o n p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e f a b r i c i s
ma d e b y y a r n f o r mi n g l o o p s a c r o s s t h e w i d t h o f t h e f a b r i c o r a r o u n d a
c i r c l e. E a c h y a r n i s f e d a t mo r e o r l e s s a r i g h t a n g l e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n i n
w h i c h t h e f a b r i c i s b u i l t. T h e t e r m w e f t i s t a k e n f r o m w e a v i n g t e r mi n
o l o g y.
I n w e a v i n g t h e t e r m i s u s e d s y n o n y mo u s l y w i t h f i l l i n g o r p i c k t o r e f e r t o
t h e c r o s s w i s e y a r n s t h a t a r e l a i d d u r i n g t h e w e a v i n g o p e r a t i o n.




Wa r p k n i t t i n g

T h e t e r m w a r p k n i t t i n g i s a l s o a d a p t e d f r o m w e a v i n g t e c h n o l o g y.
Wa r p k n i t t i n g d i f f e r s f r o m w e
f t o r f i l l i n g k n i t t i n g i n t h a t t h e l o o p s a r e
f o r me d i n a v e r t i c a l o r w a r p w i s e d i r e c t i o n a n d y a r n s l y i n g s i d e b y s i d e a r e
i n t e r l o o p e d. Ma c h i n e s u s e d f o r w a r p k n i t t i n g t e n d t o l o o k s o me w h a t l i k e
w e a v i n g ma c h i n e s. A l l o f t h e y a r n s a r e p l a c e d o n t h e b e a ms a n d
a r e l o c a t e d
b e h i n d a n d a b o v e t h e a c t u a l k n i t t i n g a r e a. A l l y a r n s f e e d i n t o t h e k n i t t i n g
a r e a a t t h e s a me t i me. B e c a u s e o f t h e k n i t t i n g p r o c e s s u s e d i n w a r p
k n i t t i n g, t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e y a r n s u p p l y, a n d t h e i n t e r l o o p i n g o f t h e p a r a l l e l
y a r n s, t h e ma c h i n e s
u s e d s o me t i me s c a l l e d
k n i t t i n g l o o m
23
.



20/21
纬编

22
经编
































23
针织机


1.

Questions and Answers

(1) What are the differences between the weaving and knitting technologies?

(2)How does the weft knitting get its name?

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(3) How does the warp knitting machine work?

2.

T
ranslations

(1)

Knitting is commonly defined as forming a fabric by means of interlooping yarns.

(2)
Weft or filling knitting is a construction process in which the fabric is made by yarn
forming loops across the width of the fabric or around a circle.

(3)

Warp knitting differs from weft or filling knitting in that the loops are formed in a
vertical or warpwise direction and yarns lying side by side are interlooped.

(4) Because of the knitting process used in warp knitting, the location of the yarn supply,
and the interlooping of the parallel yarns, the machines used sometimes called knitting loom.


Passage Two


Nonwoven
F
abrics.

Nonwoven fabrics include both the oldest and the newest methods of
making cloth. The term nonwoven has become widely accepted to i
nclude
traditional felts,
needle
-
punched felts
24
,
adhesive
-
bonded fabrics
25

of
various types, and various special structures that do not use yarn. The
definition of nonwoven fabric as stated by ASTM limits nonwoven
structures to those made by textiles fibe
rs: “A textiles structure produced by
扯湤楮b 潲 楮ie牬潣歩k朠潦o 晩fe牳Ⱐ潲 扯瑨Ⱐacco浰m楳桥搠by mec桡湩calⰠ
chemical, thermal, or solvent means and combinations thereof.”



䅣c 潲摩o 朠 瑯t 瑨t 猠 摥晩湩瑩潮o 瑨攠 獴s 牴楮r 牡w 浡瑥物a 氠 景f a n y
湯湷潶n 渠 楳i a 浡
獳 潦o 瑥t 瑩汥l 晩扥牳⸠ 周q 獥 晩扥牳 浡 y b e n a 瑵牡l Ⱐ
浡m
-
浡摥I 潲o c 潭扩湡瑩潮猬o 潲o 晩f 牯畳r 景r 浳m 潢瑡楮o 搠 b y 癡物r 畳u
灲潣e 獳s n g 映 楬浳m

c 牯洠瑨r ⁳瑡 瑩n g a 瑥t 楡氠愠l e 戠楳b 景f 浥搮⁔桩猠 浡y 扥⁤潮 ⁢ y a 楲⁴
景f 洠 a 牡湤潭 晩扥爠 a 牲a 湧n 浥湴㬠 b y 瑨 e c a 牤楮g p
牯r e 獳Ⱐ c 潵灬敤 睩瑨
a 牲a n 来浥湴m 畮楴猠 瑨慴t e 楴桥爠 ⡡⤠ 灬p c e 污 y e 牳r 潦o f 楢敲猠 獯s 瑨慴t 瑨攠 晩扥牳r 楮i
e a c 栠 污 y e 爠 a 牥 灡牡汬e 氠 瑯t 瑨攠 污y e 牳r a 扯b e a 湤n 扥l 潷o 潲o ⡢( 灬慣e 瑨攠 晩扥r 猠
楮i a c 牯獳r 污y 睨w r e 瑨攠 晩扥牳r 楮i 潮o 污y e r a 牥 a 琠 物r 桴h a n g 汥猠 o r







24
针刺成布

25
粘合成布

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perpendicu
lar to the layer above or below; by forming a web through the
wet
-
lay technique used in making paper; or by disintegration of a film.


Following the formation of the web of fibers, the next step is to bond
them together. The fiber itself can serve as a bon
ding material; adhesives or
solvents may be added; the fiber web may be needled; the web of fibers
may be interlocked by mechanical action; or the web may be formed by
thermal action.



1.

Questions and Answers

(1) What are the differ
ences between the woven fabric and the nonwoven
?

(2) How many kinds of nonwoven fabrics do you know? Give examples of the end use of
the fabrics.

(3) Can cotton be used in nonwoven fabric making? What about other raw materials?

2. Put the following senten
c
es into Chinese

(1)

A textiles structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers, or both,
accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or solvent means and combinations thereof.

(2)
These fibers may be natural, man
-
made, or combinations, or fibrou
s forms obtained by
various processing of films.

(3) Following the formation of the web of fibers, the next step is to bond them together.

(4) Needle punched nonwovens resemble felt in appearance, but they are made primarily
from fibers other than wool.

(5
)The basic sequence of steps in manufacturing bonded
-
fabrics is as follows: preparation
of the fiber, web formation, web bonding, drying, curing and finishing.






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U
n
it Six

Pretreatment

Processes of Textiles



I.
Main Tasks

This unit
focuses

on
introduc
in
g the

pretreatment

pro
cess
es

and
methods

of textiles.

It also
describe
s

what
the main pretreatment system

is
.


II. Text


Pretreatment

Processes of Textiles

All
gray goods
1

must go though a series of pretreatment before it can be
either dyed
2
, printed
3
, or

conditioned with special finishes
4
. The preparatory
treatments depend on the type of fiber in the material and dyeing and finishing
treatments that are to be done. The reason such treatments are necessary is to
make sure that the dyeing, printing and fin
ishing are acceptable
5
, predictable
6

and reproducible
7
. The impurities
8

present, either natural or man
-
introduced
9
,
must be removed . Fabrics which have been prepared for dyeing and finishing
must have sufficient absorbency
10

and whiteness. The processes o
f pretreatment
are as follows

P牥pa牡瑩潮猠扥景fe we琠灲p瑲ea瑭e湴


獩湧敩s·
11

摥獩z楮·
12

獣潵物湧
13

扬敡c桩×·
14
.


1

Preparations before wet pretreatment


B e f o r e t h e p r e t r e a t me n t o f f a b r i c w i t h c h e mi c a l s o l u t i o n s, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o
p r e p a r e t h e f a b r i c. T h e p r e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o f

f a b r i c f o r t h e w e t t r e a t me n t
i n c l u d e e x a mi n i n g o f g r e y g o o d s,
c l o t h t u r n i n g
1
5
( i n b a t c h e s, i n b o x e s ), s t a m p i n g
o r m a r k i n g, s e w i n g
1
6
, s i n g e i n g, e t c.
[ 1 ]


2

S i n g e i n g
a
n d D e s i z i n g

S i n g e i n g i s t h e f i r s t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r e p a r a t o r y p r o c e s s e s n e c e s s a r y f o r
dy
eing or printing. In most cases the cloth from the loom, known as gray goods,
or
loom state fabric
17
, is rather hairy because of the projecting fibers, and it is



1
坯布
/
2
染色

3

印花
/
4

整理

5
可 接 受 的
/
6


可预期的
/
7
可重
视的
/
8
杂质

9
人为的
/
10
吸湿

/
11
烧毛
(
工艺
)/

12
退浆
(
工艺
)/

13

(

)
炼工艺

14
漂白


15
翻布(分批、
分箱)

16

缝头




17
下机织物

18
气体烧毛机
19
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customary to remove these by singeing. The object of singeing is to burn off, as
completely as

possible, all the filaments and fine hairs. Singeing is effected in
three ways: gas singeing
18

plate singeing
19


revolving singeing.
20

After singeing the cloth is run immediately though into a
quench box
21

containing water to extinguish any sparks. Frequently, this box also contains a
desizing agent to render the warp size soluble
22
. Singeing and
desizing are
frequently combined. Singeing removes projecting fibers. Desizing removes
sizes such as starch, PVA, CMC etc. from fabrics. When combined with
singeing it prevents possible
latent damage
23

to fabric from the singeing flames.

Desizing is the pr
ocess of removing the sizing materials from the warp yarn
in fabrics. Most of the size must be removed before the fabric can be dyed
satisfactorily. Residual size prevents the yarns and fibres from wetting quickly
and can affect dye absorption in either ba
tch or continuous dyeing. Desizing can
be commonly effected in three ways: enzyme desizing, alkali desizing, acid
desizing.

During desizing the cloth is impregnated
24

with the desizing agent used and
piled by a mechanical piler
25

in
steep bins
26

for severa
l hours (4~10 hours) to
give the desizing agent time act. It is then washed and goes to the next
operation, general a boil
-
box
27
.

3

Scouring
a
nd Bleaching

Scouring is an operation in which the quantity of protein
28
, pectins
29
, ash
30
,
and wax
31

in the fiber is reduced to an amount which will not seriously interfere
with subsequent dyeing. In this operation, the piece padded
32

with a ca
ustic
soda
33

in a rope
-
washing machine are subject to lie from 45 to 60 minutes in a
J
-
box at a temperature of 100~103

on leaving the J
-
box, the cloth is well
washed to free it from alkali
34
, soluble matters and all impurities with the
exception of a littl
e natural colouring matter that still remains. This can only be
removed by “bleaching”.


B l e a c h i n g i s a c h e mi c a l p r o c e s s, u s u a l l y o f o x i d a t i o n , i n w h i c h c o l o u r i s
r e mo v e d b y me a n s o f e i t h e r c o l d d i l u t e s o l u t i o n s o f s o d i u m h y p o c h l o r i t e
35
, or
铜板烧毛机

20
圆筒烧毛机

21
灭火槽


22
溶解



23
潜在损伤







24
浸渍
/
25
甩布器
/
26
浸渍贮存箱
/
27
煮炼



28
蛋白质
/
29
果胶

/
30
灰粉

31
蜡质
/
32
浸轧
33
烧碱


34





35

次氯酸钠

36

过氧化氢

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dilute sol
ution of hydrogen peroxide
36
, depending on the fiber. Cellulosic
37

fibers, such as cotton, linen and the various rayons, can be bleached with them.
Both solutions are applied in the alkaline state. It must be remembered that
cotton is sensitive to oxidatio
n and could be destroyed by warm solutions of
hypochlorite. The problem is to destroy the colouring matter in the vegetable
fibers without degrading or attacking the cellulose. But chlorine compounds
38

,
if used to bleach protein fibers, result in loss of
fiber strength and eventual
deterioration of the fabric. Silk responds well to hydrogen peroxide, and wool
can be bleached by hydrogen peroxide or by sulfur dioxide
39

gas in moisture
40
,
forming sulfurous acid
41
[2]
. Man
-
made fibers sometimes require bleachi
ng, but if
they are properly processed during manufacture, many fibers are naturally
white. Bleaching is therefore a final treatment to complete the purification
42
,
which at the same time ensure the production of a good white colour and
increases the abili
ty of the fabric to absorb dyestuffs
43

uniformly if it is to be
dyed or printed.



A f t e r t h e b l e a c h i n g
, t h e c l o t h i s t h o r o u g h l y w a s h e d a n d f i n a l l y p a s s e d
t h r o u g h a s q u e e z e r
44

and dried over steam
-
heated cylinder
45
. The bleached cloth
is also called as se
mi
-
finished goods
46

and ready for dyeing and printing.


37

纤维素




38

氯化合物





39

二氧化硫
/
40

湿态
/
41

亚硫酸

42

净化



43

染料


44

轧车
/
45

烘筒

46

半制品





III.
Language Tips

1. The
preparation processes of fabric for the wet treatment include examining of grey goods
,
cloth turning
(in batches, in boxes), stamping or marking, sewing, singeing, etc.



织物前处理之前坯布准备的工序为:坯布检验
——
翻布(分批、分箱)
——
打印
——
缝头
——
烧毛等。

2
.
Silk
responds well to hydrogen peroxide, and wool can be bleached by hydrogen peroxide or
by sulfur dioxide gas in moist
ure, forming sulfurous acid.



丝极
适宜于过氧化氢漂白,而羊毛可以用过氧化氢或处于湿态的二氧化硫气体,形
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成亚硫酸来漂白。

IV.
Exercises

1.
Questions and Answers

(
1
)
What steps are involved in the processes of
pretreatment
?

(2) What

s the function of

d
esizing

?

(3)
What’
s

the definition of


s
couri
ng



(4)
How many
steps are

there in
t
he preparation processes of fabric for the wet treatment

systems


(
5
)
Can you
describe

the operation after bleaching


2 .
Translate the following phrases into English


(1)
纤维素

(2)
烧毛

(3)
坯布检验


(4)
煮炼

(5)
过氧化氢

(6)
铜板烧毛机

(7)
酶褪浆

(8)
轧车

(9)
半制品

(10)
潜在损伤

3.
Translations

Stone Wash

For basic stone wash

a stone wo
u
ld be selected of the proper hardness

shape and size for
the particular end pr
oduct

While large

hard stones last longer and may be suited for
heavyweight fabrics

the smaller

softer stones would be used for lighter weight

more delicate
items

Stone ratio to fabric weig
ht would vary from
3
:
5 t
o

3
:
1(stone to fabric weight)
depending upo
n the d
egree of abrasion needed to ach
i
e
v
e the standard






A typical cycle would be

(1)

load garments and stones

(2)

Desize

detergent plus
enzyme

or

oxidative desize


(3)

Rinse


(4)
stone wash 30 t0 60 min depending upon
standard

(5)

Rinse

(6)

Soft
en

(7)

Extract

(8)

Unload


remove stones from garments

(9)

Tumble dry.

Another variation of the

basic stone wash procedure wou
l
d be to add a quantity of sodium
hypochlorite or other bleaching agent to the stone wash cycle so as to achieve a lighter shade.
This is common for
indigo denim for the

“ice blue”
variation.

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V.
Extensive Reading

Passage One


Mercerizing

Mercerization is a chemical finish applied to cellulosic fibers,
especially cotton. It adds luster to fabrics, improves dyeing characterisitics,
an
d increases strength. Steps in mercerizing are: wetting out the fabric with
water; saturating
47

with caustic soda; timing to permit mercerizing action;
tentering
48

to set fabric dimensions; washing; neutralizing
4
9
; washing and
drying. The finish swells
5
0

t
he fabric,

giving them a round
cross section
6
0

that reflects light to create a gloss or sheen. The natural twist of cotton fiber
is largely removed. Mercerization under tension
61

produces fibers with
increased strength and increased affinity
62

for dyestuff
s. Fabric may also be
mercerized in a slack
63
(nontensioned )state as one technique among those
used for introducing stretch properties

into fabrics. The convention
al
set
-
up
for fabric mercerization generally consists of two

3
-
bowl mangles
64

with a
set of
freely rotating rolls following each mangle, a tenter fram
e

,and a
number of boxes for washing and souring.

The new process now available for mercerizing cotton yarn and also
fabric, use
liquid ammonia
65
at about
-
33


to effect changes in the cotton
fibers
similar to those produced by mercerization with caustic soda. In
particular the liquid ammonia swells the fibers and causes them to shrink in
length (such changes are greater than with caustic soda), so that on
stretching
66

the yarn to somewhat more than i
ts original length while
removing the ammonia (this is recovered for re
-
use and is necessary to
make the process economical), the yarn acquires a much increased strength
which can be about 90 percent according to the type of yarn. Thus cotton
yarn can be g
iven a strength equal to that of a normal nylon or polyester
yarn.

In the treatment of cotton fabric this is padded with liquid ammonia,






47
饱和


48
张布架

49
中和

50
膨化
/
60
横截




61
张力

62
亲和力


63
松弛



64

3
辊压车






65
液氨






66
拉伸











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stretched widthwise
67

and the ammonia evaporated
68

from the fabric is
recovered
69
.

It is claimed that the fabric can be

treated up to 50
yd/min(45m/min), and apart from giving it wash
-
and
-
wear
70

properties it
gives increased
resistance to wet abrasion
71

and

soil pick
-
up
.
72

To some
degree the liquid ammonia treatment of cotton fabric can have the effect of
resin finishing
73