P 357228 Internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber. This invention relates to an internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber having increased efficiency and limited emission of toxic exhaust gases. From already known engines the said engine differs with accumulation chamber embodied into engine head (pneumatic accumulator). There are known hydraulic accumulators destined for accumulation of hydraulic energy. The energy is accumulated the most often in form of elastic energy of solid body or gas. They are

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1


P 357228



Internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber.

This invention relates to an internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber having
increa
sed efficiency and limited emission of toxic exhaust gases
. From already known engines the
said engine differs with accumulation chamber embodied into engine head (pneumatic accumulator).

There are known hydraulic accumulators destined for accumulation of
hydraulic energy. The
energy is accumulated the most often in form of elastic energy of solid body or gas. They are
constructed in piston, diaphragm and blister versions. They enable to reduce pressure pulsation in the
installation, they dump vibrations, e
nable operation of the system for a period of time, e.g. in case of
breakdown, giving up accumulated energy.
[„Nap
ęd i Sterowanie Hydrauliczne” (Hydraulic drive
and control) Z. Szydelski, WKŁ, 1999].


Bottles with compressed gas used in start
-
up systems of big combustion engines, brake
systems of big cars and rail
-
vehicles, etc. are the accumulators of pneum
atic energy.

There are known engines with compression ratio changeable in a function of load, e.g. :
Waukesha, Hispano
-
Suiza, Biceri, [„Silniki Spalinowe z Turbodoładowaniem” (“Turbocharged
combustion engines”) Cz. Kordziński, T. Środulski, WNT, 1970], the

most often those are the
engines used to tests of engine oils.

There are known problems with reduction, restriction of toxicity of exhaust gases. There have
been finished up two different methods of fuel combustion in spark ignition and compression
-
co
mbustion engines, e.g. feeding with stratified mixture. In general, one strives for combustion of
lean fuel


air mixtures and reduction of combustion temperature, in such conditions the smallest
emission of harmful pollutants (CO,Nx) occurs.

A technology
of HCCI (homogeneous


charge compression


ignition combustion) is
developed in the United States. [„Spalinowy Silnik Przyszłości ”Świat Nauki, Sierpień 2001
(“Future combustion engine”, “World of Science”, August 2001)], consisting on autogenous,
compres
sion type ignition of homogenous mixture. Engines constructed according to this method are
characterized with low emission of exhaust gases and low fuel consumption. The HCCI combustion
process enables implementation of high compression ratios like in Dies
el engine, hence also
efficiency of those engines is high. The problem constituting obstacle in further development of this
engine is a difficulty in bringing under control engine’s operation under changing conditions and
higher loads.

Further increase o
f compression ratios in compression
-
ignition engines does not result in
higher efficiency, growing mechanical loss prevails advantages. High operational pressures require
construction of rigid, heavy structures. Hardness and loudness of operation of said e
ngines also
increase, therefore further increase of compression ratio was stopped at a value of 23:1 and rarely is
higher.


Maximal compression ratios of spark ignition engines have a value of 11:1, what is restricted
by out of control combustion
(knock
-
, surface
-
, etc. combustion.). Today’s out
-
of
-
urban fuel
consumption of the best passenger cars equipped with spark ignition engines amounts to 7 liters per
100 kms, whereas in designs with fuel injection approaches to 5 liters per 100 kms, but with

respect
to method of operation those engines are approaching to the Diesel one. In compression
-
combustion
engines a



2


maximal compression ratios were frozen at a value of 23:1. Out
-
of
-
urban fuel consumption of
passenger cars having comparable mass with s
uch engines approaches to 4 liters per 100 kms.

Therefore, it can be assumed that doubled compression ratio in compression
-

ignition engines bore
fruit in 35
-
40% reduction of fuel consumption.


The objective of the invention is to enable construction of combustion engines with high,
comparing to Diesel engine
-

even doubled compression ratio. Having kept on the same level
maximal combustion pressure,

similar loads and mechanical efficiency, the same like in known
engines with compression ratio of 23:1. It results in considerable increase of efficiency and
significant reduction of fuel consumption. With adequate selection of the accumulation chamber
pa
rameters and engine parameters, in significant reduction of harmful pollutants emission (carbon
dioxide, carbon oxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and soot).

Said objective has been met via embodiment, the most favourably into engine head of
modernized c
ombustion engine of accumulation chamber, suitably changing construction of the
engine head and pistons. Changes connected with implementation of the invention can be introduced
in spark ignition and compression
-
ignition engines. In two
-

and four strokers,

in engines with small
very high output, as well as turbocharged ones and engines fed with various liquid and gas fuels.
Conversion of already operating combustion engines according to the method is favourable.


Figure4

shows an example of the ac
cumulation chamber. It is the accumulator of peak energy
in expansion stroke. Developed in such way, that in elastic element it accumulates excess energy and
disables maximal combustion pressure over a pre
-
assumed value. It gives up energy in more
favourab
le location of the crankshaft, striving to maintain pressure over the piston. The accumulation
chamber consists of adequately shaped housing


small cylinder (
1
) which houses small piston (
2
)
with sealing elements (
3
) and elastic element (
4
). The elastic e
lement can be in form of suitably
selected metal spring or air cushion together with feeding system (
5
), re
-
supplying air under suitable
initial


preliminary pressure. Suitable air pump motor is fed

favourably
-

from electric accumulator.
Prior start
-
up o
f the combustion engine, first it re
-
supplies pressure deficiency, distributing
compressed air by pipes to all small cylinders of the engine. The accumulation chamber is also
equipped with absorber zone, pneumatic brake (
6
) which is formed by two mating co
nical surfaces
(
8
) on the small cylinder and the small piston together with slot (
7
) which controls effectiveness of
the brake. The accumulation chambers can have various design. From small piston diameter equal to
engine piston diameter
fig.5

in version
of metal spring as elastic element, and
fig.6

with the air
cushion. In said versions the small pistons reciprocate on short distance with presence of high loads
transferred by the elastic element. Next, medium ones shown in the
fig.7
,
8

and
9

as an exampl
es of
solutions more ease to technical mastering. It is favourable when diameters of the small piston of the
accumulation chamber are decreasing, smaller diameter of the chamber facilitate its assembly
between engine valves. Smaller loads also occur, at th
e cost of extended stroke of the small piston.


The small cylinder and the small piston of the accumulation chamber can be made with use of
standard materials, proper selection of the materials disables seizure of the small piston. It would be
favourable t
o implement the latest technologies, e.g. production of the small piston and the sealing
rings from carbon ceramics, whereas the small cylinder from composites serving as a lining of steel
cylinders. Such combination results in friction factor no smaller a
s 0,008 without necessity of any

lubrication, impacts on increased durability and enables system’s operation in very high temperatures
[www.enginion.com.].

Presented pneumatic accumulator used in the proposed solutions accumulates and gives up
energy in f
raction of second, therefore low weight of the small piston is recommended. From one
side, the small piston separates space over the cylinder head (when metal spring serves as the elastic
element ), from the second side


mixture in the first phase, later
hot burning gases, exhaust gases in
the next stage and finally sucked air or mixture. In case of air cushion serving as the elastic element,
over the small piston there is compressed air and under the small piston there is as mentioned above.
Air from blow
-
by via seals of the small piston participates in the combustion. Anyhow, the blow
-
by
is not big because the pressures from the both sides of the small piston ( in area of maximal
pressures ) are close each other and continuously equalized by dynamic reac
tion of the small piston.
During remaining part of the working cycle the small piston is firmly pressed against the tight

3

conical surface (
8
) by initial pressure of the air cushion, having order of about half or full calculated
compression pressure in the
cylinder, measured without ignition ( without fuel injection ).

Full understanding of the invention shall enable to be acquainted with a few hypothetical
engine designs produced with use of the accumulation chamber.

In order to better illustrate a features

of engines modernized according to the invention, there
will be simultaneously used such parameters as compression ratio, end of compression pressure and
maximal combustion pressure.


Proposed according to the present invention new cycle of combustion and its effects shall be
discussed in detail on
the first example

of compression
-
ignition engine with accumulation chamber,
shown against a backgr
ound of equivalent, conventional Diesel engine.
Diagram No. 1

shows an
example of solution where dotted line represents a conventional engine with the following
parameters: compression ratio 23:1, P compr. ~5Mpa and Pmax.~10 Mpa with any power output.
Po
int (
a
) shows approximate beginning of fuel injection, point (
b
) moment of ignition and (
c
) end of
injection. Against a background of the said the diagram solid line represents indicator diagram
illustrating what change will occur when the accumulation cha
mber is embodied into cylinder head
of this engine. The accumulation chamber can be embodied in many different ways the
fig.10a
,
b
,
c
,
d
. It can be embodied like in two valve ( per piston ) engine shown in the
fig. 8
, when metal spring
serves as the elast
ic element, or in the
fig. 9

with the air cushion. It can be implemented also in the
way illustrated in the
fig. 2
, when the engine is equipped with four valves per piston, then the
accumulation chamber can be shaped and have appearance as in the
fig. 1
.

New working cycle with the chamber embodied according to the invention is shown in the
fig.
11
. It depicts four working phases. The phase (
A
) shows the suction stroke. The piston moves
downwards and cylinder is filled with air, then moving upwards compress
es air, in the phase (
B
)
design of piston and cylinder head can be seen, changed in such way that the slot between them has
been reduced to a minimum enabled by technology of manufacturing (backlashes, thermal efficiency
of components, etc.). Assuming init
ial air pressure in the accumulation chamber over the small
piston as equal to about half of the compression pressure ~ 2,5 Mpa, therefore before TDC in a
moment when the pressure over the piston shall exceed a value of 2,5 Mpa, the small piston of the
ac
cumulation chamber shall start its operation and shall start its movement upwards, balancing
pressures from the both sides. Developing accumulation chamber one has to select the diameter of
the chamber and volume over the small piston, assuming initial pre
ssure equal to half of P compr., in

order to


when engine piston is in the TDC


have situation when the small piston (
2
) has arranged
two chambers having volume value close to the volume over the piston in conventional engine with
the same compression ra
tio, in the same position of the piston. Then the pressures from the both
sides shall amount to ~ 5 Mpa. Prior reaching the TDC by the piston fuel injection ( preferably into
accumulation chamber , under the small piston) shall occur, like in Diesel engine

with suitable
advance angle in order to have ignition near the TDC. Self
-
ignition occurs and new situation arises,
pressure grows half as much slower than in comparable Diesel engine, because, “flexible” element
has arrived in the combustion chamber. The
small piston, balancing pressures enlarges the
combustion chamber, simultaneously compressing air over the small piston. This moment is
demonstrated by the phase (
C
). Pressures over and under the small piston reach for a moment their
maximal value Pmax.
~

7,5 Mpa.
Well, much less than Pmax. in comparable conventional engine.
Excess energy was stored in the accumulator, i.e. in the air cushion over the small piston. Expansion
stroke follows and decompressing now air cushion, forcing on the small piston stri
ves to keep
pressure in the combustion chamber and gives up accumulated energy. Giving up combustion and
compression energy it returns to initial location and in this position is braked down by a pneumatic
brake shown hypothetically in the
fig.4

(
6
). Effec
tiveness of the braking can be adjusted by selection
of width and length of the slot (
7
) through which the exhaust gases flow. Before the BDC exhaust
valve opens and exhaust stroke occurs, phase (
A
). Possible loss of air over the small piston are
supplemen
ted by the feeding system (
5
), by a valve in upper cover of the chamber with the air
cushion. The small piston of the accumulation chamber is pressed down with big force. Exhaust
gases displaced by the piston are not able to push it upwards. When the pisto
n reaches the TDC,
favourably nearly completely empties the cylinder from exhaust gases. Owing to it nearly complete
exchange of charge occurs.


4

Making simplification and assuming that compression pressure amounts to ~ 5 Mpa, it could
be assumed the followi
ng course of reasoning : 1) if the accumulation chamber would not exist, after
combustion of a suitable dosage of fuel the pressure would be increased up to ~ 10 Mpa. 2) if
constant pressure would be sustained after combustion of the same dosage of the fue
l, volume of the
combustion chamber should increase twofold for a moment. In the engine according to the invention
there are two intermediate states


volume increases in controlled manner and simultaneously
combustion pressure raises suitably, mutual rel
ation of those values depends on parameters
-


working characteristics of the accumulation chamber. Point (
d
) in the
diagram 1

shows a moment of
actuation of the accumulator, simultaneously since this moment the axis P inclines to the left, the
inclinatio
n illustrates increasing volume of the accumulation chamber what takes place in the small
cylinder under the small piston, outside engine’s combustion chamber. Higher, on a level of (
a
) fuel
injection commences, on the level of point (
b
) self
-
ignition and
rapid pressure growth occur, but
flexible small piston (
2
) in the accumulation chamber disables pressure growth higher than ~7,5
Mpa. Downward movement of the small piston is continued and for a moment the pressure is
sustained by burning injected fuel. Te
rmination of the injection near area of the dashed arrow
constitutes also approximate moment of beginning of giving up energy stored by the accumulator,
what occurs simultaneously with after
-
burning of fuel residuals in the cylinder. Under the diagram
ther
e are located shifted scales illustrating the TDC point. It is explicitly seen that energy from the
accumulator is given up at more favourable angle of crankshaft rotation.



Summing up, new working cycle and changes according to the invention h
ave not resulted in
increase of engine output, but made engine operation more silent, reduced load of the crankshaft
(what increased engine durability), have increased torque on the crankshaft, definitely improved
exchange of charge and in a smaller extend

efficiency. Presented example had to illustrate what
changes would be expected after modernization, according to proposed method, of typical
combustion engine.


If in the conventional engine presented earlier we would increase compression ratio to e.g.
32
:1, dashed line in the
diagram 2

will show changes which would occur against a background of
the same engine prior the change (dotted line), the pressure Pmax shall increase up to > 13 MPa.
Engine should be mechanically reinforced in order to withstand th
e higher pressure. It would be
irrational, because in case of such pressure increase, increase of mechanical loss prevails increase of
the efficiency.

The second example

illustrates

diagram 2
. Against a background of characteristics of typical
engines, pr
ior the change (dotted) and after increase of compression ratio up to 32:1 (dashed),
positive effects of changed cycle of operation are explicitly visible (solid line). We assume that
suitably calculated accumulated chamber was embodied into typical engin
e with increased
compression ratio as above, 32:1 and assumed that the accumulator shall start its operation at the
pressure similar to compression pressure of the said engine ~6.8 MPa.
Figure 2

shows said engine in
four valve version. According to assumpt
ions taken previously, initial pressure of the air cushion
over the small piston amounts to ~6.8MPa. Volume of the chamber over the small piston should be
equal to the volume of the combustion chamber under the small piston when the engine piston is in
the

TDC. Analyzing the
diagram 2
, point (
a
) illustrates approximate moment of beginning of
injection, which is selected

with consideration of the phenomenon of ignition delay
-

in such way
that ignition would occur near the point (
b
), close to the TDC of the
engine. Self
-
ignition and rapid
combustion are commencing, simultaneously the small piston of the accumulator begins to move
back storing excess energy. It is signaled graphically by inclination of axis P (indirectly informing
us about fact that the point

0% on the axis V is shifted a little bit to the left, outside the system).
Pressure is growing and is stabilized on the level of ~10 MPa, in the same moment the pressure over
the small piston also amounts to ~10 MPa. Engine piston begins expansion stroke
and in spite of
increasing volume of the combustion chamber, the pressure is still sustained for a moment by
combusting injected fuel and later by energy given up from the accumulator and after
-
burning fuel.

Similar effect in obtained in
the third example
of the implementation, shown in the
diagram 3

and the
fig.3
. The modification consists on reduction of initial pressure up to the value of ~ 2/3 of the
compression pressure, i.e. ~4.5 MPa.
Figure 3

is shown in three phases of operation. The phase (
A
)
shows

the accumulator with the small piston in bottom position, when the pressure in combustion

5

chamber is low, (it takes place in final phase of the expansion stroke, exhaust stroke, suction stroke
and beginning of compression stroke). The phase (
B
) represents

the moment of compression in the
TDC without ignition, when pressures and volumes of the both chambers are more or less equal. In
the piston of the engine, an oval recess under the accumulation chamber can exist, marked in the
figure by the dashed line an
d shown precisely on the sector (
D
). Fuel is injected into said recess
(arrow). Simultaneously, moving upwards piston of the engine squeezes compressed air into the
accumulation chamber, and oblique incisions made on the lower surface of the small cylinder

fig.4
(
9
) force strong swirls. The air is accurately mixed with the injected fuel and is burnt swirling,

displacing the small piston, and when the engine piston begins expansion stroke, swirling
flame is pushed away by the air cushion to the combustion ch
amber where is mixed and

after
-
burnt with residuals of air. Version of engine with fuel injection into center of the accumulation
chamber, directly under the small piston, would be favourable. Phase (
C
) shows a moment of rapid
combustion of injected fuel,

near the TDC point. Making analysis of the
diagram 3

attention should
be paid to inclination of the axis P, which occurs earlier in the point (
d
), initial pressure of the air
cushion in this version amounts to ~4,5 MPa. In the point (
a
) injection begins w
ith suitable advance,
in the point (
b
) self
-
ignition occurs. In the moment of self
-
ignition the air cushion pressure has a
value of ~6,8 MPa and grows rapidly, simultaneously all the time a part of energy is stored in the
accumulator. Pressure growth is te
rminated at a value of ~10 Mpa, not exceeding the maximal
pressure, for which a typical engine was developed. Next, piston of the engine moves performing
expansion stroke. Point (
c
) shows a moment when after termination of fuel injection, the
accumulator b
egins to give up accumulated energy.


Summing up the two above examples, it is seen that reconstruction of typical engine
according to the invention and increase of compression ratio shall result in significant increase of
efficiency and engine
output. Said modernization results in similar effect as introduction of turbo
-
charging in typical combustion engines. In the third example another additional benefit has been
obtained, i.e. nearly complete exchange of charge. Adding automatics and electron
ics, via smooth
change of initial pressure of the air cushion it is possible to develop engine with changeable
compression ratio.


The fourth example

is a attempt of implementation according to a method of maximal


technologically possible to bring under

control values of the compression ratio.
Figure 2

shows
already discussed modernization, with this what initial pressure in the air cushion was increased up
to a value of ~8 MPa. After possibly small correction of the recess in the pistons we obtain engin
e
which could be operated with compression ratio of 40:1. In the
fig. 2

there are shown positions of
engine components in the TDC without ignition, volume of the accumulation chamber over the small
piston in this moment should amount to about two times big
ger than volume of combustion chamber
under the small piston. Having maintained those proportions, pressure Pmax shall not exceed ~ 10
MPa. If the accumulator would be removed now, the pressure could soar to ~ 16 MPa, what is
illustrated by a dashed line i
n the
diagram 4
. Engine would not withstand such load. Because of fact
the accumulation chamber is embodied, volume of the both chambers is summed up since a moment
of exceeded initial pressure, what enables pressure increase only with about 1/3. In the
di
agram 4

a
positive changes and scale of those changes are seen precisely (solid line ), with respect to typical
engine ( dotted line ). In succession: point (
a
) is a moment of injection, (
b
) moment of actuation of
the accumulator and simultaneously

select
ed by the moment of injection
-

point of ignition, (
c
) end
of injection and approximate moment of actuation of the accumulator. The diagram illustrates how
significantly the engine output shall increase. There will also take place a high increase of efficie
ncy
at considerably small increase of mechanical loss.


In the next,
fifth example

another version is shown, placing great emphasis on big limitation
of toxic impurities in exhaust gases. It was assumed, that compression ratio shall amount to 40:1.
The ac
cumulation chamber shown in the
Fig. 2
, part (
b
) has been used. Initial pressure of the air
cushion amounts to ~8 MPa. Volume of the chamber over the small piston is equal to volume of the

combustion chamber, when piston of the engine is in the TDC. It wa
s assumed that injected maximal
dosages of fuel are reduced by half. Because compression ratio is so high, the engine shall operate on
lean mixtures with high excess air, like turbocharged engines. At so high compression pressures
there is not any problem
with self
-
ignition of even minimal dosages of fuel. The
diagram 5

shows,
with solid line, final effect of that change on a background of: a) typical engine with compression

6

ratio of 23:1 (dotted line), b) theoretical engine with compression ratio of 40:1 (
dashed line


the
highest) at full dosage of fuel, c) in the middle (dashed line) shows the same engine with half as
much fuel dosage. In succession: point (
a
) injection of fuel dosage reduced by half, point (
b
)
moment of ignition at ~ 8MPa, (
c
) end of inj
ection and operation of the accumulator. Making
analysis of the changes is can be seen that the final diagram has a little bit greater surface area, but a
little bit higher mechanical loss have to be taken into account, resulted from significantly higher
c
ompression pressure. Load of the mechanisms during other engine strokes is similar to conventional
engines. Resembling conventional engine working parameters could be achieved by combustion of
significantly smaller dosages of fuel. Two point fuel injection

could constitute a good solution. Small
dosage of fuel (of idle speed), injected to suction manifold in valve area and that part of mixture is
burnt in detonation manner, remaining part is injected to the combustion chamber, the most
favourably directly t
o the accumulation chamber.

Said engine is characterized with high excess air and very accurate fuel combustion at relatively low
temperature of exhaust gases. That is small quantities of CO, Nx, hydrocarbons and soot in complete
range of engine operation.

Efficiency increases significantly, so emission of carbon dioxide also
decreases significantly.

The sixth example

is an engine with detonation combustion of the mixture. The
fig.11

shows
for the second time the engine, which now sucks in mixture during su
ction stroke. Fuel injection, the
best two
-
point is accomplished into valve area in the manifold, with this that one injector supplies
constant dosage of fuel (idle speed), the second one supplies adjusted quantity. Operational cycle of
the engine is iden
tical like in the first example, but before the TDC detonation or compression
-
type
ignition of lean uniform mixture occurs. To accomplish such engine one should select proper fuel,
optimal excess air, compression ratio, design and extent of cooling of the
accumulation chamber in
order to prohibit detonation too early before the TDC. It would be optimal to implement smooth
change of the compression ratio, accomplished by adjustment of initial pressure in the air cushion of
the accumulation chamber. At very l
ean mixtures and small load, it is advisable to use the highest
compression ratios. As the load increases when the mixture should be more rich, initial pressure
should decrease in order to reduce the compression ratio, and then a moment of compression
-
type

self
-
ignition shall be preserved near the point of TDC. Because quantity of burnt fuel (combustion
of lean mixtures was assumed) in complete range of engine revolutions is very small comparing to
quantity of air, temperature of combustion remains relativ
ely low. The engine produces small
quantities of nitrogen oxide and dioxide. Mixture in the combustion chamber is correctly mixed and
the air is in big excess, in result of its combustion small quantities of soot particles are emitted. In
this engine nearl
y complete exchange of charge occurs. Efficiency of the engine is high, due to high
compression ratios like in Diesel engines), and engine output is adjusted without throttling of the
suction system, what eliminates suction loss. The small piston of the ac
cumulator acts as shock
absorber, eliminates negative effects of explosions and rapid combustion. At very lean mixtures
ignition of such engines can be assisted by spark ignition.
Diagram 6

shows operation of said
engine. Point (
d
) shows a moment of actuat
ion of the accumulator, near the point (
b
) compression
-
type ignition ( detonation ) of homogenous mixture occurs. Dashed line illustrates typical engine
with compression ratio increased up to a value of 32:1 with dosage of fuel reduced with about 1/3,
comp
arable conventional engine is shown against a background ( dotted line ). Solid line illustrates
changes caused by embodiment of the accumulation chamber according to the invention into an
engine with increased compression ratio.

Maximal pressure, of the o
rder of 10 MPa, neither compression ratio of 40:1 are not a
maximal limits. One may easily modernize engines with higher parameters, it would only constitute
a bigger challenge to bring under control a high pressures.










7














Patent claims






1
. Internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber
characterized in

that it has
embodied preferably into engine head the accumulation chamber, comprising elements like: small
cylinder (
1
), small piston (
2
), seal
ing elements (
3
), elastic element positioned over the small piston,
feeding system (
5
) (in version with air cushion) and brake


pneumatic absorber (
6
), embodiment of
said chamber enables increase of compression ratio, preferably to a value of 40:1 or high
er, due to
this in compression and combustion stroke occurs phenomenon of accumulation of energy and
dumping of rapid pulses of pressure growth caused by retracting small piston (
2
), under which
swirling injected fuel mixed with air or explosive homogenous

mixture is burning, while peak pulses
of pressure are flattened, excess energy above assumed value of maximal combustion pressure is
stored in spring or air cushion (
4
) of the accumulation chamber and later given up at more favourable
angle of connecting
rod location, sustaining pressure in the combustion chamber.

2
. Accumulation chamber embodied into conventional engine head as claimed in Claim 1,
characterized in

that via selection of initial pressure of the air cushion or initial tension of the spring
i
t is possible to optimize a moment of actuation of the accumulation chamber, however selecting
ratio of air cushion volume (
4
) to combustion chamber volume under the small piston (
2
), or suitably
selecting the spring with respect to a force acting on the s
mall piston through compressed air when
engine piston is in TDC position, we obtain preferable characteristics of accumulation chamber
operation, and changing smoothly in certain range a initial pressure in the air cushion or initial
tension of the spring,

we obtain changeable compression ratio selected depending on load present in
the engine.

3.

Accumulation chamber as claimed in Claim 1,
characterized in

that in lower part of the
small cylinder (
1
) and small piston (
2
) (located in bottom position), betwe
en cylindrical walls is
created go
-
through slot (
7
), by selection of a width and length of said slot we adjust braking
effectiveness of the small piston, conical surface of small cylinder and spherical surface (
8
) of the
small piston (
2
) create a tight val
ve, and on a lower surface (
9
) of the small cylinder (
1
) there are
slanting incisions which force favourably whirling of the air forced into the accumulated chamber, at
what in the upper part the small piston has a recess in order to ensure small inertia a
nd prompt
reaction of the accumulation chamber.












8



Abstract of the claim



1
. Internal combustion engine with accumulation chamber
characterized in

that it has
embodied preferably into engine head

the accumulation chamber, comprising components
like: small cylinder (
1
), small piston (
2
), sealing elements (
3
), elastic element positioned over
the small piston, feeding system (
5
) (in version with air cushion) and brake


pneumatic
absorber (
6
), which
simultaneously enables increase of compression ratio, preferably to value
of 40:1 or higher, due to this in compression and combustion strokes occurs phenomenon of
accumulation of energy and damping of rapid pulses of pressure growth caused by retracting
s
mall piston (
2
), under which swirling injected fuel mixed with air or explosive homogenous
mixture is burning while peak pulses of pressure are flattened, excess energy above assumed
value of maximal combustion pressure is stored in the spring or air cushi
on (
4
) of the
accumulation chamber and later given up at the most favourable angle of con rod location,
sustaining pressure in the combustion chamber.









































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