Radar & EW Knowledge Base 2009 Conference Opening

plantationscarfΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

83 εμφανίσεις

Radar &
EW

Knowledge Base
2009 Conference Opening

Francois Anderson

Radar & EW Systems Engineer

CSIR DPSS

3 December 2009

Page
2

Overview


The importance of
Science, Engineering and
Technology

for a modern society and economy


The
Career Growth
of Scientists and Engineers


The AwareNet Programme
: A proposed new
platform for South African high tech innovations

in the field of Radar &
EW

Page
3

Strategic Importance of
Science,
Engineering & Technology for Nations


No nation can afford to be without
its own independent
S&T

capacity”

InterAcademy

Council report on “Inventing a better future:
A Strategy for Building Worldwide Capacities in
S&T


13 February
2004

Introduction by Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General:

Page
4

© CSIR 2008
www.csir.co.za

Urgent Need to Promote World
-
wide
S&T

Capacity


The
world is changing
at a rapid pace,
driven by
S&T


Business as usual will leave an ever
-
growing
gap between ‘have’ and
‘have
-
not’ nations


Local
S&T

capacity
is essential for
using and contributing
to the
world’s valuable store of knowledge


Universities

have a critical role to play in
building
S&T

capacities


Investments in
S&T

are increasingly important for
economic growth


Building capacity in
agriculture, engineering, health and social
sciences
is essential for national development


Stronger
S&T

capacity in the
developing nations

is not a luxury, but
an
absolute necessit
y if these nations are to participate as full
partners in the world’s fast
-
forming,
knowledge
-
based economy

InterAcademy

Council report on “Inventing a better future: A
Strategy for Building Worldwide Capacities in
S&T


13 February 2004

Page
5

© CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za

20 Greatest Engineering Achievements
of the 20
th

Century


Electrification


Automobile


Airplane


Water Supply and Distribution


Electronics


Radio and Television


Agricultural Mechanization


Computers


Telephone


Air Conditioning and
Refrigeration


Highways


Spacecraft


Internet


Imaging


Household Appliances


Health Technologies


Petroleum and Petrochemical
Technologies


Laser and Fiber Optics


Nuclear Technologies


High
-
performance Materials


US National Academy of Engineering
http://www.greatachievements.org


Innovations that shaped a century and changed the world


Page
6

Career Growth in Science and Engineering



Scientists investigate that which already is;

Engineers create that which has never been.”

Albert Einstein

Guiding Principles for an Engineering Career Ladder

Johan Strydom, CSIR DPSS, October

2009

Page
7



Science

is the body of, and quest for,
fundamental knowledge

and
understanding of all things natural and man
-
made
; their
structure, properties, and how they behave


Pure Science

is concerned with extending this knowledge
for its
own sake


Applied Science

extends this knowledge
for a specific purpose


Engineering

is the
knowledge

required, and the
process applied
,
to
conceive, design, make, build, operate, sustain, recycle or
retire
, something with
significant technical content
for a
specified
purpose
: a concept, a model, a product, a device, a process, a
system, a service, a technology.”

“THE UNIVERSE OF ENGINEERING: A UK PERSPECTIVE”

Royal Academy of Engineering, together with the UK Engineering Council

What is Science and Engineering?

Page
8

The Core Processes of Engineering


Problem definition
(may be in the form of user
requirements definition, design requirements definition, etc)


Solution analysis and performance prediction
,
evaluation of proposed solutions


Solution synthesis or
design



Design
implementation
,
test and evaluation

Page
9

Engineering Career Progression Paths


At CSIR
: Engineer in Training, Professional Engineer,
Senior Engineer, Principal Engineer, Chief Engineer


Could grow in:


Complexity


Size and Variety


Coupling


Information availability, uncertainty, solvability


Systems dynamics, behaviour


Team factors and task factors


Body of knowledge factors


Novelty of
methods

used (from standard text book to highly novel)


Novelty/complexity of
engineering tools
developed/used


Level of
engineering leadership



Page
10

The RSA National System of Innovation

Page
11

AwareNet Overview


Identified

national level problem

to be solved


The proposed solution: A

new

South
African

Innovation
with
a
unique
value proposition


Some of the
R&D already completed
towards realizing this innovation


The next
step already contracted:
AwareNet Technology

Demonstrator 0.5


Future

challenges and opportunities


Summary






Universities


R&D Institutes


Defence Electronics Industry


Remote Sensing


Computers Communications
& Information Processing


National T&E Facilities

Page
12

An Important Problem in

Military and Civilian Security


Negative forces & criminals

have initiative: They choose

place, time and method


Difficult to detect

and track
:
Fly low, use small craft,
operate in low visibility
conditions, move stealthily


Difficult to recognize:

Operate amongst

similar

non
-
threatening

entities


They plan to
beat the
reaction time

of State
security forces and services


They have the advantage
,
when
force
-
to
-
space ratios

are low

Terrorism

Piracy

Smuggling

Border Crossings

Poaching

Page
13

Proposed Innovation: In Principle


Use
technology

as a
force multiplier


Provide an
asymmetric advantage

to
commanders
of our
security forces

Information
Domain
Physical
Domain
Sense
Cognitive
Domain
Situation in
Area of Interest
Actions
Situation
Awareness
Information
Sense
-
making
Manage Forces

Define tasks

Synchronize
actions

Communicate
Command
Intent
Previous knowledge
Mental models
Perceptions
Beliefs
Emotions
Data
Information
Domain
Physical
Domain
Sense
Cognitive
Domain
Situation in
Area of Interest
Actions
Situation
Awareness
Information
Sense
-
making
Manage Forces

Define tasks

Synchronize
actions

Communicate
Command
Intent
Previous knowledge
Mental models
Perceptions
Beliefs
Emotions
Data
Page
14

Proposed Innovation:

An Integrated Sensing System


Provide
information superiority

and consequently
an
edge in decision making
to commanders of
own
security forces and services


Enhance

commanders’ situation awareness
by

providing them with
relevant

real time

information
about the situation in the
total area of interest,

as it develops:


Persistent:
All the time with sufficient update rate


Ubiquitous:
Everywhere at once


Recognized:
Classes, identities, threat levels


Record

complete evidence
enabling post
-
mission
analyses and actions

Unmanned Elevated

Geo
-
Stationary Platform

Integrated

Long Range Sensors


Central
Computer &
Data Fusion
Pulse Doppler
Multi
-
function
Radar
Microwave
Intercept
Receiver
Comms
Intercept
Receiver
AIS Receiver
and SSR
Interrogator
Communication
Repeaters
Sensors
Data
Link
Multi
-
spectral
Electro
-
Optical
Cameras
DGPS
INS
Central
Computer &
Data Fusion
Pulse Doppler
Multi
-
function
Radar
Microwave
Intercept
Receiver
Comms
Intercept
Receiver
AIS Receiver
and SSR
Interrogator
Communication
Repeaters
Sensors
Data
Link
Sensors
Data
Link
Multi
-
spectral
Electro
-
Optical
Cameras
DGPS
INS
DGPS
INS
Data Fusion, Analysis,

Display & Communication

Data Fusion
Intent Estimation
Prioritization
Weather
Data Base
GIS
UAV & Sat
Sensors
User
1
User
2
User
N

Command
& Control
Transmitters
Receivers
Airborne
Sensor
Information
Intelligence
Data Fusion
Intent Estimation
Prioritization
Weather
Weather
Weather
Data Base
Data Base
Data Base
GIS
GIS
GIS
UAV & Sat
Sensors
UAV & Sat
Sensors
User
1
User
2
User
N

Command
& Control
Transmitters
Receivers
Command
& Control
Transmitters
Receivers
Airborne
Sensor
Information
Intelligence
Page
15

Persistent
and Ubiquitous

Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance

System
Functions

Objective:

Obtain a “Recognized Area Picture”

Detect


Estimate
interference


Threshold

Track


Associate


Estimate


Predict

Classify


Extract
features


Classify

Identify


Image


Identify

Assess
Threat




Opportunity



Capacity



Intent

Segment

Threat
Information

Communicate

Threat
Information

Interface with Humans


Display prioritized information


Aid engagement planning

Sense


Receive
radiation


Filter


Convert

Command & Control Decisions

Situation in

Area of Interest

Page
16

AwareNet’s

Proposed Unique Value
Proposition


A modern
C4ISR

system that
provides
rich
information
to

tactical and strategic level commanders in
real time
and regarding

the
total area of operations


A Knowledge
-
based,
Cognitive

Sensing System that
senses
changing
conditions and requirements
and
automatically

adapts to them


Optimized for specialized operational scenarios and requirements
:


The type of
scenarios
typically encountered in
developing countries


Asymmetric warfare
and operations other than war (
OOTW
)


Wide spectrum of objects of interest:

from large to very small:

requires very
high sensitivity


Objects of interest hidden amongst many similar ones:

requires
NCTR

and
Threat Estimation


Low force to space ratios
: requires
wide area coverage
from an
elevated, semi
-
geostationary platform


Small logistics tail
to allow cost effective operations when
deployed far from reliable
infrastructure


M
id
-
priced solution
: including the platform
,
sensors, processing
and through
-
life
cost

Page
17

AwareNet
Programme Strategy


Define
proposed
problem area

and
an
innovative
solution at system and subsystem levels

(
System:
C4ISR;
Subsystems:
Platform, Radar,
Electronic Surveillance, E
-
Opt, Data Fusion,
Classification, Threat Estimation, HMI)


Perform first order
feasibility studies
in each and define
first level questions


Start
the
Radar subsystem R&D
programme

using
existing national resources and funding streams:


CSIR
PG, SRP, EDERI
, DOD, …


Use Radar Surveillance system

to validate the
proposed functions
and

demonstrate value to users


Page
18

AwareNet Programme Strategy
(Continued)


Define a Technology Roadmap and obtain funding

for its
first phase from strategic and competitive funding sources:
locally and internationally


Invite

other subsystem teams to take part, each also
attracting
funding from their respective technology areas


Use
technology readiness model

to structure a
risk and
opportunity
driven
spiral development programme
with
base lines and stage gates


Evolve to
national
centres

of competence
producing a

Tier 1 system solution


Page
19

The CSIR AwareNet Programme:

Radar Technology Evolution Plan

Terrorism

Piracy

Poaching

Maritime
Air
Land
Target
Environment
Functional Demonstrator
40 km range
Mountain top
surveillance system
50 km range
Airborne surveillance
system 50 km range
Airborne surveillance
system 120 km range
System
Coverage
System
Functions
Detect
Track
Recognise
Assess
Threat
Disseminate
& Display
Decision
Support
Sense
First Focus: Maritime Environment

Page
20

Technical Progress to Date


Defined potential
application scenarios
and
user
requirements

for the AwareNet C4ISR system


Defined the AwareNet System
concept

and studied the
technical
feasibility

of each of the proposed major subsystems


Defined first order
functional

and
architectural concepts
for
the
radar
-
based long range sensor subsystem


Studying the latest
trends in radar techniques
that may be
used to obtain the required functions and performance


Using existing
national radar R&D facilities
to make
measurements of
realistic targets

in
realistic environments


Performing
R&D

on:


Automatic
small boat detection in sea clutter


Automatic
radar

target imaging and classification

Page
21

Small Boat
Detection in Sea Clutter


Developed
good knowledge
base on boat
detection


Collaborate and share data with international community


Applying knowledge to:


Radar design inputs for AwareNet


Small
boat detection mode for MECORT (ORT)


Designing
detection functions for RSR 210 and RSR 942
radars

Page
22

Radar Target Recognition


Many radars
are able
to
Detect and Track
targets:
few

provide
Recognition functions


Performing
research into
radar target recognition
:
Classifying

(into
class of target) and
Identifying

(specific type of target)


Techniques


2D Radar Imaging (ISAR)


High Range Resolution Sensing and Analysis


Rotor
Blade
and Propeller Modulation


Jet Engine Modulation


Application
:

AwareNet and other new
generation South African radars


Doppler bins
Doppler bins
Focus point of Iradon process
10
20
30
40
50
60
10
20
30
40
50
60
Page
23

Next Step: Add Experimental Development

to existing
Radar Research
Programme

CSIR SRP 2009 Type B Proposal

Aim:

Develop a
functional demonstrator

using existing experimental radars to build
and test a
breadboard system

(TRL 5)


MECORT radar laboratory with
small target detection,
tracking & recognition algorithms and waveforms


RSR940 (Spider)
with
improved small boat detection


New

data fusion, target tracking, classification,
analysis, sensor control and HMI subsystems

Experiment in a
realistic environment


(TRL 5) to
mature and validate AwareNet
system concept


Real anti
-
abalone poaching operation with
SANParks

in False Bay


General coastal surveillance automatically collecting
actionable intelligence

Page
24

Objectives of 2009 SRP Type
B contract:
AwareNet TD
0.5

Validate

proposed AwareNet
functions

and system concepts

using radar sensors

Accelerate and focus higher level
system research:

sensor fusion,
intent estimation, ergonomic HMI...

Focus subsystem R&D, provide
measured data and practical
experience in relevant environment

Enable
joint experimentation

with
users: develop
realistic URS

Develop user
understanding

and appreciation of value

Act as a
multi
-
sensor surveillance
technology demonstrator

and
research platform

for development,
integration and demonstration of other
disciplines: UAV, E
-
Opt, ES, IDE

National Interoperability Centre

Modular UAV

Electro
-
optics

Primary
Sensors
Secondary &
Auxilliary
Sensors
Sensor
Integration
Commander
View
Surveillance Display
and Sensor Control
MECORT
(Classification Radar)
Surveillance
Station
Commander
Station
Spider
(Search Radar)
Auxiliary Sensors
- AIS
- Air picture
Signal Intelligence
System
Electro-optic
Turret
UAV with
Electro-optics
Page
25

Information Processing and Display
Subsystem

-

2
D
/
3
D Display
(
JOOC
)
-

Track Classification
-

Track Association
-

Global Track No
Management
-

2
D
/
3
D Display
(
JOOC
)
-

Data
Fusion
-

T
arget
Identification
-

Display
-

Input
/
Output
-

Data Routing
-

Data Filtering
-

Logging
/
Playback
-

CGF
(
VGD
3
.
1
)
-

External Links
-

Links to other C
2
nodes
-

Debriefing
/
Analysis
Monolith
2
-

2
D
/
3
D Display
(
JOOC
)
-

Conflict Prediction
-

Resource Allocation
-

Target to Shooter
Association
Gateway
Track
Manager
Data
Fusion
Decision
Support
Sensor Tracks
Track Association
Info
Fused Tracks
(
Targets
)
Track Classification
Info
Link
(
s
)
to other C
2
Nodes
C
2
Node
C
2
Node
C
2
Node
C
2
Node
C
2
Node
C
2
Node
Operator
UI
Operator
UI
Global Track Management
.
Data Fusion
.
Automated Decision Support
C
2
Node

Generalize

existing air
defence control system


Ensure
compatibility

with IDE and national
C&C standards


Develop advanced
threat estimation
subsystem


Design ergonomic HMI
with plug
-
ins for
decision support

Page
26

Electronic Surveillance Subsystem


Acquire VHF, UHF and microwave

antenna array and receivers


Develop super resolution
angle
estimation algorithm

with performance
approaching the Cramer
-
Rao

bound


Develop
de
-
interleaving algorithms
for
cell phone and satellite phone
signals


Deploy and test
against cell and
satellite phone transmissions


Integrate

with AwareNet C4ISR system

Page
27

A South African
Innovation Cluster?

Part of National Aerospace

System of Innovation

Human Capital
Development


SARIG endorsement of AwareNet:

Nov
2008



Industry:

RRS,
Denel, S
Avitronics



Universities:

UCT, US



Institutes:

IMT, DPSS



DOD:

Armscor


International collaboration



UCL, U Pisa,
KSU
, KAU



Thales UK (Simon Watts)



DSTO
?



26 other users of radar

measurements on CSIR website



KACST in Saudi Arabia

Page
28

Summary

Importance of
S&T

for a modern country

Career paths
in science and engineering

Need for
situational awareness

and
evidence collection

in paramilitary
national security operations

The

AwareNet Persistent Ubiquitous
Surveillance Concept

and its unique
value proposition as a
South African Tier
1 Innovation

Questions and Discussion

Page
30

Commander
Workstation

MECORT

AwareNet TD 0.5 Functional Flow Diagramme

Multi
-
s
ensor
Fusion Subsystem


Target
Classification


Multiple Target
Filter & State

Est.


Resource Control


Target Detection

Multiple Target
Filter and State

Est.


AIS

RAP


CoastRad


LRID


E
-
Opt Imaging (Co
-
located)

E
-
Opt Imaging (
UAV/Aircraft
)

Multi
-
sensor

Target State

Estimation

Multi
-
sensor

Target

Classification

Target
Intent
Estimation

Commander
Display

Signal Intelligence

Signal
Classification


Angle
Tracking


System
Control

GIS

Map
and
Intelligence
Data Base

Commander
Decision Aids

SPIDER

Target Detection

Multiple Target
Filter & State

Est.

Page
31