Space Solar Power

pillowfistsΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

102 εμφανίσεις

Space Solar Power

Thomas Lynch

Boeing

Sun Tower Concept

15 kM bed length

3 GW output beam

< 5 cents/kW
-
Hr

$125B Fab Estimate

Microwave beam to
earth mounted
“Rectenna”

Introduction

Laser Beam to Existing Photovoltaic
Solar Array


Introduction

1. Concentrator focuses
sunlight on space
-
based
PV array

2. PV array powers laser diode

3. Laser diode pumps fibers

6. DC electricity

is converted to AC

7. Power is
distributed to
consumers

4. Light from fibers is fed to
optics and transmitted to Earth

5. Terrestrial PV receiver
array converts sunlight
to DC electricity

Satellite Concept of Operation


Two robots placed
symmetrically on
transmitter’s frontside



Robots move on a rail
connected at perimeter
and center

Robot assembles and

repairs transmitter modules

83,841,250 Radiating Elements

2.141 GW Radiated

Transmitter Face and Robot

Microwave (5.8GHz)

Solar Cell Efficiency vs Wavelength

Example:

Laser Diode Array achieves 40% with LASER SSP &
Photovoltaic ground Array

1kW/m
2


~ Sun on Earth


Typical earth
mounted solar
array has 14%
efficiency

Visible Light

(reference)

10

SSP Economic & Market Analysis Team

Economic and Market Factors
-

General Cost Findings



For 1996, U.S.


Generating costs for new plants averaged about 3.8 ¢/kWh
(EIA, 1997)



For ~ 2020, U.S.


A “reference case” for generation costs in 2020 is ~ 3.2 to
3.3 ¢/kWh


World Bank experts suggested an average generating
cost, ~ 2020, for rapidly growing economics, of ~ 5.5 ¢/kWh


Under following conditions:


Deregulation of foreign electric power markets


Resource inputs trade in a world market at world prices


Globalization of investment and technology


Interfuel competition holds costs down


14

SSP Economic & Market Analysis Team

Preliminary Observations
-

Market

1,738
695
1,043
China
OECD
Other Developing
World Energy Prospects to 2020
, IEA, 1998

Growth In
Electric

Capacity Supply

1995
-

2020 (GW
)

SPG Pointing Accuracy, Structural Control Trades


Pointing


Off pointing : % of capture (2 degrees of control)


Surface accuracy requires active control


1
-
2
o

for PV concentrator cells




Each concentrator needs its own control


Disturbance while pointing may impact WPT


Station keeping


Lifetime (40 yrs)


Rotating machinery


Concentrator Materials


Actuator control

Pat George


SSP must be managed by robotics


Installation


Perform maintenance


Affect repairs


All are imperative to achieve cost
objective of < 5 cents per kW
-
Hour

Robotics

LEMUR

L
egged
E
xcursion
M
echanical
U
tility
R
obot

LEMUR

A new type of
autonomous

n
-
pod walker
called

LEMUR

has been developed for
assembly, inspection, and maintenance.
This robot demonstrates multi
-
mode
operations (mobility, inspection, and
manipulation) with a modular and
multifunctional toolset.

LEMUR Configuration

4 DOF Hex Driver Leg

4 DOF Gripper Leg
w/ in
-
line camera
(Palm
-
cam)

3 DOF Gripper Leg

Stereo Cameras


Demonstrated fine manipulation
and tool based operations


Examined payload identification
methods


Implemented fiducial markers for
encoding payload identification,
orientation, and characteristics


Performed visual inspection of
payloads and robots

LEMUR

L
egged
E
xcursion
M
echanical
U
tility
R
obot


Three
-
fingered
manipulator
with
integrated
camera optics

Hex driver with
retractable foot


Accomplishments


Designed and integrated
LEMUR

mobile
platform


Developed a three
-
fingered manipulator
with compliant grasp adjustment for
manipulation of fine/delicate payloads


Developed a hex driver end
-
effector with
retractable foot


Developed a miniature macroscopic
imaging camera (Palm
-
cam) for
integration into grasping manipulator


Developed algorithms and computer code
for stereo vision and pattern recognition
using wavelet decomposition of fiducials


Demonstrated visual object and self
-
inspection using the Palm
-
cam


Current Work


Developing software for autonomous
navigation, inspection, and manipulation
of target

Hyper Redundant Intelligent Systems

Description


Develop small, identical robotic elements that can
accomplish tasks collectively that are well beyond the
capabilities of its individual members.


Approach


Utilize serpentine chain of linkages with integrated
computing, sensing, and power as testbed for
cooperative

robotics executing construction, inspection, and
maintenance

Participants

NASA
-

Haith, Wright, Loch, Thomas

CMU
-

Howie Choset

Industry
-

Randy Sargent (Newton Labs)


Technology Elements


Mechanism Configuration:
advanced actuators,
packaging, lightweight structure, power,
biomimetic skin


Single Robot Control:

force and redundancy
control strategies, communication, simulation &
modelling of hyper
-
redundant systems


Cooperative Robot Control:
Autonomy;Mobility
planning in complex structures, payload strategies,
data sharing/sensing




Hyper Redundant Intelligent Systems


Benefits


Highly Redundant (> 7 DOF) serial
link manipulator chains


Capable of long reach into highly
constrained spaces (trusses,
frames)


Capable of prehensile grasping,
limbless locomotion


Redundant to multiple joint failures


Research Challenges


Path and motion planning to
arbitrary locations in a complex 3D
structure using generalized voronoi
graph search

Actual system “flight proven” through successful
mission operations

Actual system completed and “flight qualified”
through test and demonstration (Ground or Flight)

System prototype demonstration in a space
environment


System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration
in a relevant environment (Ground or Space)

Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant
environment

Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory
environment

Analytical and experimental critical function and/or
characteristic proof
-
of
-
concept

Technology concept and/or application formulated



Basic principles observed and reported

System Test, Launch
& Operations

System/Subsystem
Development

Technology
Demonstration

Technology
Development

Research to Prove
Feasibility

Basic Technology
Research

TRL 9

TRL 8

TRL 7

TRL 6

TRL 5

TRL 4

TRL 3

TRL 2

TRL 1

Assessing Technology Readiness Levels