REVIEW: RFID SENSOR TECHNOLOGY RECENT TRENDS AND NEW CHALLENGES

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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REVIEW:
RFID

SENSOR

TECHNOLOGY

RECENT TRENDS AND NEW CHALLENGES



P M

Korake, G

B Waghmare, A

J
Nadaf and
M

K Bhanarkar *


Communication

Research Laboratory,

Department of Electronics,


Shivaji University, Kolhapur

416004,
India.

*
Email: mkb_eln@unishivaji.ac.in



Abstract:

R
FID sensor
s

are used i
n Agriculture

industries
,

F
ood industries
, Animal Tracking, Toll plaza

for toll collection
,
Industry control parameters
, Defense, Biomedical
field

etc. In
agriculture industries RFID offers significantly enhanced
efficiencies in data management, disease
making
outbreak
and inability to ensure national and international food safety in
food industries.

Using low frequency (LF) embedded
microchips

tags are

uniquely numbered providing global
identification of an individual animal for tracking.

Overall
applications of RFID sensors major role are running in
industry and society.
A new challenge for RFID sensor is

that
to
reduce the size
and
to
remov
e

the tag
of RFID sensor
. It
will be
merely useful to
increase

the communication distance

as well as gain

and

power dissipation
factor
.




History:

Radio Frequency Identification

system was started first from World War II in

1935

by Scottish physicist Sir
Robert Alexander Watson
-
Wat
.

Such technology was contains
transponder their range was limited. It is based on RF system.

Advances in radar and RF
communications systems conti
nued through the 1950 and 1960
.
I
mproved this RFID system
tag was used, tag consis
t of rewritable memory readable data is stored in this memory
.
System
processes the signals on real time and then sends

wirelessly using RF system use as UHF or
HF frequencies
. Later on such system was use low
-
f
requency (125

KHz
)

featuring smaller
transpon
ders. Th
eir transceiver range was small though such

RF
ID

system use was limited
during last 15 years.



Introduction:

Improving
RFID sensor technology used for many aspects in
Environment as
well as
human life.
In agriculture sector for food protection
and

grain tracking RFID
technology

have been used
.

Such sensor are using in f
ood industries for food protection
by
barcode system. RFID technology improves the food quality as well as protection means to
indicate expiry date of products
.

For defense applicati
on of RFID technology is to transmit
and receive secure data as well as tracking and identification
of object
.

For biomedical
application of RFID technology is to detect the real time sig
nal such temperature, ECG and
EEG signal monitoring
.
This is using
WBAN system.



RFID
sensor
products for use in animals include ultra high frequency (UHF)
visual ear
tags.

UHF tags and
low
frequency
microchip is

uniquely numbered
, providing identification
of an individual animal
.

RFID

technology in animal tracking
and

identification associated
with animal data records
to
storage of information that can be used to identify the animal
associated some basic information about it
. i.e. characteristics against other animals
.




Recent trends
:
A technological view RFID tags having two group of frequencies according
to carrier frequency
band:

Low Frequency

tags function at 125
-
134.2
K
Hz
where as High
frequency tags function at 13.56 MHz.

The selection of low frequency
band 134.2
K
Hz
frequency

as
the worldwide
carrier frequency for animal identification.

Using a RFID
technology animal diseases can
be easily detected and
reported

thus easily controlled
and
prevented

an
efficient response
. Using
this platform number

of animals and their genetic
platform
are
allocated properly.

The rewritable RFID tag
contains sense of an electronic ID
and corresponding identification information

this could introduce animal
tracking scheme
were identified.

Though the use of these plat
form holding and animal identification
parameters can be stored

these platform can control animal movement.

The platform is made
using central

data base system, Local database system and the mobile
-
RFID subsystem
.

The
central database needs to communicate
with local database, in order to assign
RFID numbers
and to collect
information about changes in the number of animals

(births, deaths, transfers).
Then collection of data about diseases can be easily detected.

Local database system contains
insertion of animal record, animal type, description, data of birth, date of purchase, ID of the
farm from where it was purchased, old animal identification code, data about parents

etc
is
formed

[1]
.







For Dairy c
ow monitoring
UHF RFID readers operating at
frequency 915 MHz and
RFID tags are attached to ear of cow.

Such RFID tags contain ear label with unique
identification number in the form of barcode
.
This

information collect using software
modules
for
acquisition and collection of data from RFID tags

d
ue to supervision of
milking cycle.
The
reading accuracy of RFID system in

the observed period was 99.8 % in average.
This RFID
system implemented for farm management system
in several factors of including

milking
cycles

[2]
.

The RFID system which can develop smart wireless soil monitori
ng sensor using
RFID technology. In this system consist of a temperature transducer, an RFID system and
microcontroller for data acquisition system and processing.

Using a
thermister or thermostat
temperature signals are provide to microcontroller for processing and acquisition
then fed to
RFID system. Transmission rage is
achieved less

than 1m.

Benefit of
this system

is low cost,
fast design
for wireless

prototype using dev
elopment of smart wireless sensor to improving
the sensor design and performance [3].

In Biomedical applications such RFID technology are
used for different parameters is monitoring such as ECG, body temperature. We form
such
Wireless Body Area Network
. In

this system contains Wearable RFID
-
enable sensor

node

frequency is
UHF
, data link
which is also wireless
. The RFID sensor contains Inkjet
-
printed
U
-

shape antenna as a transponder

their typical free space wavelength is around 30cm.

The
wearable RFID
-
enabled sensor nodes can find out real time monitoring and medical
monitoring

applications

[4]
.

In agriculture product and food security tracking system using for
tracking GPS a new RFID grain chip technology. The system will be find loc
ation of the grain
within fields.

This RFID grain chips will be developed using passive microchip technology.
Due to tracking stage
,

we will have the ability to write an
d read data from the grain chip. This
system improves the food security
and efficiency
of agricultural food supply chain [5].

RFID
system can be used for detection of pathogens in food for food
safety
.

In this system
microwave frequency tag at 5.8 GHz with a reduced antenna size and longer read range are
designed
so it increases the communic
ation distance

[
6
]
.
For factory level manufacturing
control parameters are done. So the RFID technology available for agent based industrial
control solutions

[7].

RFID
systems are

used for home security system. Processing
of
all
physical
signals

can perform
using
tags which are
attached to gate

or field
. To this gate
provide a specific identification code. Such a code is
providing

to given persons to live this
home
. If both codes are matches then such persons are allow to home.




RFID

tag types:
There are three types of RFID tags: active RFID tags, passive RFID tags,
and semi
-
passive RFID tags. Active RFID tags are typically larger and more expensive to
produce, since they require a power source. Active RFID tags broadcast their signal

to the
reader, and are typically more reliable and accurate than passive RFID tags. Since active
RFID tags have a stronger signal, they are more adept for environments that make it hard to
transmit other types of tags, such as under water, or from farther

away.

Passive RFID tags, on the other hand, do not have internal power supplies and rely on
the RFID reader to transmit data. A small electrical current is received through radio waves
by the RFID antenna, and power the CMOS just enough to transmit a resp
onse. Passive RFID
tags are more suited for warehousing environments where there is not a lot of interference,
and relatively short distances (typically ranging anywhere from a few inches to a few yards).
Since there is no internal power supply, passive RF
ID tags are much smaller and cheaper to
produce
.

There are three types of tags are used for animal identification


boluses, ear tags and
indictable glass tags which are injected under the skin. Boluses are capsules, incorporated a
radio frequency transpon
der.



In between these three RFID sensor
tag are used for

monitoring the
real time physical
signal

and wirelessly transfer to terminal point
. Terminal data access point contains digital
system (microprocessor or microcontroller) which can share these sig
nals from RFID sensors
.
So, these are the recent trends in all fields using RFID technology. This RFID sensor
technology contains tag is used. Tag is nothing but transducer and antenna which are packed
in single package. Antenna is used as transponder for transmit and receive d
ata for given
frequency.


Significance of RFID systems
:

Public transportation authorities will be able
to control and
secure all parameters using RFID system
.

RFID does not require
LOS (Line of site)
. The reader can communicate with the tag via
radio wave
s. An individual can potentially be identified and charged the right fare by simply
carrying the RFID smart
-
card in his/her pocket.

RFID equipment damage occurs much less frequently than is the case with magnetic
strips or bar codes present on Charlie Tic
kets.

The combination of all above mentioned advantages will result in improved
convenience and boost public transportation ridership
.

The New challenges in RFID system are that to reduce the size, increase communication
distance as well as increase gain a
nd accuracy of the system. There will be better way to use
this RFID sensor for all purpose in environmental aspect and human life. All characteristics
of objects are mounted in this sensor; if tracking and sensor parameters will be match then
signal will

be available to the system drastically.










-


---------

-



-------









Fig. Real time RFID Sensor Technology








Real time

Physical

Signal

RFID Tag

Sensor
s


Terminal
data
access
Point

Conclusion
:
As the survey
of RFID

system are used in all fields
. I
t
requires

RFID tags which
are mounted to given
field

for tracking as well as identification
, biomedical monitoring,

h
ome
security
.

RFID
system detects the real time signal
and

sends

to data access point
it share this
signal to all stations.

To improve the

performance
of system

we
have to
increase the
communication
distance,

size
reduction
. There will be gain, signal to noise ratio and power
dissipation across it
.

These RFID
sensors

may

easily available for communicatio
n and low
cost.

Remove of the RFID tag is

upcoming

challenge.


References
:


[1]
Athanasios S. Voulodimos, Charalampos Z. Patrikakis, Alexander B.
Sideridis
,

Vasileios
A. Ntafis, Eftychia M. Xylouri

“A complete farm management system

based on animal
identification
using RFID technology”

Computers and Electronics in

Agriculture 70,
380

388
,
2010
.

[
2
]

Stevan Stankovski, Gordana Ostojic, Ivana Senk, Marija Rakic
-
Skokovic, Snezana
Trivunic, Denis Kucevic “Dairy cow monitoring by RFID” Scie
ntia Agricola v.69, p75
-
80
,
Feb 2012.

[
3
] T.

K. Hamirtia, E.C. Hoffacker “Development of a ‘Smart’ W
ireless Soil Monitoring
Sensor P
rototype using RFID technology”.

Applied Engineering in Agriculture,
American Society
of Agricultural

Engineers
,

vol. 21(1): 139
-
143.

[
4
]
Li Yang, Rushi Vyas, Amin Rida, Jonathan Pan and Manos M. Tentzeris “Wearable
RFID
-
Enabled

Sensor Nodes For Biomedical App
.


Electronic Components and

Technology Conference
,
978
-
1
-
4244
-
2231
-
2008 IEEE.

[
5
]
R. Hornbaker, V. Kindrat
enko and D. Pointer “An RFID Agriculture Product and Food
Security

Tracking System Using GPS and Wireless Technologies”

[
6
]


Subramanian Nambi, Sheshidher Nyalamadugu,

Stuart M. Wentworth and Bryan A. Chin
“Radio Frequency Identification Sensors”
.


[
7
]

Pavel Vrba, Filip Macurek, Vladimır Marık “Using radio frequency identification

in
agent
-

b
ased control systems for industrial applications” Engineering Applications

of
Artificial

Intelligence 21
,

331

342
, 2008
.


[8]
Luis Ruiz
-
Garcia, Loredana Lunadei


Th
e role of RFID in agriculture: Applications,
limitations and challenges


Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 79 42

50

2011.

[9]

Tomás Sánchez López “
RFID and sensor integration standards: State and future
prospects

Computer Standards & Interfaces 33
207

213 2011
.

[10]

Xiaowei Zhu, Samar K. Mukhopadhyay, Hisashi Kurata


A review of RFID technology


and its managerial applicationsin different industries


Journal of Engineering and


Technology Management
,
29 152

167

2012.

[11]
A. R. Al
-
Ali,
Fadi A. Aloul, Nada R. Aji, Amin A. Al
-
Zarouni, Nassar H. Fakhro




Mobile RFID Tracking System


[12]
Luvisi A., Panattoni A., Bandinelli R., Rinalde
lli E., Pagano M., Triolo,


Implanting


RFIDs into Prunus to facilitate electronic identific
ation in support of

sanitary



certification

. Biosystems Engineering 109 (2), 167

173
2011
.