An examination of the barriers Irish businesses face in the adoption of Near Field

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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An examination of the barriers Irish businesses face in the adoption of Near Field
Communication technology

Brian Geaney, Mary Toomey, Chunyang Wang, Christopher Duke


Abstract

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a burgeoning technology that many are expecting to become
industry standard in the field of mobile commerce. A number of companies
are
experimenting with
this technology, including Google, Samsung and Nokia
.

H
owever
,

as wi
th any new technology
,

there
are issues
related

to the

adoption

of NFC into mainstream use
. In this paper we examine current
barriers to Irish businesses attempting to add value to their core business function by adopting

NFC

technology
.
Based on a series
of interviews, w
e provide
some

recommendations for
business
managers wishing to take
full
adva
ntage of the business benefits of NFC technology.



Introduction

Technologies based around the Near Field Communication (
NFC) standard are set to become
prevalen
t over the coming years, with many experts expecting them to become the most common
means of electronic payment in mobile commerce transactions
(
Rose 2012)
. The NFC standard is
ISO
-
based and builds on existing radio
-
frequency identification (RFID) communication protocols. It
also incorporates standar
ds used for contactles
s card technology (NFC Forum 2011
).


Visa’s payWave is one example of contactless card technology and can be used to make low
-
value
purchases by holding a payWave enabled debit or credit card in front of a card reader without having
to sign or enter a PIN number. The incorporation of contactless card standards into the NFC standard
means that an NFC
-
enabled mobile device is compatible with a contactless card reader and can be
used in place of a contactless card. As an example of this,

Visa have recently approved a number of
NFC
-
enabled smartphones for use with payWave, allowing users to make payments by holding their
smartphones next to the contactless reader rather than using their credit or debit cards. (
Visa 2012
).


Although these t
wo technologies may seem indistinguishable to a user making a payment, unlike
contactless card technology, the NFC standard allows for bidirectional and peer to peer
communication. This means that it has the potential for a wider range of business applicat
ions, such as
device pairing and ‘smart’ posters, leading some to predict that there will soon be a NFC revolution

(Borrego
-
Jaraba et al. 2012)
. However, despite such predictions, there is a lack of research into the
managerial aspects of NFC and contactless technology
(Ozdenizci et al. 2012)
. In particular there is
no research which examines the positive and negat
ive experiences of businesses adopting such
technologies. The aim of this paper is try and help to fill this void by exploring the factors that might,
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from the perspective of businesses adopting the technology (business adopters) and businesses
providing N
FC/contactless technology services (service providers), inhibit and facilitate the adoption
of these two technologies in the Irish market. The goal is to increase awareness among managers of
the issues they may face when deciding to adopt these technologie
s for loyalty schemes, mobile
payments etc and also to highlight to service providers any factors that have the potential to inhibit
their uptake.


For this study the literature was reviewed in order to identify papers that examined the adoption of
contact
less technologies,
in particular research

that focused on the adoption of RFID, contactless
cards and NFC technologies. This review elicited five research questions relating to the potential
adoption of contactless technologies that were then used to devel
op questions for semi
-
structured
interviews. Interviews were conducted with representatives from five contactless card/NFC service
providers, eight business adopters and one company specialising in NFC consultancy services, all
based in Ireland. The perspe
ctives obtained via the interviews were triangulated in order to identify
common themes and determine which factors the interviewees felt can inhibit and facilitate the
adoption of these technologies. The factors brought to light as a result of this resear
ch will be of use to
businesses who plan to use contactless technologies to add value to their core business function. This
research also reveals economic, infrastructural and educational issues among some business adopters
which may inhibit uptake in Irel
and and will be of concern for contactless technology service
providers.



Contactless cards and NFC

Contactless smart cards use radio frequency technology based around ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC
7816 standards in order to communicate with a card reader (RE
F Smart Card Alliance FAQ). When
the card comes within less than 10cm of the reader
,

the reader’s electromagnetic field powers up the
card and allows the transfer of data to and from the card. Cards can therefore be used to make
contactless payments and tr
ansactions. Example uses of contactless smart cards include Visa’s
payWave, which is touted to replace chip
-
and
-
pin for making payments, and Transport for London’s
Oyster card, which is used as a replacement for paper tickets on London buses and tubes.


NF
C is a short
-
range, wireless communication technology that is built around the same ISO/IEC
standards as contactless smart cards
(Innovision Research and Technology 2011)
. However NFC
incorporates an additional standard


ISO18092


which defines protocols specific to NFC
(ISO
2011b)
. The NFC standard was developed for use in modern smartphones and related devices and was
built around earlier ISO/IEC RFID/smart card standards in order to allow NFC technol
ogies
to
integrate with and potentially

replace existing contactless infrastructures.


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Both technologies allow two devices which are in close proximity (between 4cms to 10 cms) to
exchange data
(Ortiz Jr., 2006; NFC Forum 2011
)
. Their similarities are such that a user would notice
little difference between paying for goods with a
smart card such as
Visa
’s

payWave debit card and an
NFC
-
enabled smartphone with the Visa payWave app insta
lled.
However, a
lthough these two
technologies may seem indistinguishable, the NFC standard allows for bidirectional and peer to peer
communication meaning that it has the potential for a wider range of business applications, such as
device pairing and ‘sm
art’ posters.
In addition, w
hereas
contactless cards
may require some human
interaction, such interaction is not necessary when using

NFC
(Ondrus & Pigneur 2007)
.


NFC
is argued to offer

the user a stress free

method of purchasing goods
or services (Falke, e
t al,
2007) but
appears to have

many
potenti
al uses beyond
commerce and marketing.
Other technologies
such as Bluetooth and Infrared have been used in the past for mobile payments but they do not offer
the additional benefits that NFC provides. NFC offers users the ability to interact with NFC enabl
ed
objects such as smart posters
(Ondrus & Pigneu
r 2007)
. Businesses can interact with their customers
in a new way by offering them new methods of payment, faster transactions times (as customers can
pay for any goods by tapping their phone to a terminal) and less waiting times. In fact the consumer
can even pay for an item with the

NFC device in a handbag or wallet, as long as

it is in close
proximity to the terminal
(Zmijewska 2005)
. At peak times during the day for example lunch (12 to
14) NFC would enable faster throughput of transactions and smaller queues. This would be of benefit
to both parties involved in the tran
sactions
(Carton et al. 2012)
.



These

potential

benefits have

been recognised by
electronics giant Broadcom who recently acquired
Innovision Research &
Technology, a
UK
-
based NFC

research and d
evelopment company
(
http://www.broadcom.com/press/release.php?id=s486672
). Accordi
ng to a whitepaper published by
Innovision, t
here are three main

areas in which NFC will be most prominent (Innovision Research and
Technology 2011). These are:


Service initiation


The
consumer uses a device which is NFC enabled
and holds it against an NFC
tag to get

information
. An example of this
would be embedding

a NFC chip into a
movie poster so
that

by waving
their

phone over this chip, a

customer could retrieve showing times and purchase

a
ticket for the next showing of the movie (Leong et al. 2006
;
(Ondrus & Pigneur 2007)
.


Peer
-
to
-
peer


NFC could be
used to transfer a small amount of information from one device to
another. This technology will be of more use when it can be linked to technologies such as Bluetooth
(Innovision Research

and Technology 2011)
. An example
would be an individual taking

a photo on
their

NFC
-
enabled

device

phone
. To print the picture, the user
would
hold

it

against a printer which is
NFC
-
enabled
in order to establish
a Bluetooth connection to
allow
transfer
of
the pictures to be
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printed
(Innovision Research and Technology 2011)
. This

type of

integration with Bluetooth w
ould be
very useful as
,

according to Blochlinger (2012),
NFC
-
based transmission of data is slow.


Payment & ticketing


NFC

would allow users to use their phones as a ticket as well as giving them
the opportunity to check the credit on their phone to see if they have
funds for their next journey.

In
fact mobile paym
ents are very compatible with ticketing
(Mohammadi & Jahanshahi 2008)
.

In 2007,
NFC trials were carried out in relation to train tick
ets on the Berlin to Hannover line in Germany.
Under th
is scheme, users were given NFC
-
enabled
mobile phones and these phones we
re used to
interact with touch points located at each station
. E
very month the user
would receive

a bill for their
monthly trave
l (G
rassie, 2007). Deutsche Bahn h
ave

since announced that this

trial was a success

and

have expanded

the service

to include the integration of the Frankfurt urban area and any railway
stations within the Rhein Main Verkehrsverbunds
(Deutsche Bahn 2011)
.


Adoption of NFC & related technologies

The mobile phone h
as evolved greatly over the last number of years. It was once a technology that
was predominantly used by those on a significant wage packet (Lacohée et al. 2005). Now it is used
by people from all socio
-
economic backgrounds and it is seen by many people
as an essential tool in
modern day living
(Lacohée

et al. 2005)
. As the mobile phone has developed, attitudes to its use have
also developed. Where once its primary use was for communication, it has become a multi
-
functional
device. People now use their phones for a variety of different reasons inclu
ding taking pictures and
videos, surfing the web and playing games (Falke, et al 2007). According to Leong et al (2006), NFC
is considered to be the best way of consolidating mobile handsets with mobile commerce (m
-
commerce). In fact mobile payments are s
een to be a great prospect for both mobile and non
-
mobile
services and products
(Chen & Adams 2004)
.


NFC is seen to be of great benefit to the area of m
-
commerce especially for in store

purchases
(Leong
et al. 2006)
. H
owever
, it is

a relatively new technology to Ireland and
,

unsurprisingly,

the security of
payments made via NFC is a talking point
within the payment industry
(Chen & Adams 2004)
.
Falke
et al (2007) undertook a small study which involved twenty people using NFC to pay for items. Of
these people, ninety percent were not deterred by security conce
rns and likened it to making a phone
call. Eighty percent also stated that they would like to see the more controls in relation to the NFC
scanner on the mobile, suggesting on/off functionality similar to that in place for Bluetooth. In fact
within Falke
et al’s (2007) study the general cons
ensus was that it would be beneficial

for individuals
to be able to use their mobile phones for everyday practices such as paying for items
(Falke et al.
2007)
.


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In order to adopt a new technology such as NFC a user must be willing

to accept any perceived or
actual risks associated with the technology. Research has shown that the

higher the level of risk
associated with

accepting a

new technology the
greater the chance that it will not be adopted by the
public

(Gefen, Srinivasan Rao, et al. 2003)
. If a user trusts a service provider then they may be more
willing to accept the
accept the risks involved and adopt the new technology (Gefen, Srinivasa
n Rao,
et al. 2003). By making the
adoption
process
as easy as possible, the degree to which a user trusts
their service provider

can be increased, thereby offsetting any perceived risk
(Gefen, Karahanna, et al.
2003)

.


At the beginning of a relationship perceived risk is more influential to adoption than that of trust
(Gefen, Srinivasan Rao, et al. 2003),
but
trust is more important over the life time of the relationship
an
d this is an important factor for the comp
anies involved in providing
service
s such as NFC

(Gefen,
Srinivasan Rao, et al. 2003; Luo et al. 2010)
.
Trust has been shown to be a factor that can have an
influence on a person’s intention to use a service (Shin
2009).
While service and trust are extremely
important factors in adopting a technology, these factors play an even more important part when a
monetary transaction is involved
(Mohammadi & Jahanshahi 2008)
.


Mayer et al

(Mayer

et al. 1995)

define trust as “
the willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the
actions of

another

party

based

on

the

expectation

that

the

other

will

perform

a particular

action

important

to

the

trustor,

irrespective

of

the

ability

to monitor

or control

that

other party
”.
This
action

would be outside
of
the

control of the original party.
With a party such as a company that provides a
service such a
s NFC
,

the intention of
gaining
trust would be to continue that relationship over time
and that, in turn
,

would encourage greater trust (Hart & Saunders 1997). By making the
adoption
process easy
,

a company can

introduce
greater trust between themselves a
nd their customers

(Gefen,
Karahanna, et al. 2003).


Grassie (2007) suggests
that the main issue that will affect the acceptance of NFC technologies is

whether

users
will worry about the

security
of their details within their mobile phone.

Grassie (2007)
a
gues

that a
s

user
s


details will be up on the cloud
they

will be safe from a potential thief.
Likewise,
Ortiz Jr

(2006) points out that due to the fact that the tw
o NFC devices have to be held in

such a close
proximity, it would be difficult to intercept the signals. Chen an
d Adams (2004) believe that
government
s need

to play a part in providing information on NFC

and its security
, arguing that

government
s need

to create gui
delines and regulations

for the

industry
.


Personal privacy is seen as an important factor for individuals when they are using electronic
commerce and the fear of losing personal data could lead to a low level of adoption amongst certain
types of user

(Wu & Wang 2005)
. To overcome this, it is important that all the parties involved in the
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service
inform
users of the different precautio
ns that they have in place to stop any misuse of the
system
(Shin 2009; Luo et al. 2010; Wu & Wang 2005)
. Having th
is info
rmation readily available for
co
ncerned
customers will allow
those
customers to reassure themselves

about

any of the perceived
risks
of using the service
.
Mor
e educated users will be more confident, thereby reducing

the fear they
might feel about
their personal d
ata being used in a way that could

compromise the trust they have in
the
ir service provider

(Hart & Saunders 1997)
. This, over time, will give better credibility to the
companies involved.


Mass Media is very important in helping or a hindering the adoption of a technology
(López
-
Nicolás
et al. 2008)
. Media coverage can provide individuals with an intensified
perception of risk
via

the
circulation of stigmatizing images. It has been noted that RFID has suffered at th
e hands of the media
and
the media’s
view of how secure the technology really is
(Thiesse 2007)
. Thiesse (2007) points
out that since 2003, RFID has become simultaneously linked to risk and privacy

issues

thanks to
many articles in the media. This coverage has altered
public perception to the point that when any
company has announced the use of RFID as part of their business process, pressure groups have come
out f
ighting against
its introduction
. E
xamples of companies who have dropped RFID strategies due
to pressure gr
oups include Benetton/Philips, Wal
-
Mart/Gillette, Tesco Gillette and Metro.
However
Thiesse (2007) notes that while RFID has had low acceptance rates, related technologies such as NFC
are perceived to have a lower risk as they are not seen to be part of th
e RFID family.


The level of perceived risk that a person might feel towards a technology such as NFC can have a
bearing on how likely a person might

be to

accept it
(Schierz et al. 2010)
.

Perceived usefulness can

also

be a factor that outweighs any perceived risks that might be associated with the technology
(Luo
et al. 2010)
.
Perceived usefulne
ss along with

perceived ease of use are

argued to be

the two primary
factors in the acceptance of new

technology
(Davis, et al, 1989).

Ease of use is seen as being

extremely important and it is a factor
that has the potential to influence rates of adoptio
n of NFC and
related technologies.
In a high consum
ption area for mobile commerce

such as Taiwan, 99.0% of
mobile users’ state the reason for using mobile
commerce
is because of convenience
(Wu & Wang
2005)
.
Given that NFC
can be very intuitive and accessible
(Reveilhac & Pasquet 2009)

it has been
suggested that
it

can be very useful for consumers and businesses alike
,

for example
, by allowing
people

to

avoid queues,
reducing

time pressure (tap and go) and for small goods a lack of cash is no
longer an issue
(Mohammadi & Jahanshahi 2
008)



In certain circumstances there may be
adoption issues related to cost,

as a user may need to purchase a
particu
lar mobile device, such as a NFC
-
enabled smart phone
,

to make full use of the facilities that
NFC provides
(Carton et al. 2012)
. Carton

et al.

(2012)

point

out that this is an important factor for
businesses as they may need to purchase new terminals
in order
to enable NFC payments in their
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stores
.

However the advantages that NFC offers
,

such as less of a need to handle cash on the premises
as well as shorter queues due to quicker transactions
,

may lead to more merchants adopting this
technology
(Zmijewska 2005)
.


As there are addition
al costs, which may be high
, transaction cost
s
may be

passed
on
to consumers
which could
lower potential consumers’ willingness to adopt m
-
commerce
, as over charging the price
of mobile payments makes consumer less willing to use mobiles

(Mallat, N. 2007)
. Price can be used
as an incentive
by

businesses in order to attract and retain customers. As
Bouwman et al
(H.
Bouwman et al. 2005, p.6)
. state,
“for adoption and actual usage of the service the perceived customer
value must balance or exceed the price of the service”
.

(Mallat, N. 2007)
.

Mallat (2007) suggests
pricing models should be carefully analysed and selected
by mobile payment providers ain order to
help
ensure the success of c
ompanies’ service.


Research Questions

The literature review above highlights a number of areas that appear to have the poten
tial to influence
whether
b
usinesses will adopt NFC,
these being NFC as a payment method, security, media coverage,
ease of use and perceived value. In order to examine the perception of these issues by Irish businesses
the
authors ident
i
fied the
following research questions:


1.

Will NFC enabled mobile phones
be widely accepted as a payment method?

2.

Will security influence businesses when it comes to the adoption of NFC?

3.

Will the media play a critical role in the adoption of NFC?

4.

How might the benefits of ease of use lead to an increase in the adoption of NFC
tr
ansactions?

5.

Will the perceived val
ue an individual gains from

NFC increase the likelihood of adoption
regardless of the costs involved?


These questions were used as the basis for for semi
-
structured interviews of providers and business
users of NFC and co
ntactless card technologies. The research methodology and results of this research
are outlined in the following sections.


Research methodology

The authors conciously chose not to
use a

predefined technology adoption model, such as Davis’s
(Davis 1986)

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
, to examine the adoption of NFC

and contcatless
cards
.
A number of
researchers
have argu
ed that TAM i
s not fully suitable for every aspect of
technology adoption
(Davis & Venkatesh 2000; Malhotra & Galle
tta 1999; H.
-
W. Kim et al. 2007
)
.
This i
s mainly
due to the fact that research suggests

other factors
play a greater role in the adoption of
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-


technology today,
such as trust and cost
(Gefen, Karahanna, et
al. 2003; H.
-
W. Kim et al. 2007
)
.
However the importance of ease of use was identified as being significant in the adoption of new
technologies,
something rec
ognised in

Davis
’s model

(1989) as well as

by

others
(C. Kim et al. 2010;
Davis et
al. 1989)
.


Instead, the authors chose to review the literature to determine factors that have affected the adoption
of technologies similar to NFC, for example RFID. The aim was to determine if NFC and contactless
cards would have similar adoption iss
ues. This review elicited five research questions relating to the
potential adoption of contactless technologies that were then used to develop questions for semi
-
structured interviews.
The

decision was made to speak to
Irish
businesses that were in various stages
of
the
adoption and issuing of
NFC and
contactless card

technology with the aim of identifying
factors that may also influence the
ir

adoptio
n. B
usinesses
ranged from those who were issuing

NFC
-
enabled

loyalty tags to
businesses who are involved in the forthcoming contactless payment sche
me
which is being undertaken by

Irish
banks.


At present there is only
small scale usage of this technology in
the Irish market and, a
s already stated
,

a limited amount of
literature ha
s been published with regards

to the factors that influence the
adoption of NFC and contactless payments. This in turn means that
this r
esearch wa
s

exploratory
in
nature
(Zikmund 2003)
.
However, u
se of interviews to examine
the adoption of technology
in its
introductory stage
is a method
that has been used

successfully

by other researcher
s (see

for example
Mallet 2007)
.


The aim
was to try to get high q
uality data from principal actors within th
e industry, these actors
ranging from businesses adopting NFC
-
enabled
loyalty tag
s

to
banks providing payment services.
As
the authors began the process of identifying businesses
in Ireland
who were involved in NF
C, it was
noted that although some businesses have used this technology others have begun to use contactless
technology i.e. close proximity cards; which have minor differences but the process of the transaction


tap and go
-

is essentially the same to th
e consumer
(ISO
2011a; ISO 2011b)
. Through the research
process, businesses and companies that were involved in NFC or contactless technologies in Ireland
were identified.
A total of fourt
een companies in Ireland were i
dentified for interview, of which five
were servic
e providers, one was an NFC consultancy firm and eight were businesses who were using
or had used NFC or contactless technology service from one of the five service providers (see
Table
1
).
It
was decided that only one author

w
ould contact each business as it enabled that business to have
only one main point of contact rather than three different ones.


Table
1
: List of businesses interviewed about NFC adoption

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-


Name

Business Sector

Provider or user of NFC

Provider 1

Finance and Banking

Provider

Provider 2

Finance and Banking

Provider

Provider 3

Finance and Banking

Provider

Provider 4

Finance and
Banking

Provider

Provider 5

IT Service provider

Provider

Expert 1

Consultancy

Expert

User 1

Retail

User

User 2

Retail

User

User 3

Retail

User

User 1

Retail

User

User 5

Retail

User

User 6

Retail

User

User 7

Retail

User

User 8

Retail

User


A number of different businesses who have used
a NFC
-
enabled loyalty tag offered by

Provider 5
were selected at random and although it is understood that there are connections amongst the
businesses, to the knowledge of the authors, the individual business
es interviews were not influenced
by
other interviewees.
F
ormer business users of the Provider 5 loyalty tag were also contacted in order
to find out their experiences
-

both positive and negative
-

in using the NFC enabled tag.

Service
providers included
banks, card providers, and merchant services

companies

who were involved in the
process of introducing contactless payment solutions into the Irish market. Potential business users
who would be involved in the decision making process of whether or not to u
se this technology in
their busin
ess were also interviewed in order
to find out how they were planning on promoting it
throughout their various different premises.


I
nter
views were carried out over a ten

week per
iod.
All

inter
views with the exception of o
ne

were
conducted on a one to one basis.
These interviews were semi
-
structured and the aim was to ensure
that the questions

which were sent to the

interviewees were of a similar nature as it allowed for
consistency in analysing the data. In this regard the

objective was to extrapolate any links between the
interview results. The semi
-
structured nature of the interviews allowed the interviewer to look for
elaboration on certain answers that were given, this method has been carried out by previous
researchers

(Mallat, N. 2007)
. It also allowed for the interviewee to expand on answers which
potentially permitted the interviewers t
o gain extra information that would not have been initial
ly
taken into consideration when

the questions were develope
d. These interviews lasted approximately
-

10
-


thirty

minutes and many were conducted via telephone as there was no opportunity to have face to
face meetings due to timing and geographical distance however there was the opportunity to
undertake one face

to face interview. Due to the fact that
the majority of

the interviews
were

carried
out over the phone, the interviewer was unable to record all of the information and instead had to
make notes. The only

incentive that

was offered to the interviewees was access to the
published
results of this research
. The in
terviewers ensured that the meetings were arranged at a time which
suited the intervi
ewees.



The timing of the research was extremely
fortuitous

as the introduction of contactless payments was

in its infancy; this allowed

to interview
s to take place

durin
g

the adoption process. Once the
interviews had been carried out the authors set about
collating

the data
and

summarising it into a
readable format
(Beecham et al. 2008)
. Similar themes were then identified from all of the interviews
in order

to see if there was a gen
eral consensus on key areas
which in turn would
help
answer the
research questions
identified

as part of the literature review
(Beecham et al. 2008)
. The authors also
looked to see if there was any divergence of opinions between the providers and the businesses
themselves. The
process of triangulation was adopted in analysing the data, in that multiple interviews
were conducted and using the data a set of comparable results were identified
(Jick 1979)
. This
allowed the
authors to identify if there were

any links between the businesses and their outlook of
how

NFC
and contactless technologies would fare

in the Irish.


Res
ults


Will NFC enabled mobile phones be
widely accepted as a payment method?

Many of the interviewees fe
l
t

that the mobile phone will be a dominant electronic payment method. In
fact Provider 4 and Provider 2
believe
d

that there is a natural progression to this technology and
according to Provider 4, by 2020 over half of the electronic transactions in busi
nesses will be
performed by NFC
-
enabled mobile phones. A number of businesses (Provid
er 5, Provider 1 and User
3) f
e
l
t

that the introduction of Google wallet will aid adoption as NFC technology enables people to
have multiple card information on the one device
via such
services
(Shin 2009)
.


The phone is becoming a more intricate part of people’s daily lives in that individuals are less likely
to leave their phone at home than their wal
let. Provider 5 loyalty tag users
we
re already experiencing
the bene
f
i
ts of using one

loyalty tag in multiple locations
.

It was mentioned by a number of
interviewees that Provider 5 may have been ahead of its time,
which

may have led to some businesses
hav
ing some issues related to its implementation

(see later)
. User 1 stated that
such technologies make
it is easier for individuals

to function
,

as
they have eve
rything they need on their phone,

which is seen
as an important factor for general technology acc
eptance (Davis et al. 1989).


-

11
-


In Ireland contactless cards are b
eing introduced sooner than NFC
-
based mobile phones as a payment
option however according to Provider 3, some countries will adopt mobiles straight away rather than
starting with cards.

In sp
ite of the optimism

surround the introduction of contactless cards
, Provider 1
pointed out that some consumers would be more interested in having

a separate card to their phone
because h
aving all of your information on one device introduced one point of fa
ilure that many
individuals would find disconcerting. This could be a potential risk of losing everything on that device
if it is lost or stolen.


Will security influence businesses when it comes to the adoption of NFC?

One
interesting observation

that ema
nated out of the interview process was the perception of security
by those interviewed. Provider 1 pointed out that having less cash on the premises lessened the risk of
theft (for example
, at a

24/7 service station). User 3 and Provider 4 did not see secu
rity for consumers
to be a major issue. However
,

User 3 did state that communication between the two devices may be
an issue.


Security related to NFC is seen by many of the businesses involved in the field as being a minor factor
as such a small amount ca
n be spent via contactless payments. A limited daily usage allowance exi
sts
as part of
contactless technology
. F
or example
,

a consumer can use the co
ntactless section of the card
a maximum of

three times a day before random pin checking comes into effect.
Provider 3 did not see
any extra risks with this technology
when compared to a

credit card,
as
it could be cancelled and there
is only a minimal amount which could be spent per transa
ction. Also most businesses felt that the
random pin check would

deter mo
st illegitimate individuals (for example those who have stolen the
card) from using the device. Unlike RFID, contactless cards and NFC are limited to a small range of 4
to 10 cms
(
NFC For
um 2011
; Ortiz Jr., 2006)

which will reduce the risk of another device
intercepting the communication between the card and the reader. User 2 said that while there have
been security issues in the UK,
they believed that contactless transactions were
still safer than a chip
and pin
.


Most of the businesses
interviwed
felt that the security in place was ample to alleviate the fears people
may have related to the security of NFC between the limited value of transactions and the random
checks that can com
e into effect. Aside from minor issues most businesses dismiss
ed

the idea that
sec
urity is an important factor in the adoption of

NFC.


Will the media play a critical role in the adoption of NFC?

Technology such as RFID has already had the media exposing i
ssues that are related to its use
(Thiesse 2007)
. Provider 3 pointed out that in the UK, Barclays Bank has done a lot of work in
promoting NFC technology. User 1 agreed with this sentiment stating that she had learned everything
-

12
-


that she knew about NFC from the UK media.

Du
ring the course of this research project, news stories
relating

to NFC were becoming more prominent. While the majority of these were positive towards
the ad
option of NFC, a minority of the
se stories exposed issues related to the security of NFC. An
exampl
e of this was shown within a Channel 4 newscast where the information on a close proximity
card was captured by an individual us
ing a NFC
-
enabled mobile phone and this information was then
used to purchase an item through a major online retailer
(Channel 4 2012
)
. These stories were
mentioned by some of the businesses that were interviewed o
ver the course of the research, showing

that even the people involved in this technology are aware of how influential the news media
can
influence

its adop
tion.


It
was also

mentioned by a number of interviewees that the area of social media will have a significant
influence on users. This is due to the fact that one
negative
comment on an issue which an individual
may have with contactless payments, when pu
t on a social media site
such as

Facebook or Twitter can
spread extremely quickly and can be seen by a vast amount of people. Social media sites are seen as
an important marketing tool for many companies and can play a role in how a product, service or
tec
hnology is viewed by the general public. This
suggests
that
the
media will
have an important
influence in the

adoption

of NFC
.




How might the benefits of ease of use lead to an increase in the adoption of NFC transactions?

User 5, who issued

Provider 5
’s loyalty tag

to customers
,
stated that issuing the loyalty tag was easier
because it saved the company from

having to purchase cards and create printers to stamp them. They
had a ready
-
made

loyalty t
ag that they could issue to
consumers and that the cons
umers could use
until it wore out. In that case a new tag would be issued to the customer and points transferred over.


In relation to contactless cards, those who were involved (from all sector
s
) noted that it would make
life easier for the businesses inv
olved. Provider 1 pointed out that the transaction time would speed up
significantly with Provider 3, User 2, User 3 and Provider 2 a
ll agreeing that the use of
contactless
cards can reduce

how much time was spent at
points of
purchase. Provider 2 also
pointed

out that
there could be two cards, one for tap and go and one for normal

chip and pin

transactions which
according to User 2 would allow for better throughput.


User 3
mentioned that there will be more convenience involved in the future for mobile
devices when
a phone can deal with payment, loyalty and access details. However
users of Provider 5’s loyal
ty tags
have had some concerns with the technology, especially in terms of operational issues. This occurred
for a n
umber the businesses in that

loya
lty points
may not have transferred to their customers’ loyalty
tags
. Another problem for businesses was that the same phone line was used for credit/debit card
-

13
-


terminals as for the Provider 5 terminal. In the case of U
ser 1, this caused issues as they

onl
y had one
phone
line for the terminal
. This meant that
if a customer paid by
debit
card but also want to use their
loyalty tag, User 1

would have to switch the wires for the terminals
causing

a delay in the customer’s
transaction
.


A lack of education was

als
o apparent for some users of

Provider 5
’s loyalty tag. I
n the case of User
7, only sal
es people were trained to accept the tags when customers were paying for products. I
n the
event that

no sales people were available, other members of staff were unabl
e to process loyalty
points. In general, all business
es were enthusiastic about using a technology such as NFC for payment
transactions due to the speed and benefits it brings to the transaction process
,

even though s
ome
businesses had ceased using
Provide
r 5
’s

loyalty tag due to the aforementioned problems. Businesses
that had no experience with NFC were also enthusiastic about using the technology within their
businesses.


Will the perceived value an individual gains on contactless transactions increase
the likelihood of
adoption regardless of the costs involved?

A major

concern for companies
wishing to use contactless technologies
is cost
, meaning the
technology’s ability to
add value
to a business
is

not
immediately evident
.

One of the main issues that
some businesses stated was that they had already invested in the Europay, MasterCard, Visa (EMV)
chip and pin terminals and now they need to upgrade these terminals to incorporate contactless
payments. User 2 commented that the new terminals could be a sig
nificant cost depending on whether
the terminals have been rented or are owned by the r
etailers. If renting, there would

be an increase in
the rent however for those who own their own terminals, the cost of the updates could be as high as
€1000.


Another
cost associated with the adoption of this technology is that there will be an incre
ase in
transaction cost by approximately

60%. This may mean that some retailers will try to
add sur
charges
to
offset
the cost of a transaction. This is something that
Provid
er
4 was

strongly agains
t, arguing that
it
would discourage
customers

from
using NFC
.
A number of business
es

mentioned

that the speed
that

NFC transactions
can
bring to business in certain sectors
,

such as the fast food industry and
coffee shops
,

is a very attractive benefit. NFC also allows for better throughput and
,

hence, speeds up
the queuing process. For example if a consumer wants to use their card to purchase an inexpensive
item, they can tap and go rather than using the chip and pin format
.


Provider 1 also pointed out that a major value to NFC transactions is that if there is less cash then
shop premises are less likely to be the target of theft.

In certain sectors such as the food industry, there
are benefits to the retailers in that they

do not have to handle as much cash
as this can be deemed
-

14
-


unhygienic. Although there were
costs ass
ociated with the adoption of

Provider 5
’s

loyalty tag
,

as
retailers had to pay for the terminals and the tags that we
re associated with this service,

Provide
r 5
user
s pointed out that using an NFC
-
based loyalty system gave them the opportunity to learn more
about their customers once they registered. This was especially true for cafes with
User 6
, User 5 and
Use
r 4 all stating that once a customer

registered,
they had a greater opportunity to know more about
them. In fact User 4 stated that although they have not put this into a lot of use yet, it will give them
the opportunity to know more about current customers e.g. one customer purchased circa 40 coffees a
week. User 5 also noted that once a user registered, they could send customers emails to update them
on the goings on at User 5’s business but at the same time not over load them with emails. There was
a consensus that when a user did not register, then i
t was a barrier to them knowing more about their
customers.


Although this information would have

been available using
standard loyalty cards, it was noted that
the Provider 5 loyalty tag had the functionality to pay (prepayments on the tag) although this

does
not
appear to have been

used. This gives an indication that in the future, consumers can pay and collect
their loyalty points using an NFC enabled payment device. Also this NFC tag can be used in
numerous different businesses rather than one card per

shop, for example with the one Provider 5
loyalty tag, a user can create an account and can collect a loyalty points for User 5 and for
User 6

and
so on. The consumer can then see how many points they have collected for each shop on their app.

This demons
trates that businesses recognise that there is added value to adopting this technology in
spite of the costs involved, which wit
hin itself should

encourage the adoption of NFC technology.


Discussion

Lacohée (2005)
has
stated
tha
t

mobile phones are becomin
g an important
part of everyday life
.
Most

interviewees

in this research

believe that the mobile phone will be a predominant payment
method
within the next 5 years, backing up
Leong
’s

(2006)
claim that

that NFC and mobile handsets go hand
in hand in terms
of mobile commerce. In fact both busin
ess providers and users of NFC/contactless
p
ayments
appear to
have a very similar outlook when it came to most of the
adoption factors explored
during this research
.


As NFC enabled smartphones become more prominent, c
ompanies such as Provider 1 and Provider 2
believe that people may become more agreeable to the use of the mobile phone as a payment method.
This acceptance can come
via experience of using
close proximity cards
,

which
are about to be

introduced into the Irish market
.

I
n fact many of the interviewees believe that there will be a natural
progression towards mobi
le payments in Ireland due to close proximity cards and NFC having similar
uses
.
One interviewee went so far a
s to point out th
at in 10 years

time, consumers could be using
-

15
-


something simpler still
to pay for items,
such as an NFC wristwatch
.

H
owever he also agreed with
the
main consensus that mobile payments will win out in the next 5 years.


One of the fears that some business u
sers stated was that NFC would become quickly outdated and be
supercede
d by a new technology, leading

to more costs being incurred by the business.
These fears
appear based on the problems that arose during the introduction of RFID and the subsequent move
to
push NFC
.

Through their research
into

RFID, Resatch (2007) and Th
iesse (2007) both noted that
negative media coverage played a part in RFID’s lack of popularity with consumers.

During
the
present study

it was noted that NFC

was beginning to receive some

negative press in the traditional
media

(Channel 4 2012)
.

Despite the influence of the traditional media, s
ome
of our interviewees have
sta
ted that they believe that social media is set to have an equally high influence on the general public.

There is a s
trong chance based on what has been seen wit
h RFID that media coverage


whether

traditional or social


will
have a strong bearing on whether NFC is adopted by businesses and
consumers alike.


The

negative experience with RFID
led to new security standard
s being implemented and
,

ergo,
the
creation of the

NFC

standard
. Businesses
interviewe
d during this research, for example
Provider 2
and Provider 1
,

stated that these security protocols would lessen a repeat of the issues that surrounded
the use of RFID.

O
ne of the main issue that affects users of a technology such as NFC, is the security
of their
perso
nal
details
(Grassie, 2007)
. Bu
sin
esses questioned during this

research believed
that
significant security

was in place and that this would help to increase customer trust.
They believe t
hat
these security measures would

improve the trust between all parties involved in the process.
If this is
indeed the case then we should observe an
increase
in
NFC and contactless technology adoption
. A
perceived increase in security

and will

also

lessen the amount of
risks perceived by the user which
will
also
make it more likely that adoption will

take place
(Schierz et al. 2010)
. Businesses such as
User 2 and Provider 1 have all agreed that this technology is perceived to have a low security risk
attached to it in spite of the
nega
tive
media

attention

in the UK
(
Channel 4 2012
)
.
However, t
hese
businesses have a vested interest, as emphasised by User 3 and User 2, as there has been some
investment involved in setting up the new payment syst
ems already. The main issue

however is that it
will be the end user consumers who will have a say in whether or not security is the biggest issue.
They will be the final decision makers on whether the security concerns will stop them from using the
device. As mentioned earlier very l
ittle research has been done on the adoption of these technologies
and further research will be required once contactless payments have been fully implemented in the
Irish marketplace.


By ensuring that the process is simple to use, one can increase the t
rust between the trustor and the
trustee
(Gefen, Karahanna, et al. 2003)
. One of the main benefits

of NFC is its ease of use and this
-

16
-


was identified by most of the individual
s who were interviewed as being a significant reason as to
why a technology may or may not be adopted
(Dav
is et al. 1989)
. In using contactless technology for
electronic payments, the user need only tap and go for small payments. This shows that very little
effort is required from the consumers


perspective
(Mohammadi & Jahanshahi 2008)
. This offers
value to the customer as less time is spent at the cash register and less time is spent waiting to get
change back or inputting a pin numbe
r. It also involves very little to be done at the point of purchase
as no handling of cash is required
,

which speeds up the transactional process.
It

is also more hygienic
for sectors such as the food industry
,

which was stated to be an important factor by

Provider 1.


I
ntroducing a new technology

means introducing extra costs
.
B
usinesses must purchase new terminals
which are NFC enabled so as to allow consumers to undertake these types of transactions on their
premises

(Carton
2012)
. User 2 agreed with the sentiment that businesses would have to rent a new
terminal at a higher cost or to purchase a new terminal which incorporates NFC. In the case of
Provider 5, when attempting to make
a small town in the west of Ireland

the f
irst NFC

enabled town
in the country
, there were
significant cost issues for business adopters because

broadband was
re
quired for connection purposes
. This was a extra

cost that the individual businesses had to bear.

In
addition, t
he cost per
transaction when usin
g contactless payments is high for businesses when
compared to
a
cash transaction. While
contactless card/NFC service providers
such as Provider 4
would be against
passing on these costs to

customers, it may be difficult f
or a small business which
have a l
ot of small transactions to
absorb such

costs. If these transactional costs are passed on

to
consumers there is a
chance that
consumers will
be reluctant to
adopt NFC as a payment method
(Mallat, N. 2007)
.

Despite this potential issue, at least two of the service providers interviewed

(
Provider 4 and Provider

3
)

are targeting small businesses in order to encourage electronic payments.
In particular they are targeting c
afes or fast food shops due to the maximum payment limit being circa
€15.

This is on the assumption that
people are less likely to leave their m
obile phone at home than
their wallet,
so providing the

ability to
pay via NFC would be a
convenience to consumers who may
not have cash on them at the time

of purchase
.


This research

has also highlighted
that many of the interviewees felt that education

was extremely
important and that businesses needed to be educated on this topic.
The importance of education was
confirmed d
uring the research process

when

one of the interviewees
asked what NFC was
when
question
ed

on
how
she felt about NFC
. Stakeholders

within the contactless payment
industry

who
were spoken to during this research
agree
d

that education is a critical aspect in
technology
adoption.
However they all differ
ed

as to how businesse
s need to be educated and who should be

involved in
the educatio
nal process.

Both banks and merchant providers all felt they had a role to play in
education of business use of NFC. Provider 4 felt that the banks would be the main players in the
education of adoption as banks will be the ones who deal with the businesse
s and the consumers when
-

17
-


it comes to issuing the technology. In addition, businesses have ideas as to how businesses and
consumers can become more comfortable in using this technology


Provider 3 believed that rural
development
organisations may aid in in
forming retailers in country
areas. User 1 felt that the media needed to be utilised in the education of NFC. Provider 2 felt that
sales people could play a part in teaching businesses of the risks involved and the security in place,
while
Provider 5 felt
that using
and getting familiar with
the technology
was essential

i.e. the more
common it became the better.
Expert 1

and Provider 3 agreed that educating people on the similarity
of these cards to the transport cards such as the leap card in Dublin and th
e Oyster card in London was
key to improving
the adoption
rate
of contactless technology.

User 2 has stated

that they plan on
educating their various franchises through magazines, trade shows and a virtual training academy in
the hope that each of the shop
s will gain a strong knowledge of this new technology.


This study brought to light an

interesting example of how the

educ
ation of businesses with regard


to a
new technology

is important
for

it
successful i
ntroduction
.
During Provider 5’s attempt to
NFC
-
enabled a small town in the west of Ireland using loyalty tags, a number of

businesses
involved
gave
away “free points” to loyal customers/friends (for example if a customer paid €10 they would get
loyalty points to the value of €15).
As a result,
thos
e who received the points used all of them on the
just
one premises
, usually one where the goods or services were of a higher cost (e.g. hair salons).
These premises therefore

suffer
ed financially by having to accept
the discounts.

In this case it was
due
to
a lack of education that
business
participants did not fully understand the
potential
repercussions
on
neighbouring businesses when giving
these “free points”. This abuse of the system led to some of
the
businesses feeling that the

initiative was not su
itable for them and u
ltimately led to the end of the
town
-
wide

NFC initiative.

A lack of education of the benefits of the NFC loyalty system led to many
businesses giving up in the scheme at an early stage.

Through better education of consumers and
busines
ses, one can better solve the issue of the chicken or the egg as to whether consumers will drive
adoption for businesses or business will push out NFC to its consumers.


Conclusion
s

The aim of this paper was to try and offer new insights
into the area of
contactless payments and NFC
adoption in Ireland by identifying factors which may be influential in

whether and

how
businesses
adopt

the
se

technologies. This research
suggests that a range of businesses
and experts
in Ireland
believe that NFC enabled mobil
e devices will become the predominant method for electronic
payments. A surprising result of the research was that those interviewed believed that while security
was an important factor, it will not have a major impact on the adoption of contactless paymen
ts. Both
social media and news media can play a part in how a technology is portrayed to the consumers and
can affect its use and popularity. Businesses will be aware of these stories and decision making will
-

18
-


be affected by this. As demonstrated
by
previou
s research into
technology adoption

(Davis 1986)
, this
research suggests that highlighting the ease of use of these technologies to businesses and end users
will improve

adopt
ion rates
. Benefits

includes shorter queues for employees to deal with
,

and a fas
ter
method of payment


tap and go.
These benefits
could also add value to the business in spite of the
costs that will be incurred though the implementation of the technology.


This research also revealed economic and

infrastructural
issues
among some business adopters which
have the potential to the
inhibit uptake
of these technologies
in
Ireland. In particular, some small
businesses lacked broadband meaning additional costs for those wishing to get any real benefit from
NFC and contactless
cards. A
n additional area
that this research highlighted as being important for the
adoption of these technologies was
the need for education. The interviewees stated that they felt that
businesses and consumers needed to be educated about the technology s
o as to encourage its use.
Therefore businesses
will need to educate their workers

and their customers

so that they will have a
good

understanding of the
se new technologies

and how they work
.


At present there is

a lack
of literature on NFC
due to it being
a relatively new technology. This was
problematic for the authors when conducting the literature review especially as the research was
focused on the

Irish market, on which there is virtually no published research. One of the potential
flaws in this resear
ch is that, a
s noted some of the individuals had a vested interest in the topic

and
therefore may have given answers that were biased towards putting a positive spin on these
technologies
.
Further investigation is required in order to determine whether the

results presented here
are generalisable to the adoption of these technologies in other countries
.



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