BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

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BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY
TIRUCHIRAPPALLI – 620 024
INDIA


M.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY
(AUTONOMOUS)


CURRICULUM
(Revised with effect from 2007-2009 batch)

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

REGULATIONS FOR
M.Sc. MICROBIOLOGY (2 YEARS)
(UNDER AUTONOMY)

Name of the Course:

M.Sc. Microbiology
Department offering the Course:

The Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences will be offering the
course since 1994.

Eligibility for admission
:
A degree in Science with one or more branches of biology at the major or
ancillary (subsidiary) levels.

Duration of the course
:
2 Academic years consisting of two semesters each.
Course Fees
:
Each student admitted to the M.Sc. Microbiology degree course will pay a
Tuition, Lab, Special, Stationery, Chemical and computer and other fees as decided
by the University from time to time. The student will have to pay additionally the
fees prescribed by the University for recognition, matriculation etc. In addition, the
student has to pay a sum of Rs.1, 000/- as Laboratory Caution Deposit, which
would be refunded depending upon breakages etc., at the end of the course.

Board of Studies
:
The Board of Studies for academic programmes, syllabi etc., will consist of
all the members of the faculty of the Department of Microbiology and two outside
experts. The Head of the Department of Microbiology will be the Chairman.
Syllabus
:
The Syllabi for the various courses are designed keeping in view the
usefulness of the course to the students for (1) continuation of academic activity
3

leading to research, (2) employability in microbiology related vocations and (3)
self-employment.
Academic visits to institutions and or industries related to the courses
during the semesters of study will form part of the curriculum. The students
depending on their performance and choice would either have to carry out a
project or undergo training or submit a report at the end of the final semester in an
area of microbiology.
From the academic year (2002-2004) Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) is
introduced in all departments of the University. According to this system the
M.Sc., Microbiology Course requires a student to earn 90 credits in four semesters.
The basic course structure and the scheme of examinations are given in tables that
follow.
A student has to take four core courses including practical and two elective
courses in the first and second semesters and six core courses including practical
and a self study review paper in third semester. The fourth semester would be
entirely devoted to the project work.

* * * * * * * * *
4

M.Sc., MICROBIOLOGY
COURSE STRUCTURE
The two year M.Sc, Microbiology program will have four semesters.

The Course structure will be as given below:


Semester Course Hours per week Total credits per course Credits per semester
Four core courses 22 17
I
Two Elective course 8 8
25
Four core courses 22 17
II
Two Elective course 8 8
25
III Six core courses 30 25 25
IV
Project work -- 15 15
Total 90

5

DETAILED COURSE STRUCTURE


Semester
Course code
Name of the Course
Inst Hrs/Week
Credits
Exam Hrs.
Internal
External
Total Marks
CC I Biological macromolecules (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC II Microbial Cell Biology(T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC III
Molecular Biology & Microbial Genetics (T)
4 4 3 25 75 100
CCIV Practical CCI, CCII, CCIII (lab) 10 5 6 60 90 150
EC I Biological Techniques (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
I
EC II Molecular taxonomy and phylogeny(T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC V Immunotechnology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CCVI Medical Microbiology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC VII Virology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC VIII

Practical CCV , CCVI, CCVII 10 5 6 60 90 150
EC III Commercial Biotechnology & IPR (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
II
EC IV Bio-Informatics and Bio-Statistics. (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC IX Food & Dairy Microbiology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC X Recombinant DNA Technology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC XI Microbial Biotechnology (T) 4 4 3 25 75 100
CC XII
Environmental & Agriculture
Microbiology(T)
4 4 3 25 75 100
CC XIII

Self Study Review 4 4 3 100 100
III

CC XIV

Practical CC IX, CC X, CC XI 10 5 6 60 90 150
IV

CC XIX Project 15 150

150
90 2100

6

Continuous Internal Assessment:


The internal assessment component for theory for each student will include
attendance, weekly tests, model exams, seminars and/or assignments.
The internal assessment component for the lab course for each student will
consist of attendance, performance in the laboratory, observation notebook,
monthly tests and model tests. The Internal assessment component for each course
will be 40% of the marks allotted to the course. This applies to theory as well as lab
courses. In the case of core course CC XIII - self - study review in the III semester
100% internal assessment will be done and there will be no external component.
There will be no passing minimum for internal assessment. However, if a
student wishes to improve his/her internal assessment performance, he/she has to
rejoin the course in the concerned semester after completing the four semesters.
External Examination
:
The question paper setters for the external examinations in theory will be
from out of a panel of examiners suggested by the course teachers and the board of
studies. There will be a double valuation of the theory papers and one of them will
be the course teacher. If the marks awarded by the two examiners differ by 10 or
more, there will be a third valuation by a person appointed by the chairman and
the average of the nearest two marks will be taken final irrespective of the
difference in percentage.
There will be two examiners for each lab course external examination of
whom one will be internal. There will be combined evaluation of the students by
the two examiners. Each lab course examination will include a viva-voce
component, the marks for which should not exceed 20% of the marks allotted.
A student has to obtain at least 50% of the marks allotted for the external
component and at least 50% in the internal plus external aggregate to pass the
theory or lab course component of each course passing minimum in the University
examinations will be 40% and the candidate in aggregate should score 50%.
Successful completion of a course requires a minimum of ‘C’ grade or 4 grade
points. Grading pattern is given below.
7


GRADING OF THE COURSES

Marks
Grade point
Letter Grade

96 and above 10 S
+
91-95 9.5 S
86-90 9.0 D
++

81-85 8.5 D
+

76-80 8.0 D
71-75 7.5 A
++

66-70 7.0 A
+

61-65 6.5 A
56-60 6.0 B
50-55 5.5 C
Below 50 0 F

FINAL RESULT

CGPA
Grade Point

Classification of Final
Result
9.51 and above S
+
9.01 – 9.50 S
First Class – Exemplary
8.51 - 9.00 D
++

8.01 - 8.50 D
+

7.51 - 8.00 D
First Class - Distinction
7.01 - 7.50 A
++

6.51 - 7.00 A
+

6.01 - 6.50 A
First Class
5.51 - 6.00 B
5.00 - 5.50 C
Second Class
Below 5.00 F Fail
8


First Year - Semester- I

CC I - Biological Macromolecules - (Theory)

Unit - I: Types of Macromolecules
Classification of macromolecules - polysaccharides, fats, proteins & nucleic acids
structure and properties of:
￿ Mono, di, oligo and polysaccharides, Complex carbohydrates,
￿ Aminoacids, peptides & proteins
￿ Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, phospholipids, glycolopids and steroids
￿ Pigments – chlorophyll

Unit - II: Biosynthesis
Gluconeogenesis - Synthesis of amylase, glycogen, levan and dextran.
Biosynthesis of:
￿ Fatty acids, triglycerols, membrane phospholipids & cholesterol synthesis
￿ Nucleotides, Purines, pyrimidines, and nucleotides
￿ Chlorophyll
￿ Amino acids

Unit - III: Nucleic acids
Structure & types of - DNA & RNA - their topology and functions. Chromosome
organization in microbes. Artificial nucleic acid – PNA. Structure of tRNA, rRNA
and mRNA.
Unit - IV: Proteins
Primary, secondary and tertiary structure – structure determination –
Ramachandran plot – Purification of proteins
Unit – V: Vitamins and hormones
Structure and properties of vitamins and hormones – Definition and nomenclature
– biological availability – assessment of vitamins in nutritional status – vitamins B
1
,
B
12
, K, E and niacin – Protein and peptide hormones – auxine, gibberellins, abscisic
acid.
9

References
1. Campbell MK (1999). Biochemistry, 3
rd
edition, Saunders College Publishing/
Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
2. Freidberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W. (1995). DNA Repair and Mutagenesis,
ASM Press.
3. Freifelder D. (1996). Molecular Biology, 2
nd
edition. Narosa Publishing House.
4. Geoffrey L. Zubay (1998). Biochemistry. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 4
th
Edition.
5. Lewin, B. (2000) Genes VII. Oxford University Press.
6. Maloy SR, Cronan Jr. JE, Freifelder D (1994). Microbial Genetics. Jones and
Bartlett Publishers.
7. Nelson D.L. and Cox, M.M. (2001). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 3
rd

edition, Mac Millan Eworth Publishers.
8. Stryer L (1995). Biochemistry. W.H. Freeman and Company.
9. Voet D. and Voet J (1995) Bichemistry, 2
nd
edition, John Wiley and Sons Inc.
10. Watson JD, Hopkins NH, Roberts JW, Steitz JA, Weiner AM. (1987) Molecular
Biology of the Gene. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company.
11. David, A. Bender (2003). Nutritional biochemistry of vitamins, Cambridge,
516pp.
12. Gerald Litwack. Vitamins and hormones, Elsevier.
10


First Year - Semester- I

CC II – Microbial Cell Biology - (Theory)

Unit – I: Morphology and ultra structure of microorganisms
Morphological types – Archeabacteria, Gram negative and Gram positive
Eubacteria (Monera), eukaryotes (Protista). Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells. Structure and functions of flagella, cilia, pili, gas vesicles,
chlorosomes, carboxyomes, magnetosomes and phycoblisomes. Capsule structure,
composition and properties. Reserve food materials – polyhydroxybutyrate,
polyphosphate, oil droplets, cyanophycin granules and sulphur inclusions. Cell
division, Endospore – Structure and properties.
Unit – II: Classification of microorganisms
Introduction – Contributions of early microbiologists, Classification of
microorganisms - Haeckel’s three kingdom concept. Whittaker’s five kingdom
concept. Three domain concept of Carl Woese. Basis of microbial classification.
Classification and salient features of bacteria according to the Bergey’s manual of
determinative bacteriology [1994]. Modern trends in classification of
microorganisms. Cyanobacteria: Distribution, conventional and modern
classification. General form and structure. Reproduction, gas vacuoles, movements
and symbiosis. Prochloron, Cyanelles, Microfungi, VAM and Lichens– a brief
account
Unit – III: Techniques in Microbiology
Light Microscopy – Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast, Fluorescent and
Polarization microscopes, Electron Microscopy – TEM & SEM, Confocal
Microscopy – applications. Sterilization - Physical and chemical control of micro
organisms. Isolation, purification of different types of microorganisms.
Preservation methods, Identification of microorganisms using morphological,
physiological, biochemical and molecular biological techniques.

Unit – IV: Nutritional types and carbohydrate metabolism
Nutrition and nutritional types – nutrients – organic – inorganic. autotrophs –
heterotrophs – lithotrophs – organotrophs – phototrophs. Autotrophy –
anoxygenic – oxygenic photosynthesis. Chemolithotrophy – sulphur – iron –
11

hydrogen – nitrogen oxidation – methanogenesis – luminescences - Fixation of
carbondioxide – C3, C4 pathway - respiratory metabolism –fermentation of
carbohydrates – glycolysis – Kreb’s cycle – pentose phosphate pathway, the Entner
– Doudoroff pathway – homo and hetero lactic fermentations.

Unit – V: Growth and metabolism of nitrogenous compounds
Growth phases – kinetics – asynchronous – synchronous - batch – continuous
culture. Factors affecting growth; Measurement of growth – dry weight – wet
weight – protein – Kjeldhal nitrogen – chlorophyll. Biological nitrogen fixation –
nitrogenase enzymes – structure and properties – ‘nif’ gene – regulation –
functions. Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen – nitrate nitrite – dinitrogen –
ammonia.
References:
1. Brige EA (1992) Modern Microbiology, WmC, Brown Publishers, Dubugue,
USA.
2. Bryant DA (1994) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, London.
3. Gerherdt P, Murray RG, Wood WH. Kreig NR (1994) Methods for General and
Molecular. Bacteriology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
4. Good Fellow M, O’ Dennell AG (1994) Chemical methods in Prokaryotic
Systemics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
5. Hall DO Rao, KK (1995) Photosynthesis. Cambridge University Press.
6. Holt JS, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Williams ST (1994) Bergeys Manual of
Determinative Bacteriology (9
th
ed.) William and Wilkins, Baltimore.
7. Landecker EM (1996) Fundamentals of Fungi –Prentice Hall International Inc.
8. Neidhardt FC. (1996) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium – Cellular and
Molecular Biology (Vol I & II)
9. Pelczar Jr. MJ, Chan ECS, Krieg NR (1993). Microbiology – Mc Graw Hill. Inc,
New York.
10. Rao AS (1997) Introduction to Microbiology, Nagarjuna University , Prentice
Hall of India, New Delhi.
11. Salle AJ (1996) Fundamental Principle of Bacteriology [7
th
Edition] University of
California, Los Angels, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.,New
Delhi.
12

12. Tauro T, Kapoor KKT, Yadav S. (1997) An Introduction to Microbiology,
Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., Delhi.
13. White D. (1995) The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
14. Zubey GL, Parson WW, Vance DE (1994). Principles of Biochemistry – WmC.
Brown Publishers, Oxford, England.
13


First Year - Semester- I

CC III – Molecular Biology & Microbial Genetics - (Theory)

Unit - I: DNA replication and repair
Identification of genetic material (Griffith, Avery and Hershey and Chase
experiments). DNA replication - Meselson – Stahl experiment , Molecular
mechanisms of DNA Replication – bidirectional and rolling circle replication.
Differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication. Plasmids – types, structure
and replication. DNA repair – mechanism of excision repair, SOS repair and
mismatch repair.
Unit – II: Transcription and translation
Process of transcription – initiation, elongation – termination. Synthesis of mRNA
in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Synthesis of rRNA and tRNA. RNA processing –
capping and polyadenylation. Genetic code, process of translation – initiation,
elongation and termination. Signal sequences and protein transport.

Unit – III: Concept of Gene & Gene regulation
Organization of Gene in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Introduction - Operon
concept, lac and trp operons, promoters and repressors. Regulation of gene
expression – Transcriptional control – promoters, terminators, attenuators and anti
terminators; Induction and repression; the lac operon – catabolite repression;
Biosynthesis: trp operon – upstream activator sequences and enhancers, two
component regulatory systems. Translational control – ribosome binding, codon
usage, antisense RNA; post-transcriptional gene silencing – RNAi.

Unit - IV: Gene transfer mechanisms
Transformation – competence cells, regulation, general process; Transduction –
general and specialized; Conjugation – Hfr, triparental mating, self transmissible
and mobilizable plasmids, pili.
Unit – V: Transposable elements
Introduction - Discovery insertion sequences, complex and compound transposons
– T
10
, T
5
, and retroposon – Nomenclature- Insertion sequences – Mechanism –
Transposons of E.coli, Bacteriophage and Yeast.
14

References:
1. Friedberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W. (2005). DNA repair and mutagenesis.
ASM press
2. James D. Watson, Tania A. Baker, Stephen P. Bell, and Alexander Gann,
Molecular Biology of the Gene, Fifth Edition
3. Rowland H. Davis, The Microbial Models of Molecular Biology: From Genes
to Genomes.
4. Antony JF, Griffiths, Gilbert WM, Lewontin RC and Miller JH (2002).
Modern Genetic Analysis, Integrating Genes and Genomes, 2
nd
edition, WH
5. Blackburn GM, Gait MJ. (1996). Nucleic acids in chemistry and biology.
Oxford University press.
6. Malacinski GM and Freifelder D (1998) Essentials of Molecular Biology, 3
rd

edition, John and Bartlett Publishers.
7. Lewin B. (2000). Genes VII. Oxford University press
8. Maloy SR, Cronan Jr. JE, Freifelder D (1994). Microbial genetics. Jones and
Bartlett publishers.
9. Singer M, Berg P. (1991). Genes and Genomes. University Science Books.
10. Stryer L. (2002). Biochemistry. 5
th
edition, W.H.Freeman and company.
11. Watson JD, Hopkins NH, Roberts JW, Steitz JA, Weiner AM. (1998).
Molecular biology of the gene, 4
th
edition, Benjamin/Cummings publishing
company.
15

First Year - Semester- I

CC IV – Practical (CC I, CC II & CC III)

CC I – Biological Macromolecules - (Lab Course)

Quantification of Macromolecules - Isolation and Colorimetric estimation of:
1. Amino acids - Ninhydrin method
2. Protein - Biuret method/Lowry’s method
3. Carbohydrate reducing sugars - Anthrone method/Benedicts method.
4. Cholesterol estimation - Acetic anhydride method
5. DNA - Diphenylamine method
6. RNA - Orcinol method
7. Determination of Phosphorous content of nucleic acids - perchloric acid test.
8. Pigments (chlorophyll - carotenoids – phycobiliproteins)
9. Estimation of lipid
References
1. Boyer R (2001) Modern Experimental Biochemistry, 3
rd
edition: Benjamin
/Cummings Publishing Company Inc.
2. Jayaraman J (1981). Laboratory manual in Biochemistry, New Age Int.
Publishers, New Delhi.
3. Plummer DT (1987) An introduction to Practical Biochemistry, 3
rd
edition, Tata
McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
4. Clark JM Jr and Switzer RI (1977) Experimental Biochemistry 2
nd
Edition.
W.H. Freeman, San Francisco.
5. Switzer RL and Garrity LF (1999) Experimental Biochemistry, 3
rd
edition, WH
Freeman and Co.
6. Work TS and Work E (1972) Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology. Vol. 3 - North-Holland, Amsterdam
7. Warton DC and McCarthy RE (1972) Experiments and Methods in
Biochemistry. MacMillan, New York.
8. Wilson K and Walker J (2000) Practical Biochemistry Principles and Techniques,
5
th
Edition, Cambridge University Press.

16

CC II – Microbial Cell Biology - (Lab Course)

1. Preparation and use of glassware cleaning solutions, sterilization.
2. Microscopy, Micrometry, Camera lucida diagrams & Microphotography.
3. Isolation of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria – cyanobacteria, actinomycetes
and fungi.
4. Pure and axenic culture techniques – serial dilution – pour plate, spread
plate, streak plate methods and stab culture techniques.
5. Bacterial Staining methods – simple, Gram’s, acid fast, flagella, capsule and
spore.
6. Determination of growth – growth curve – generation time – synchronous
and asynchronous growth – estimation of growth – microscopic – plate –
membrane filter – turbidometry – dry weight – wet weight – chlorophyll.
7. Fungal Staining methods – Lacto-phenol cotton blue.
8. Motility of bacteria.
9. Effect of physical and chemical factors on the growth of bacteria and
Cyanobacteria – temperature, pH, oxygen, radiation, water activity, macro
and micro nutrients and chelators.
10. Fixation of nitrogen by acetylene reduction assay using gas chromatography
11. Assay of glutamine synthetase, nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase by
colorimetry

References:
1. Benson HJ (1994). Microbiological Applications, WmC Brown Publishers,
Oxford.
2. Collins C.H, Lyne P.M, (1985). Microbiological methods. Butterworths,
London.
3. Gerhardt P, Murray R.G, Wood W.A, Kreig, N.R. (ed) (1994). Methods of
General and Molecular Bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology,
Washington DC
4. Holt J.S, Kreig N.R, Sheath P.H.A, Williams S.T. (1994) Bergey’s Manual of
Determinative Bacteriology (9
th
edn.) Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
5. Rhodes P.M, Stanbury P.F. Applied Microbial Physiology - A practical
approach. IRL Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford
6. Wilson K, Walker J. (1995) Practical Biochemistry Principles and Techniques,
Cambridge University Press
17

CC III – Molecular Biology & Microbial Genetics - (Lab Course)

1. Isolation of antibiotic resistant microbes.
2. Induction of mutation by ultra-violet radiation and chemical mutagens – NTG,
MNNG.
3. Transformation (competent cell preparation) and Transduction using P1.
4. Isolation of microbial genomic DNA
5. Isolation of plasmid DNA from E.coli (mini preparation).
6. Isolation of plasmid DNA from Gram Negative (bacteria) and cyanobacteria
(mini preparation)
7. Quantification of plasmid by spectrophotometric methods.
8. Characterization of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis.
9. Conjugation - Hfr

References:
1. Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA and
Struhl K (1994).
2. Current protocols in molecular biology, Vol. 1 & 2. John Wicey & Sons Inc.
3. Sambrook J and Russell DW (2001) Molecular cloning - A laboratory manual
(3
rd
edition, Vol 1,2,3), Cold Spring Laboratory Press, New York.
4. Surzyeki S (2000). Basic Tecniques in Molecular Biology. Springer.

18


First Year – Semester I

EC I – Biological Techniques - (Theory)

Unit – I: Microscopy and Related Techniques
Light Microscopy: Microscopic optics, components of microscopes. Basic principles
and types of Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast, Fluorescence, Polarization and
Confocal microscopes and their applications. Immunofluorescence – In situ
hybridization. Electron Microscopy – Principle, Techniques and applications of
Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscope
(SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Photomicrography and Video
micrography.
Unit – II: Analytical Techniques
Spectroscopic methods – UV-Visible, Atomic Absorption and Atomic Emission
Spectroscopy. Centrifugation – Principles and types centrifugation.
Electroanalytical methods – electrolytic – Potentiometric, conductimetric,
coulometric & voltametric analysis. Biosensors. Radioactive analysis : Principles of
radioactivity, GM counter & LS counter.
Unit – III: Principles & Applications of Chromatographic Techniques
Adsorption – Ion exchange and gel permeation – affinity chromotography for
separation of compounds including GC and HPLC methods.

Unit – IV: Electrophoresis Techniques
Electrophoretic techniques – protein – nucleic acid – immuno – two dimensional
electrophoresis.
Unit – V: Molecular Biological Techniques
Isolation of chromosomal and plasmid DNA. Polymerase chain reaction – isolation
of specific genes using PCR. Restriction digestion and Phosphatase treatment of
cloning vectors. Cloning techniques – separation and quantification of DNA by
spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques, gene transfer mechanisms –
chemical and electroporation.
19

Methods of detection of clones – Nucleic acid transfer by blotting, Hybridization -
plaque, colony hybridization. Histochemical detection of β -galactosidase,
antibody screening including colour development reaction.

References:
1. Glick, B.R. and Pasternak, J.J. (1994). Molecular Biotechnology, ASM Press.
2. John G. Webster. (2004). Bioinstrumentation. University of Wisconsin, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Sambrrok, J. and Ruseell, D.W. (2001) Molecular Cloning – A Laboratory
Manual (3rd eidition, Vol. 1,2,3) Cold Spring Laboratory Press, New York.
4. Savile Pradbury. (1991). Basic measurement techniques for light microscopy,
Oxford University Press, Royal Microscopical Society.
5. Surzeki, S. (2000). Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology, Springer.
6. Westermeier, R (1993). Electroporesis in practice – VCH – Federal Republic of
Germany.
7. Willett, J.E. (1991). Gas Chromatography, John Wiley & Sons.
8. Wilson, K. and Walker (1995). Practical Biochemistry Principles and
Techniques, Cambridge University Press.
20

First Year – Semester I

EC II – Molecular Taxonomy & Phylogeny - (Theory)

Unit – I: Microbial Taxonomy
Introduction to microbial taxonomy – morphological taxonomy, biochemical
taxonomy, and molecular taxonomy. Numerical taxonomy – basic concepts of
taxonomy. Positive and negative aspects of each taxonomical methods.
Morphological phylogeny
UNIT- II: Biochemical & molecular taxonomy
Chemotaxonomy - fatty acid, protein finger printing , Isozyme typing, pigments &
polyamines. Biochemical phylogeny. Molecular taxonomy –- G +C content, DNA –
DNA hybridization, Plasmid profiles, RFLP, RAPD, STRR & LTRR, REP –PCR,
rRNA based DNA finger printing methods
Unit – III: 16S rRNA based finger printing
Types of rRNA - 23s rRNA, 16S rRNA & 5S rRNA. Importance of 16SrRNA in
microbial identification and taxonomy. Methods of 16S rRNA / rDNA
fingerprinting - Isolation of rRNA, RT- PCR, Isolation of DNA, amplification of
16S rDNA using PCR, Cloning, transformation, Blue-white screening, Plasmid
isolation, Dot blot/Southern blot hybridization using specific probes Sequencing of
16S rDNA using chain-termination method.
UNIT – IV: Sequence analysis.
Submission of rDNA sequences in GenBank – Bankit & Sequin guidelines. NCBI,
EMBL & DDBJ – retrieving sequences. RNA structure prediction, Restriction
enzyme patterns. Ribosomal Database Project - Designing primers & probes.
Sequence comparison, alignment and data base searching – ClastalW, FASTA &
BLAST. DNA barcoding.
UNIT – V: Molecular phylogeny.
Introduction to Molecular phylogeny – tree terminology, software programs for
making phylogenetic trees – MEGA, Phylib, RAPDistance. Cladogram, additive
trees and ultrametric trees, rooted, unrooted trees and tree shapes.

21

References:
1. Roderic D. M. Page, Edward C. Holmes (1998). Molecular Evolution: A
Phylogenetic Approach. Blackwell publishing, USA.
2. Principles of Genome Analysis: A Guide to Mapping and Sequencing
DNA from Different Organisms by S. B. Primrose (Paperback - Jan 1998)
3. Microbial Genome Methods by Kenneth W. Adolph (Hardcover - Oct 28,
1996)
4. Genome Mapping and Sequencing by Ian Dunham (Hardcover - Sep 1,
2003).
5. Brendan Wren (Editor), Nick Dorrell (2002) Functional Microbial
Genomics (Volume 33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press, UK.
6. Sandy B. Primrose Richard M. Twyman (2005) Principles of Genome
Analysis and Genomics, Blackwell Publishing, USA.

22

7. First Year – Semester - II

CC V – Immunotechnology - (Theory)

Unit I: Immune System
Historical perspective – Discovery, early theories, Immunodeficiency conditions,
Lymphocyte Traffic, Hematopoiesis, Innate and adoptive immune response in
protection.
Unit II: Antigen and Antibody Molecules
Antigen engineering for better immunogenicity, Use for vaccine development,
whole-organism vaccines, recombinant vaccines, DNA vaccines, synthetic peptide,
multivalent subunit and anti-idiotype vaccines. Antibody engineering, Antibody
for diagnosis, Antibody for therapy, Hybridoma Technology.

Unit III: MHC, Cytokines and Complements
Structure of MHC molecules, Antigen presentation, Antigen presentation by non
MHC molecules, Cytokine structure and their receptors, Cytokine therapy,
Complements, Lymphocyte Migration and Inflammation, Hypersensitivity
reactions, auto immunity.
Unit IV: B and T Cell Activation
B cell receptor complex, B cell maturation, Generation of antibody diversity,
Understanding self-nonself discrimination, T
H
Cell subpopulation, Organisation of
T cell receptor, Cell mediated effector responses.
Unit V: Immunotechnology and its applications
Precipitation techniques, agglutination techniques, radiology in immunotechniqes,
Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting,
immunofluorescence, Flowcytometry and immunoelectron microscopy. Infectious
diseases - immune system in AIDS, transplantation immunology, cancer and the
immune system.
23

References:
1. Ivan M. Roit (1994) Essential Immunology – Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford
2. Kuby J (2001) Immunology Fourth Edition – WH Freeman and Company,
New York
3. Chapel H and Halbey M (1986) Essentials of Clinical Immunology
4. Donal M. Weir, John Steward (1993) Immunology – VII edition. ELBS,
London
5. Richard M. Hyde (1995). Immunology III edition. National Medical series,
Williams and Wilkins, Harward Publishing company.
24

First Year – Semester - II

CC VI – Medical Microbiology - (Theory)

Unit-I: Introduction of Medical Microbiology:
History, Koach &River’s postulates, Role of Microbiology in Medicine,
Classification of medically important microbes, Normal Microbial flora, Infections-
Source, Mode of transmission, Prevention of medically important microbes.

Unit-II: Systematic Medical Bacteriology:
Mechanism of Bacterial pathogenesis of medically important bacteria Staphylococcu
s aereus, Group A Streptococci, Pathogenic, Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio,
Nieserriae, Haemophilus influenza, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas, Chlamydia,
Mycoplasama, anaerobic bacteria & infections, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Atypical
Mycobacterium, Clamadiya, Bacillus, Rickettsia, Zoonotic bacteria, Helicobacter
pylori.

Unit-III: Mycology & Parasitology:
Mechanisms of Fungal Pathogenesis, Superficial and Cutaneous Mycoses,
Subcutaneous Mycoses, Systemic Mycoses, Opportunistic Mycoses, Mycotoxicoses,
Pathogenesis of Parasitic Disease, Antiparasitic Agents, Intestinal and Urogenital
Protozoa, Blood and Tissue Protozoa,. Nematodes, Trematodes, Cestodes and
Arthropod.
Unit-IV: Viral diseases:
Influenza viruses, Measels, Mumps, Chicken Pox, Hepatitis A,B,C, D& E,
Poliomyelitis, AIDS, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), Rabies, Yellow fever, Dengue
and Japanease Enchapalitis.
Unit-V: Laboratory Diagnosis:

Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial diseases, Laboratory diagnosis of mycological
and Parasitological diseases, Laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases, Antibiotic
sensitivity test. Molecular diagnosis.
25

References:
1. Medical Microbiology(2001) by Jawetz, Melnickand Adelberg’s 22
nd
edition
McGraw Hill Medical Publication division
2. Medical Microbiology(2000) by David Greenwood, Richard Slack and John
Peutherer 15
th
edition,ChurchHill Living stone Publication.
3. Medical Microbiology by Anathanarayanan.
4. Medical Parasitology (2007) by K.D Chatterjee 7
th
edition.
5. Foundations in Microbiology (2005) by Cathleen park Talaro 6
th
edition,
McGraw Hill Medical Publication division.
6. Microbiology Lab Manual (2007) by John P. Harley 7th edition McGraw Hill
Medical Publication division.
7. Microbiology (2007) by Prescott, Harley, Klein's 7
th
edition McGraw Hill
Medical Publication division.

26


First Year – Semester - II

CC VII – Virology - (Theory)

Unit – I: Brief outline of virology
Discovery of virus; early development of virology – nomenclature - classification
and taxonomy of viruses - based on host, nucleic acids and structure; Evolution of
viruses
Unit - II: Bacterial viruses φ X 174; T
4
; M 13; Lambda and Mu; P
1
phages.

Structural organization - life
cycle - transcription - DNA replication and phage production - lysogenic cycle
wherever applicable, and genetics of each phage.
Unit - III: Plant viruses
TMV - general characters – morphology – structure – replication - RNA as the
initiator of infection; Cauliflower Mosaic Virus - a brief account. Transmission of
plant viruses - transmission by vectors - transmission without vectors. Common
viral diseases of crop plants - names of diseases, pathogens and symptoms only -
paddy, cotton, tomato and sugar cane.
Unit - IV: Animal viruses
General characters, chemical and physical nature, life cycle, epidemiology,
pathogenicity, disease caused and immunologic response of the following viruses:
Myxo virus: Orthomyxo virus, Paramyxo virus; Herpes virus - HSV 1 & 2; Adeno
virus and Adeno Associated Viruses; Tumour viruses of human.

Unit - V: Other viral types
Brief account of Cyanophages – myco phycophages – Insect viruses.

Viroids,
prions, satellite RNAs and virusoids. Antiviral agents and vaccines – different
types.
27

References:
1. Conrat HF, Kimball PC and Levy JA. (1988). Virology. II edition. Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliff, New Jersey.
2. Dimmock NJ, Primrose SB. (1994) Introduction to Modern Virology IV edition.
Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford
3. Flint SJ, Enquist LW, King RM, Racaniell VR and Shalka AM (2000). Principles
of Virology - Molecular Biology, pathogenesis and control, ASM Press,
Washington DC.
4. Khan J.A, J.Dijkstra. Plant viruses as molecular pathogens. 2000. CBS publishers
and Distributors. New Delhi
5. Maloy SR, Cronan Jr. JE, Freifelder D. (1994). Microbial genetics. Jones and
Bartlett publishers.
6. Robert G. Welstar and Allan Garnoll. Encyclopaedia of Virology (1994). Vol I,
II & III Academic Press inc. San Diego, CA 92101. Ed.
7. Timbury MC. (1994) Medical Virology X edition. Churchill Livingston.
8. Topley & Wilson’s. (1990) Principles of Bacteriology, Virology and Immunity VIII
edition Vol. IV Virology, Edward Arnold, London.
28


First Year – Semester - II

CC VIII – Practical (CC V, CC VI & CC VII)

CC V – Immunotechnology - (Lab Course)

1. Collection of venous blood from human and separation and preservation of
serum/plasma
2. Agar gel diffusion – Ouchterlony’s method
3. Counter immuno electrophoresis
4. Electrophoresis – serum proteins
5. Blood grouping
6. Latex agglutination test
7. Widal tube and slide agglutination technique
8. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
9. Western blotting
10. Immunization of protocols and raising antibody
11. Dissection of primary and secondary lymphoid organs in a selected animal

References:
1. Ivan M. Roit (1994) Essential Immunology – Blackwell Scientific
Publications, Oxford.
2. Benjamin E, Coico R and Sunskise (2000). Immunology a short course.
IV edn. Wiley – Liss publication, NY.
3. Kuby J (2001) Immunology Fourth Edition – WH Freeman and
Company, New York.
4. Chapel H and Halbey M (1986) Essentials of Clinical Immunology.
5. Donal M. Weir, John Steward (1993) Immunology – VII edition. ELBS,
London.
6. Richard M. Hyde (1995). Immunology III edition. National Medical
series, Williams and Wilkins, Harward Publishing company.

29

CC VI – Medical Microbiology - (Lab Course)

1. Collection and transport of clinical specimens for microbiological
examinations
2. Laboratory diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection
3. Laboratory diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection
4. Laboratory diagnosis of gastrointestinal infection
5. Laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI)
6. Laboratory diagnosis of Typhoid fever
7. Laboratory diagnosis of Leptospirosis
8. Laboratory diagnosis of Dengue fever
9. Laboratory diagnosis of skin diseases
10. Laboratory diagnosis of Parasitic infection

References:
1. Microbiology: A Laboratory manual by James cappuccino, Natalie Sherman
7
th
Edition.
2. Microbiology Lab manual by Karen Messley 2
nd
Edition Berjamin cummings
Publisher.
3. A Photographic Atlas for the Microbiology Laboratory by Michael J Leboffe,
Burton E. Pierce 3
rd
Edition Berjamin cummings Publisher.
4. A Laboratory manual of Microbiology by Harry W.Seeley Jr and Paul J
Vandemark,W.H Freeman and Company Publisher.
5. Microbiology Lab Manual (2007) by John P Harley, 1
st
Edition, McGraw-Hill
Publication.
6. Applied Microbiology laboratory manual (2005) by Frances Duncan 4
th

Edition.
7. Laboratory Manual of Experimental Microbiology by Ronald M. Atlas,
Lawrence C. Parks, Alfred E. Brown. Mosby-Year Book Inc.

CC VII – Virology - (Lab Course)

1. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophage from natural sources.
2. preparation of bacteriophage stock - Lambda & T4
3. Phage Titration - T
4
and M
13

4. Burst size determination - A one step growth curve of bacteriophage T
4

5. Determination of lysogeny by using Lambda phage
30

6. Isolation of cyanophage
7. Study of virus infected plant samples
8. Transmission methods of plant viruses - Southern Sunhemp Mosaic Virus
(SSMV) - local and systemic plants
9. Thermal characterization, Longevity invitro - Dilution end point.
10. Animal Virus Propagation - Egg inoculation

References:
1. Miller JH. (1992) A short course in bacterial genetics. Cold Spring Harbor.
2. Gerhardt P, Murray RG, Wood WA and Kreig NR. (ed) (1994) Methods for
General and Molecular Bacteriology – American Society for Microbiology,
Washington D.C.
3. Dharmalingam K (1986). Experiments with M13 gene cloning and DNA
sequencing. Published by Wasani for Macmillan India Limited.
4. Microbiological Applications (1994). 6
th
edition, W.M.C. Brown Publishers, a
division of W.M.C. Brown Communications, Inc.
5. Dejkstra J, Ces P. de Jager (1998). Practical Plant Virology (protocols and
exercises), Springer Lab Manual, Berlin, Heidelberg, NewYork.
6. Cappucino, James G (1996). Microbiology - A laboratory Manual, Addison -
Wesley Publishin Company Inc.

31

First Year – Semester - II

EC III – Commercial Biotechnology and IPR - (Theory)

Unit - I: Industrial microbes
Biology of industrial microorganisms such as Streptomyces, yeasts, Spirulina and
Penicillium – Strain improvement – Culture preservation - Stock culture collection
centres – Criteria used for the selection of microorganisms for fermentation.
Unit - II: Large-scale cultivation
Fermentation media - Desired qualities - media formulation strategies - economic
means of providing energy, carbon - nitrogen - vitamin and mineral sources - role
of buffers, precursors, inhibitors, inducers and antifoams, types of fermentation.
Fermenters - Basic functions, design and components - asepsis and containment
requirements - body construction and temperature control - aeration and agitation
systems - sterilization of fermenter, air supply, and medium; aseptic inoculation
methods - sampling methods, valve systems - a brief idea on monitoring and
control devices and types of fermenters.
Unit - III: Microbial products
Alcohol production – malt beverages – production of beer – wine – production of
organic acids – Vinegar – lactic acid – Citric acid – Production of antibiotics –
Penicillin – Tetracycline and chloramphenicol – Production of amino acids – L-
lysine – L-glutamic acid – Enzymes – Pectinases – Invertase – Proteases – Vitamins
– Vitamin B12 – Riboflavin – Biotransformation (Streroid).
Unit – IV: Commercialization
Objectives - market potential - economic measures in plant and equipment - media,
heating and cooling; productivity of culturing, recovery costs.
Unit – V: Legal protection & IPR
GATT and IPR, forms of IPR, IPR in India, WTO Act, Convention on Biodiversity
(CBD), Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT), forms of patents and patentability,
process of patenting, Indian and international agencies involved in IPR &
patenting, Global scenario of patents and India’s position, patenting of biological
material, GLP, GMP.

32

References:
1. David A. Mitchell, Nadia Krieger, Marin Berovic .Solid-State Fermentation
Bioreactors: Fundamentals of Design and Operation, Springer.
2. Demain A.L, Davies J.E. 1999. Manual of Industrial Microbiology &
Biotechnology. ASM press.
3. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ (1994) Molecular Biotechnology, ASM press.
4. Mittal D.P. 1999. Indian Patents Law. Taxmann Allied Services (p) Ltd.
5. Sikyta B. (1983) Methods in Industrial Microbiology, Ellis Horwood Limited.
6. Stanbury PF, Whitaker A, Hall SJ. (1995) Principles of Fermentation
Technology, Pergamon Press.
7. Wulf Crueger, Anneliese Crueger, Thomas D. Brock (1991) Biotechnology: A
Textbook of Industrial Microbiology
8. Venkataraman LV. (1983) A Monograph on Spirulina plantensis. CFTRI, Mysore.

33

Second Year – Semester - III

EC IV –Bioinformatics and Biostatistics - (Theory)

Unit I: Biology in the computer age
Computational Approaches to Biological questions. Basics of computers – servers,
workstations, operating systems, Unix, Linux. World Wide Web. Search engines,
finding scientific articles - Pubmed – public biological databases.

Unit II: Genomics
Sequence analysis – Sequencing genomes – sequence assembly – pairwise sequence
comparison - geneome on the web – annotating and analysing genome sequences.
Genbank – sequence queries against biological databases – BLAST and FASTA–
multifunctional tools for sequence analysis. Multiple sequence alignments,
Phylogenetic alignment – profiles and motifs.
Unit III: Proteomics
Protein Data Bank, Swiss-prot - biochemical pathway databases -Predicting Protein
structure and function from sequence – Determination of structure – feature
detection – secondary structure prediction – predicting 3 D structure - protein
modeling.
Unit IV: Biostatistics I
Introduction – Population and sample – Variables – Collection and presentation of
data – Descriptive statistics - Measures of Central tendency – mean (arithmetic,
harmonic & geometric) median and mode – Measures of dispersion – range, mean
deviation, variance & standard deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis.

Unit V: Biostatistics II
Inferential statistics – Probability and distributions – Poisson, Binomial and
Normal distribution – Chi-square test – Hypothesis test - Student’s t-test –
Correlation and Regression – ANOVA.
34

References:
1. W.J. Ewens, Gregory Grant,(2005). Statistical Methods in Bioinformatics: An
Introduction (Statistics for Biology & Health), Springer
2. Bryan Bergeron,( 2003).Bioinformatics Computing First Indian Edition,
Prentice Hall,
3. Cynthia Gibas & Per Jambeck (2001). Developing Bioinformatics Computer
Skills: Shroff Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd (O’Reilly), Mumbai
4. HH Rashidi & LK Buehler (2002). Bioinformatics Basics: Applications in
Biological Science and Medicine, CRC Press, London
5. Des Higgins & Willie Taylor (2002). Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and
databanks, Oxford University Press
6. Baxevanis AD & Ouellette BEF (2001) Bioinformatics: A practical guide to
the analysis of genes and proteins, Wiley Interscience – New York
7. Arora PN & Malhon PK (1996). Biostatistics Imalaya Publishing House,
Mumbai.
8. Sokal & Rohif (1973). Introduction to Biostatistics, Toppan Co. Japan.
9. Stanton A & Clantz, Primer of Biostatistics –– The McGraw Hill Inc., New
York.

35

Second Year – Semester - III

CC IX – Food & Dairy Microbiology - (Theory)

Unit – I: Food Microbiology
Introduction- Importance of food microbiology- Types of microorganisms in food
spoilage, Source of contamination- Factors influencing microbial growth in food.
Food preservations: principles- methods of preservations-Physical and chemical
methods.

Unit – II: Microbiology of food and food products
Contamination, spoilage and preservation of cereals and cereals products, sugar
and sugar products, Vegetables and fruits, meat and meat products – fish and
other sea foods, egg and poultry.

Unit – III: Food borne diseases
Food borne diseases, intoxication and food poisoning – bacterial and non-bacterial
food borne diseases: Staphylococcus, Clostridium, Escherichia coli and Salmonella
infections, Mycotoxins, Protozoan and Viral food borne diseases.

Unit – IV: Food fermentations
Methods of fermentations and organisms used -bread, wine, beer. Fermented
vegetables, Food and enzymes from microorganisms-single cell protein.
Production of amylase and protease.
Unit – V: Dairy Microbiology
Microflora of milk -sources of contamination -methods of minimizing
contamination. Milk borne infection –intoxication. Milk preservation methods –
pasteurization – sterilization. Fermented dairy products – microbes involved in
fermentation -starter lactic acid cultures -butter milk, cream, yoghurt, kafir,
kumiss, acidophilous milk and cheese production and its types. Food hygiene and
control - food sanitation in food manufacture and in the retail trade. Food control
agencies and its regulations.
36

References:
1. Adams MR and Moss MO. (1995). Food Microbiology, The Royal Society of
Chemistry, Cambridge.
2. Andrews AT, Varley J. (1994) Biochemistry of milk products. Royal Society of
Chemistry.
3. Banwart GJ. (1989), Basic food microbiology, Chapman & Hall, New York.
4. Frazier WC and Westhoff DC. (1988) Food microbiology, TATA McGraw Hill
Publishing Company Ltd. New Delhi.
5. Hobbs BC and Roberts D. (1993) Food poisoning and food hygiene, Edward
Arnold (A division of Hodder and Stoughton), London.
6. May JM. (1987) Modern Food microbiology, CBS Publishers and distributors,
New Delhi.
7. Robinson RK. (1990). The microbiology of milk. Elsevier Applied Science,
London.
8. Edward Harth, J.T.Steele. Apllied Dairy Microbiology. 1998. Marcel Deeker Inc.
New York.

37

Second Year – Semester - III

CC X – Recombinant DNA Technology - (Theory)

Unit – I: Introduction to Basics of genetic engineering
Gene as a unit of mutation and recombination. Mutagenesis, mutations and
mutants – biochemical basis of mutations, spontaneous and induced mutations,
isolation of mutants, mutagenesis, reversion, suppression, genetic analysis of
mutants. Recombination methods – conjugation and transformation.

Unit – II: Tools of genetic engineering
Enzymes in Genetic Engineering - DNA Polymerase, Polynucleotide kinase, T4
DNA ligase, Nick translation system, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase,
Reverse transcriptase Restriction endonucleases Type I & II. Vectors – plasmid,
bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial
chromosome.
Unit – III: Techniques of Genetic Engineering I
Strategy of recombinant DNA technology; Gene library - Genomic library, cDNA
library – Cloning strategies - Use of linkers, adoptors, homopolymer tails - Nucleic
acid hybridization - Colony hybridization, plaque hybridization; Blotting
techniques - Southern, Northern, Western and dot blotting.

Unit – IV: Techniques of Genetic Engineering II
PCR – principles, techniques and applications. Gene isolation, cloning and
expression, DNA sequencing, oligonucleotide synthesis, Southern and Northern
hybridization, FISH, RAPD, PCR-RFLP, STRR, LTRR. DNA fingerprinting and
their applications for diagnosis of disease, site-directed mutagenesis, Gene
silencing, Gene transfer technologies.
Unit-V: Functional genomics and Applications of Genetic Engineering
DNA chips and microarray gene screen technology; site directed mutagenesis,
transgenic animals and gene knockout techniques, cell culture based techniques
Genetic diagnosis. Applications in medical field, biology, transgenic plants,
transgenic animals, Recombinant vaccines development. Gene therapy; Molecular
basis of genetic diseases, genetic counseling.
38

References:
1. Molecular biology and Microbial genetics by David Frifielder, Stanely R.
Maloy, 2
nd
edition Jones and Barlett Publishers.
2. Genetics by Peter J Russell (1997) 5
th
edition Benjamin-Cummings Publishing
Company.
3. Molecular Biotechnology (2003) by Bernard R. Glick and Jack J.Pasternak., 2
nd

edition by ASM press.
4. Gene Cloning and DNA analysis (2004) by T.A.Brown 2
nd
edition. By ASM
press.
5. Application of rDNA Technology by Glick & Pasteneuk.
6. Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics (2006) Sandy Primrose. 7
th

Edition, Black Well Publishers.
39


Second Year – Semester - III

CC XI – Microbial Biotechnology - (Theory)

Unit - I: Algal Biotechnology
Definition, Concepts -History, biotechnological potentials of microalgae – food –
feed – Colourant - fuel and pharmaceutically variable compounds. Production of
microbial biofertilizers – Mass cultivation of cyanobacteria (Spirullina), Azolla and
other N
2
fixers.

Unit-II: Microbial Pesticides
Basic principle – antagonism, amensalism, siderophores, parasitism, nematophagy.
Microbial herbicides, microbial insecticides - bacterial insecticide Pseudomonas,
Bacillus sp. – Bacillus thrungiensis - toxins - BT cotton - viral insecticide -
entomophathogenic fungi.

Unit- III: Industrial Processes and Products
Fermentation and bioreactor technology – principle, construction and design of
various bioreactors- aseptic containment - strain improvement – fermentation -
batch, fed batch - continuous. Production microbial products – malt beverages –
alcohol - vinegar - lactic acid- citric acid- penicillin - streptomycin- L-lysine- L-
glutamic acid – protease – lipase - pectinase and riboflavin.

Unit – IV: Microbial Metagenomics
Metagenomics - definition - microbial diversity analysis- uncultivable microbes -
drug discovery - high throughput screening. Genome expression and its analysis –
methodologies -serial analysis – Oligo NT array technology – cDNA microarrays
and micro chips. Preparation of radio and non radioactive probes – microbial
diagnostics Preparation of radio and non radioactive probes – microbial
diagnostics. Introduction to microbial nanotechnology.

Unit – V: Bioremediation
Microbes in abatement of heavy metal pollution - heavy metal tolerant microbes -
Mechanism of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance - role of biosorption -
biotransformation of Xenobiotics - Superbug - rDNA application. Biodegradation
of oil and petroleum products. Microbial leaching - Copper - Uranium.
40

References:
1. Raledge C and Kristiansen B Eds (2001). Basic Biotechnology, 2
nd
edition,
Cambridge University Press.
2. Balasubramanian D, Bryce CFA, Dharmalingam K, Green J, Jayaraman K.
(1996). Concepts in Biotechnology University Press, India.
3. Baxevanis AD and BFF Ouellette, Wiley O. (ed) (2001). Bioinformatics – A
practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. Interscience, New
York,
4. Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (1989). Microalgal Biotechnology,
Cambridge University Press.
5. Alan T. Bull. Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM press.
Washington, D.C
6. Brenden Wren and Nick Dorrell, Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume
33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press
7. Alexander Hillisch and Rolf Hilgenfeld. Modern Methods of Drug
Discovery, Birkhauser, Switzerland
8. Doolittle RF. (1990). Molecular evolution. Computer Analysis of Protein and
Nucleic acid Sequences Methods in Enzymilogy. Academic Press, New
York.
9. Gerbardt P, Murray RG, Wood WA , Kreig NR. (1994) Methods for General
and Molecular Bacteriology – American Society for Microbiology
Washington D.C.
10. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ (1998). Molecular Biotechnology - Principles and
Applications of Recombinant DNA, ASM Press, Washington DC.
11. Higgins D, Taylor W. (2000). Bioinformatics, sequence, structure and
databanks - A practical approach. Oxford University Press.
12. Glazer AN, Nikaido H. (1994) Microbial Biotechnology – Fundamentals of
Applied Microbiology WH Freeman and Company, New York.
13. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ. (1994) Molecular Biotechnology, ASM Press,
Washingon DC.
14. Miyamoto MM, Cracraft JL. Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA sequences.
Oxford University Press. Oxford.
15. Pnolella P (1998) Introduction to Molecular Biology, WCB Mc Graw Hill,
Boston, Massacheutts.
16. Walsh G, Headon DR. (1994). Protein Biotechnology, John Wiley & Sons,
New York.
41

Second Year – Semester - III

CC XII – Environmental & Agricultural Microbiology - (Theory)

Unit – I: Environmental Microbiology
Characteristic features of environmental microflora: Important uses and harmful
effects of virus, protozoa, Bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and nematodes.
Microorganisms and their environment: Temperature, oxygen, desiccation,
extreme cold, ionic effect, electricity, osmotic pressures, radiant energy, hydrostatic
pressures, mechanical Impact, vibration, and surface forces.

Unit – II: Air and Aquatic Microbiology
Aerobiology – A brief introduction -droplet nucleus – aerosols -air borne
transmission of microbes and diseases; assessment of air quality. Aquatic
microbiology -factors that affect microbial growth – temperature – pressure – light
– salinity - turbidity – pH -inorganic and organic constituents. Aquatic habitats -
freshwater - lakes, ponds and streams; marine habitats - estuaries, deep sea,
hydrothermal vents, saltpans, coral reefs and mangroves and their microbial
communities.
Unit – III: Waste treatment
Types of wastes - characterization of solid and liquid wastes. Bioremediation:
Types of bioremediation, basics of bioremediation of surface soil and sludges.
Principles and applications of bioaccumulation, biomagnification, biodegradation:
Degradation of Biopolymers: Xylan, lignin and polyhydroxy alkanoates
(bioplastics); Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons: Methane alkanes; Microbial
degradation of halogenated and sulfonated compounds and Biodegradation of
pesticides.
Unit – IV: Agroecosystems
Agroecosystems - Populations in agroecosystems, diversification of
agroecosystems. Interaction between agroecosystems and natural ecosystems.
Agrobiodiversity assessment and management, outline of the threats to
agrobiodiversity and the need for conservation management: Impact of genetically
modified crops. Microbial interactions: Plant & microbe, microbe & microbe
interactions - Mutualism, commensalisms, amensalism, synergism, parasitism,
42

predation and competition. Outline of biogeochemical cycles: transformation,
fixation and mobilization of nutrients, R: S ratio.

Unit – V: Sustainable agriculture
Concepts of sustainable agriculture. Traditional agricultural practice and organic
farming; Biofertilizers: symbiotic and non-symbiotic microorganisms -
Rhizosphere, Rhizoplane, phyllosphere. Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Azotobacter,
phosphobacteria, Frankia, AMF and BGA. Out line of biopesticide, bioinsecticides,
bioherbicides and its application to the agriculture.

References:
1. The microbial world 1990. Stanier, P.R., Ingraham., Wheelis, M.L and
Painter, P.R. Prentice. Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi.
2. Microbiology. 1996. Pelzar, Reid and Chan. Tata - Mc Graw Hill Publishing
Company Limited.
3. Modern Soil Microbiology. 1997. Dirk J, Elas V, Trevors JT, Wellington,
EMH, Marcel Dekker INC, New York, Hong Kong.
4. Environmental Microbiology. 1981. Grant WD, Long PL. Blackie Glasgow
and London.
5. Pollution: Ecology and Biotreatment. 1993. Ec Eldowney S, Hardman DJ,
Waite DJ, Waite S., Longman Scientific Technical.
6. Handbook of Microbial biofertilizers. 2005. MK. Rai, Food Products Press,
New York.
43

Second Year – Semester - III

CC XIV Practical (CC IX, CC X CC XI & CC XII)

CC IX – Food and Dairy Microbiology - (Lab Course)

1. Microbial analysis of food products – bacterial and fungal
2. Microbial spoilage of refrigerated food
3. Extracellular enzyme activities – cellulase, protease, lipase and phosphatase
4. Milk microbiology – direct microscopic count – standard plate count
5. Reductase test (resazurin/methylene blue)
6. Isolation of microbes from yoghurt, curd
7. Field trip to dairy, food industries, sewage treatment plants

References:
1. Collins CH, Lyne PM. (1985) Microbiological methods, Butterworths, London.
2. Benson HJ. (1994) Microbiological Applications Wm. C. Brown Publishers,
Oxford.
3. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD. (1998) Standard methods for
examination of water & waste water American Public Health Association.
4. Aaronson S. (1970) Experimental Microbial Ecology, Academic Press, New
York.
5. Official Methods of Analysis (1995), Arlington, Virginia, USA.

CC X – Recombinant DNA Technology - (Lab Course)

1. Genomic DNA isolation
2. Plasmid DNA isolation
3. Restriction digestion
4. Transformation
5. PCR
6. Western Blotting
7. RAPD Fingerprinting
8. Competent cell preparation and ligation
9. Southern and Northern Blotting

44


References:
7. Molecular biology and Microbial genetics by David Frifielder, Stanely R.
Maloy, 2
nd
edition Jones and Barlett Publishers.
8. Genetics by Peter J Russell (1997) 5
th
edition Benjamin-Cummings Publishing
Company.
9. Genetic Engineering by Macky Macorty.
10. Molecular Biotechnology (2003) by Bernard R. Glick and Jack J.Pasternak., 2
nd

edition by ASM press.
11. Gene Cloning and DNA analysis (2004) by T.A.Brown 2
nd
edition. By ASM
press.
12. Application of rDNA Technology by Glick & Pasteneuk.
13. Principles of gene Manipulation and Genomics (2006) by sandy Primrose. 7
th

edition by Blackwell publishers.


CC XI – Microbial Biotechnology - (Lab Course)
1. Separation of proteins by coloum chromatography ion exchange – gel exclusion
- adsorption
2. Separation of proteins by SDS – PAGE and native gel.
3. Production, quantification, extraction and characterization of followings
i) Alcohol, ii) Citric acid, iii) Amylase, iv) Lipase, v) protease, vi) penicillin and
vii) Biofertilizers
4. Antibiotic assays- MIC – antibiotic resistance
5. Lipid separation using TLC, and fatty acids by gas chromatographic technique
6. Hydrogen production assay by gas Chromatographic technique

References:
1. Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston, RE, Moore, D.D, Seidman J.G., Smith J.A and
m Struhl K. (1994). Current Protocols in molecular biology
2. Gerhardt P, Murray RG, Wood WA and Kreig NR. (1994) , Methods for general
and molecular Bacteriology.
45

3. Hames BD and Rickwood D. (1990) Gel Electrophoresis – a practical approach
(1990) , Oxford University Press, New York.
4. Lorian V. (1991) Antibiotics in LaboratoryMedicine Williams & Wilkins.
5. Westermeier R. (1993) - Electrophoresis in Practice – VCH – Federal Republic
of Germany
6. Willett JE. (1991) Gas Chromatography John Wiley & Sons.
7. Wilson K and Walker. (1995) Practical Biochemistry Principles and Techniques,
Cambridge University Press.

CC XII – Environmental & Agricultural Microbiology - (Lab Course)

1. Quantification of microorganisms in air – solid – liquid impingement
techniques.
2. Physical, Chemical & Microbial assessment of water. Colour, pH,
alkalinity, acidity, COD, BOD, anions, cations, MPN index –
presumptive, completed and confirmative tests.
3. Isolation of microflora from different industrial waste.
4. Degradation of phenols – colorimetric assay.
5. Microflora from different soil types & habitats. Isolation of N
2
fixing,
phosphate solubilizing / mobilizing microbes.
6. Localization of AMF.
References:
1. Collins CH, Lyne PM. (1985) Microbiological methods, Butterworths,
London.
2. Benson HJ. (1994) Microbiological Applications Wm. C. Brown
Publishers, Oxford.
3. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD. (1998) Standard methods for
examination of water & waste water American Public Health
Association.
4. Aaronson S. (1970) Experimental Microbial Ecology, Academic Press,
New York.
5. Official Methods of Analysis (1995), Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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Second Year – Semester - III

CC XIII– SELF STUDY REVIEW

SELF STUDY REVIEW TOPICS - 2008 Batch
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Second Year – Semester - IV

Project Work

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