Data Management in the Cloud Computing

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1 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Data Management in the Cloud Computing

Tushar Vyas and Chandan Singh Rathore

tushar9vyas@yahoo.com

happy.happy.rathore@gmail.com



Student of Department of Computer Science and Information Technology

J.R.N. Rajasthan Vidhyapeeth University, Udaipur
(Raj.)



Abstract

Cloud Computing is an internet based model, which is made up of multiple servers and contain vast amounts
of information that enable efficient, reliable, on
-
demand and pay
-
per
-
use access to a pool of shared resources
and common infrastruc
ture. Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without
installation and access their files at any computer having internet access. Only few web based plug
-
ins may
require.

It is not a new technology but satisfies a user’s require
ment for computing resources like networks, storage,
servers, services and applications, without physically acquiring them. Cloud computing systems typically use
REST
-
based APIs.

It is the first question may be raised that how the cloud provider manages th
at which data to be stored and
where it will store. Nobody wants to admit that they might have a data management issue. It's easier to get
the real security requirement of a cloud system even by automated systems available. The data management
and governan
ce issues slow the migration process from the offline database to public cloud infrastructure.
However, this is not an issue which could not be solved. The issue can be solved by the using of IT Tools.

This study proves the above statement, how the data ma
nagement issues can be solved with existing IT tools.

Keyword

:
-

Cloud Computing, Data Management issue, Cloud Security, Web Security.

I.

INTRODUCTION


1.1




Definition of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application"
"storage" and "connectivity."

Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared
resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the
electricity grid) over a n
etwork (typically the Internet).

users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app
while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location.

Cloud computing systems typically use REST
-
based APIs.

This is purported to lower barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third
-
party and
does not need to be purchased for one
-
time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.

One can define cloud computing as a pay
-
per
-
use mode
l for enabling on
-
demand access to
reliable and configurable resources that can be quickly provisioned and released
-

with minimal
consumer involvement in terms of management. You pay only for the resources you use.

[5]
[3]














Example:
-

Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc




You don’t need software or a server to use them.



A consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails.



totally managed by the cloud service provider Yahoo , Google etc



The analogy is, '
If you need milk, would you buy a cow?’

[6]



Just to get this benefit (milk) why should

a consumer buy a (cow) software /hardware?




Billy Marshall in "

Cloud Computing Casts Shadow on Walled Gardens
" declares himself "a bit disappointed
with Google's
AppEngine
"



Charrington, Sam
-

is author of the "In the Loop" blog and wrote "
Cloud
Computing: It's the Future of
Enterprise IT
"
-

in which he declared "I strongly believe that in the future, most if not all server
-
side
software applications will be deployed in a cloud
-
computing
-
like manner." Charrington is VP of Product
Management & Mark
eting at Appistry.




A Cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter
-
connected and
virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified
computing resources based on service
-
l
evel agreements established through negotiation between the
service provider and consumers.

-

Rajkumar Buyya, University of Melbourne


1.2




Characteristics

of cloud computing



Autonomic computing


Computer systems capable of self
-
management.



Client

server
model


Client

server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that
distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients).



Grid computing


"A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virt
ual
computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to
perform very large tasks."

Cloud computing

is a technology that uses the
internet and central remote servers to maintain
data and applications. Cloud computing allows
consumers and businesses to use applications
without installation and access their personal files
at any computer with internet acc
ess. This
technology allows for much more efficient
computing by centralizing storage, memory,
processing and bandwidth. Cloud (internet).

As a metaphor for the Internet, "the cloud" is a
familiar cliché, but when combined with
"computing," the meaning get
s bigger and fuzzier.
Others go very broad, arguing anything you
consume outside the firewall is "in the cloud,"
including conventional outsourcing.



Utility computing


The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a
metered service similar to a tra
ditional public utility, such as electricity."




Peer
-
to
-
peer


Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with
participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to
the traditional client

server model).



Cost is claimed to be reduced



Appli
cations can be easily migrated from one physical server to another.



self
-
service basis near real
-
time



Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be
installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different

places.



On demand self services



Broad network access



Resource pooling



Rapid elasticity



Measured service



Multi Tenacity

[
3][7]



II.


Cloud Architecture


2.1




Service Models of Cloud Computing



SaaS (Software as a Service):

This is the most popular form of cloud services. The service
provider offers a software to support the service on offer. The software is built by the service
provider while the end users can configure it to suit their needs. The clients (end users)
however
, cannot change or modify the software.
Mozy
is an example of SaaS.

e.g., Gmail,
Google Calendar
[3]
[8]




PaaS (Plaform as a Service):
Offers a platform to clients for different purposes. For example, the
Windows Azure

offers a platform to developers to build, test, and host applications that can be
accessed by the end users. The end users may or may not know that the application is hosted on the
cloud.
You

do not need to build the platform. You just pay a nominal fee fo
r using the service.

e.g.
Google
AppEngine
[3]

[8]




IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service):
Offers infrastructure on demand. The infrastructure can be anything
from storage servers to applications to operating systems.
Office 365
offers a combination of these
i
nfrastructure and falls under this category. With Office 365, you can get plenty of applications along
with storage space. Buying infrastructure or renting it out in traditional models can be very expensive.
When you opt for IaaS, you save a lot on expense
s, space, and personnel required to set up and
maintain the infrastructure. The cloud service provider takes care of setting up and maintaining the
infrastructure. You just pay a fee to use it per your requirements.

e.g., IBM Blue house, VMWare,
Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure Platform, Sun
Para
scale

etc.
[3]

[8]




Figure
1

Deployment Models of Cloud Computing

Figure
2

Models of Cloud Computing


2.2




D
eployment models

of Cloud
Computing



Private

o

Compute Utility
: An infrastructure physically dedicated to one
organization
.

o


Community Cloud
: An infrastructure spanning multiple administrative domains that is
physically dedicated to a specific community with shared concerns.

[3][9]



Public Cloud
: An infrastructure spanning multiple administrative domains that is made
available to the general public / businesses, without physical partitioning of resource
allocations. (There is arguably only one public Cloud


hence the phrase “host it
in The
Cloud”.)

[3][9]



Hybrid Cloud
: A combination of public and private compute utilities in order to allow “cloud
bursting” for some requirements, or to allow a private compute utility owner to sell their
spare capacity into The Cloud.
[3][
9
]

Unlike Grid
Computing, Utility Computing or Autonomic Computing, Cloud Computing is an
Independent Platform; Google Apps is one of the good examples of C
loud Computing.

[3][9]

III




Benefit V/s Issues in Cloud Computing

3.1




S
ix Benefits of Cloud Computing



Reduced Cost Cloud technology is paid incrementally, saving organizations money.



Increased Storage Organizations can store more data than on private computer systems.



Highly Automated No longer do IT personnel need to worry about keeping software up to
d
ate.



Flexibility Cloud computing offers much more flexibility than past computing methods.



More Mobility Employees can access information wherever they are, rather than having to
remain at their desks.



Allows IT to Shift Focus No longer having to worry a
bout constant server updates and other
computing issues, government organizations will be free to concentrate on innovation.
[15]


SAAS

PAAS

IAAS

3.2




O
pen Issues in Cloud Computing

There are many open issues are known in implementing the Cloud Computing, few of them are
o
utlined here:

1.

Latency in performance

2.

Data Synchronization with Off
-
line modifications had done while unavailability of the
network connectivity.

3.

Programming Scalability Issues

4.

Issues concerning Management of Data Storage

5.

Failure issues in Services in
terms of Cloud based hardware, software, connectivity or
personnel.

6.

Safety
-
critical processing

7.

Economic Goals

8.

Risk of Business continuity

9.

SLA Evaluation

10.

Portability of workloads

11.

Interoperability between cloud providers

12.

Disaster Recovery

13.

Physical Data Locat
ion

14.

Information Security

a.

Risk of unintended Data disclosure

b.

Data Privacy

c.

System Integrity

d.

Browser Support

e.

Hardware support for trust

f.

DDOS Attack

g.

Network sniffing

h.

SQL Injection

15.

Legal Issues

3.3





A
dvantage of Cloud Computing



Green Computing
--

Green computing
can be defined as energy efficient usage of computing
resources. Most of the computers today are Energy Star certified. Taking the advantages of
cloud computing further contributes to green computing. . If you use less computers and
servers, you also cut d
own on cooling resources, which reduce both electricity usage and
carbon emissions
-

again contributing to the environment and green computing.



Conclusion
--

Remote Accessibility:
With cloud computing, your business is not restricted to
a particular locatio
n. This applies to individuals also. You can access the services from
anywhere. All you need is your ID and password. In some cases, there may be extra security
requirements but as they too are mobile, you can easily access your cloud services from any
par
t of the world.



Easy Expansion:
As of the characteristics of cloud computing is its flexibility, you can quickly
access more resources if you need to expand your business. You need not buy extra
infrastructure. You just need to inform your cloud provider a
bout your requirements and
they will allocate resources to you. In most cases, the entire process is automated so the
expansion takes just a few minutes. The same is applicable if you wish to use less resources.
One of the best advantages of cloud computin
g is easy re
-
allocation of resources.



Security:

Though people doubt cloud computing, clouds tend to be more secure than the
traditional business models. Clouds offer real
-
time backup which results in less data loss. In
case of outage, your customers can us
e the backup servers that sync with the main ones as
soon as they are up. Your business gets maximum uptime without any loss of data during the
transitions. Other than this, clouds are less prone to hacks and DDoS attacks as people don’t
know the whereabou
ts of your data.



Environmentally Friendly
: Usage of ready
-
made resources tailored to your needs helps you
reduce the electricity expenses. While you save on electricity, you also save on resources
required to cool off computers and other components. This r
educes the emissions dangerous
to environment.



Cost
-

As in the clouds the user needs not own the resources, it just need to pay as per the usage in
terms of time, storage and services. This feature reduces the cost of owning the infrastructure
[10], [11].



Performance
-
the performance is improved because the cloud is not a single computer but a large
network of powerful computers resulting in high processing power [10], [12], [14].



Freedom from up gradation and maintenance
-

the cloud infrastructure is maintai
ned and
upgraded by the cloud service provider [11], [12].



Scalability
-

The user is can request to increase the resources if the area of application grows or
new functionality is added. On the other hand if requirement shrinks the user can request to
reduc
e the resources as well [12], [13].



Speedy Implementation
-

Time of Implementation of cloud for an application may be in days or
sometimes in hours. You just need a valid credit card and need to fulfill some online registration
formalities [11], [12], [14].



Its Green
-

The cloud computing is a green technology since it enable resource sharing among
users thus not requiring large data centers that consumes a lot of power [13], [14].



Mobility
-

We don’t need to carry our personal computer, because we can access

our documents
anytime anywhere [11][12].



Increase Storage Capacity
-

In Cloud computing we have extreme resources for storing data
because our storage consists of many bases in the Cloud. Another thing about storing data in the
Cloud is that, because of o
ur data in the Cloud can automatically duplicated, they will be more
safety [10], [12].

The advantages of cloud computing include reduced costs, easy maintenance and re
-
provisioning of
resources, and thereby increased profits. Cloud also helps save the env
ironment. This article covers
cloud computing advantages while discussing how cloud computing contributes to green computing.

Any cloud should have the following characteristics irrespective of whether it is private or public and
irrespective of the type o
f service it offers:

1. It should be able to quickly allot and relieve resources whenever required by clients

2. It should have real
-
time backup to offer maximum up time to clients

3. It should be able to cater to the needs of clients without having to inv
olve clients into
management of the service

The next section takes a look at advantages of cloud computing by studying the different types of
clouds based on the service they offer.

The

most basic ones being
remote accessibility, lower costs
, and
quick
re
-
provisions
.


3.4


I
s Cloud Computing Right For You?



Vendor lock in

-

it’s almost like the age of the OS wars are over, the next major war are going
to be the cloud computing platform wars, yup
-

cloud computing vendors don’t just provide
you a service they provide a platform for you to build your apps, and once your hook
ed to
one vendors platform its going to be very difficult to make it support another vendors
platform, im sure even MS is aware of this and would push heavily for cloud computing
initiatives via Red Dog, Zurich and the Oslo wav
e.



Pricing

-

this is one of t
hose gotchas that you just cant escape, clients may opt for cloud
computing as a cost effective mechanism, however in a this model they are not paying a one
time cost
-

it’s a subscription charge they are paying and the service vendor can hike the
subscrip
tion charges at a later time, that compounded by vendor lock in (above) would raise
serious questions on moving to cloud computing.



Service Level Agreement (SLA)

-

like in case of pricing (above), SLAs have a similar story
-

you
move to a cloud service for

better SLA that what you can economically manage
-

however
now your at the mercy of the service provider. Recent downtimes by providers such as
Amazon tells you that all is not always well in a cloud computing model.



Application design

-

Look at most OLTP

apps today, it would have some form of tiered
design approach. Traditionally these tiers would be designed to work in close proximity to
the other tiers
-

with the cloud computing model there is going to be a radical shift in how
we design applications an
d services. Several SOA best practices (patterns and anti
-
patterns)
would apply to design applications that leverage cloud computing as well.



Scalability bottlenecks

-

This is closely related to application design but explicitly called it out
cause in many

ways an application can be developed via composition of service from various
cloud computing providers, however keep in mind that scalability on only as strong as the
weakest link in the architecture, incorrect selection of one vendors service can comprom
ise
the performance of the entire application. Many vendor (like Googles AppEngine) provide a
end to end cloud computing platform, this makes it more compelling for companies to adopt
such service provider that others.

Like any evolving technology, cloud c
omputing will see its fair share of growing pains. However, its
one of those disruptive technologies that come once in a while that can radically change how we
build, manage and consume software.

3.5




D
isadvantages Of Cloud Computing


1.Security & Privacy

The biggest concerns about cloud computing are security and privacy. Users might not be
comfortable handing over their data to a third party. This is an even greater concern when it comes
to companies that wish to keep their sensitive information on cloud
servers. While most service
vendors would ensure that their servers are kept free from viral infection and malware, it Is still a
concern considering the fact that a number of users from around the world are accessing the server.
Privacy is another issue w
ith cloud servers. Ensuring that a client’s data is not accessed by any
unauthorized users is of great importance for any cloud service. To make their servers more secure,
cloud service vendors have developed password protected accounts, security servers t
hrough which
all data being transferred must pass and data encryption techniques. After all, the success of a cloud
service depends on its reputation, and any sign of a security breach would result in a loss of clients
and business.


2.Dependency (loss of
control):


Quality problems with CSP(Cloud Service Providers).No influence on maintenance levels and fix
frequency when using cloud services from a CSP.

No or little insight in CSP contingency procedures. Especially backup, restore and disaster recovery.

N
o easy migration to
another

CSP.

Measurement of resource usage and end user activities lies in the hands of the CSP

Tied to the financial health of another Company.



3.Cost

Higher costs. While in the long run, cloud hosting is a lot cheaper than tradition
al technologies, the
fact that it’s currently new and has to be researched and improved actually makes it more expensive. Data
centers have to buy or develop the software that’ll run the cloud, rewire the machines and fix unforeseen
problems (which are alw
ays there). This makes their initial cloud offers more expensive. Like in all other
industries, the first customers pay a higher price and have to deal with more issues than those who switch
later (although it would be very hard to create and improve new t
echnologies without these initial adopters).



4.Decreased flexibility

This is only a temporary problem (as the others on this list), but current technologies are still in the
testing stages, so they don’t really offer the flexibility they promise. Of cour
se, that’ll change in the future, but
some of the current users might have to deal with the facts that their cloud server is difficult or impossible to
upgrade without losing some data, for example.



5.Knowledge And Integration

Knowledge:

More and deeper

knowledge is required for implementing and managing SLA contracts with CSP’s
,Since all knowledge about the working of the cloud (e.g. hardware, software, virtualization, deployment) is
concentrated at the CSP, it is hard to get grip on the CSP.

Integrati
on:

Integration with equipment hosted in other data centers is difficult to achieve. Peripherals integration.
(Bulk)Printers and local security IT equipment (e.g. access systems) is difficult to integrate. But also (personal)
USB devices or smart phones or

groupware and email systems are difficult to integrate.






3.6




T
rends of cloud computing

I have mentioned
the biggest five trends of cloud computing

that this year holds:

1.

OpenStack

2.


PaaS

3.


Big Data






4.


NoSQL

5.

Hadoop

6.

DevOPS

7.

Hypervisors.

1.

OpenStack



It i
s a software suite for building and managing public and private clouds. The OpenStack,
founded by Rackspace and NASA, since October 2011 became an independent foundation.

2.

PaaS



Platform as a Service, certainly one the most controversial pillars of Cloud
Computing. PaaS
knows the various “PaaS vendors” already on the market. Some of them are:


Cloud Foundry,
Windows Azure and Open Shift. In short, are platforms that support the development and deployment
of applications in many different languages?

I thought wise to address this
future of databases.

3.

Big Data

--

The
“Big Data”

is the solution to manage huge volumes of data, some applications require,
and allow organizations to create data warehouses larger and more efficient to feed their business
in
telligence systems, creating a universe of knowledge that is transformed into competitive
advantage.

4.

NoSQL


The
NoSQL

(“Not Only SQL”) is a term used for a class of banks, non
-
relational data. There are
already many players like Cassandra, MongoDB, CouchD
B, among others, and large applications, like
Facebook, are using the non
-
relational database.

5.

Hadoop


The NoSQL is increasingly converging with the Big Data and solutions such as Hadoop from
Apache, which is a framework for Big Data, and has already
generated noise in 2011. They are strong
candidates to gain grip in this market.

6.

DevOps



It seems to be the profession’s future. As the name implies it is the junction of the
developer with the operator (SysAdmin). In several events that participated in 2
011, speakers and
influential people in the cloud computing market said DevOps is the future!

7.

Hypervisors



In addition to the technologies mentioned above I believe that the market Hypervisors
will also be well shaken in 2012. Companies and ISPs are incre
asingly seeking open source solutions or
cheaper alternatives to the high tolls charged by the major players of business solutions such as
VMware and Citrix. The issue is that the open source alternatives were below expectations and there
were no other, an
d more complete account, offered commercially. I am following two virtualization
solutions that will likely make noise this year, KVM and Hyper
-
V.

KVM has been adopted as the first option hypervisor by major Linux distributions and several
suppliers are no
w using it in the market or accommodating their solutions with KVM. Since Microsoft
is a very aggressive business model for commercialisation of Hyper
-
V, which won several powerful
features.

Author Bio:
-

Mac Wilson is an Online Marketing Expert at eUKhost
Ltd. eUKhost


UK’s low cost, yet
reliable uk
web hosting cheap

service provider launched a new Intelligent, Auto
-
Scalable
eNlight Cloud
Solution

platform.

3.7




T
he tradeoff between cost and security

Following approaches may be adopted to make cloud computi
ng more secure and convenient while keeping
the cost of implementing cloud low [13], [14], [16], [17]:



When a user registers for any cloud computing services, strict validation check should be applied
about
the user’s background.



The Cloud Service Provider and the user must sign a Service Level Agreement (SLA), clearly defining
the role and responsibilities of both parties and terms and conditions of contract breakup.



Accountability for data loss (if any), because of the cloud ser
vice provider need to defined and
measures of data backup should be there.



The Cloud Service Provider must ensu
re strict authentication and validation policy for employees.



There should be an audit process for the cloud service providers.



Frame a minima
l set of standards for cloud computing.



The cloud service providers should be accredited.


vi.
Data Management in the Cloud
Computing:

It is the first question may be raised that how the cloud provider manages that which data to be
stored and where it will store.

It's easier to get the real security requirement of a cloud system even by automated systems available.
The data management an
d governance issues slow the migration process from the offline database to public
cloud infrastructure. However, this is not an issue which could not be solved. The issue can be solved by the
using of IT Tools.This study proves the above statement, how th
e data management issues can be solved with
existing IT tools.

One of the more uncomfortable things about cloud computing is that it shines a spotlight on data
management and governance. The data management skills of most IT organizations are sorely lackin
g. So
when someone suggests that they need to start using cloud computing services to save money, the first thing
that comes to mind is how they will manage which data is stored where.

While the council has a lot of good thoughts on the subject, the one th
at stands out most is ‚"the need
to own your information." Far too many cloud computing providers, in the name of simplicity, skimp when it
comes to giving customers the management tools they need to govern their data. So it's little wonder that
there is a

lot of resistance to public cloud computing.

The vendors will get better at delivering data management and governance tools that customers can
federate across private and public cloud infrastructure. In the meantime, IT organizations would be well
advised

to start thinking about data in terms of its business value and then developing management policies
that reflect the true value of that data.

This data management and governance issue will slow the migration to public cloud infrastructure more than
any
other. But like most things IT, it's a solvable problem that frankly requires more disciple than actual
technology. In fact, when you think about cloud computing at its highest level, it's all about imposing discipline
and repeatable processes on IT practi
ces. But none of that can happen unless we can manage the data.

Not everything that goes into the cloud needs to be absolutely secure. But when sensitive information is
stored in the cloud, the IT organization absolutely needs to be able to impose its gove
rnance policies on it.







Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to Prof. S.S. Sarangdevot,
Dean &

Director, Department of Computer
Science and IT, JRN Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University for their motivation and facilitate the research.


CONCLUSION

In above paper we had recognized that cloud computing has large amount of data sharing rate in a small
amount of time which create many problems related to database management and security
factor.
if we
adopted above technique if data management it will be

easier to retrieve, modify, the data in cloud computing
it will more safe from disasters and unexpected loss in the data.


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-
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-
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-
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-
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Philippe Golle, Markus

Jakobsson, Ryusuke Masuoka, Jesus Molina Elaine Shi, Jessica Staddon Parc,
CCSW’09, November 13, 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

March 2012