peletonwhoopΠολεοδομικά Έργα

26 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

193 εμφανίσεις


Ed Cross

BE, Grad.Dip(Tech.Mgt), MIEAust, CPEng


This paper outlines the major advantages of the use of post-tensioning in
building structures. Economics of the post-tensioning slab system are
discussed including relative material contents, speed of construction, and
factors affecting the cost of post-tensioning. Various post-tensioned
structural systems are presented, along with their relative advantages,
applicability to various situations, and span to depth ratios to enable a
designer to select the correct slab and beam thickness for a variety of
situations. Finally, a discussion on the flexibility of post-tensioned building
structures in terms of future uses, new floor penetrations and demolition is


When Eugene Freyssinet developed and patented the technique of prestressing concrete in
1928 he little realised the applications to which his invention would be put in future years.
Spectacular growth in the use of prestressed concrete took place after the Second World War
with the material used to repair and reconstruct bridges in Europe. It is now an accepted Civil
Engineering construction material.

The A.C.I. Committee on Prestressed Concrete gives one of the most apt descriptions of post-
tensioned concrete.

`Prestressed Concrete is concrete in which there have been introduced internal forces
of such magnitude and distribution that the forces resulting from given external loadings
are counteracted to a desirable degree'.

In post-tensioning we obtain several distinct advantages: -

a) Designers have the opportunity to impart forces internally to the concrete structure to
counteract and balance loads sustained by the structure thereby enabling design

b) Designers can utilise the advantage of the compressive strength of concrete while
circumventing its inherent weakness in tension.

c) Post-tensioned concrete combines and optimises today's very high strength concretes
and steel to result in a practical and efficient structural system.

The first post-tensioned buildings were erected in the USA in the 1950’s using unbonded post-
tensioning. Some post-tensioned structures were built in Europe quite early on but the real
development took place in Australia and the USA. Joint efforts by prestressing companies,
researchers and design engineers in these early stages resulted in standards and
recommendations which assisted in promoting the widespread use of this form of construction
in Australia, the USA and throughout the Asian region.

Technical Director, Austress Freyssinet Pty Ltd
Extensive research in these countries, as well as in Europe more recently, has greatly
expanded the knowledge available on such structures and now forms the basis for standards
and codes of practice in these countries.

Since the introduction of post-tensioning to buildings, a great deal of experience has been
gained as to which type of building has floors most suited to this method of construction. Many
Engineers and Builders can identify at a glance whether the advantages of post-tensioning can
be utilised in any particular situation.

Current architecture in Australia continues to place emphasis on the necessity of providing
large uninterrupted floor space, flexibility of internal layout, versatility of use and freedom of
movement. All of these are facilitated by the use of post-tensioning in the construction of
concrete floor slabs, giving large clear spans, fewer columns and supports, and reduced floor

Post-tensioning in buildings can be loosely divided into two categories. The first application
is for specialised structural elements such as raft foundations, transfer plates, transfer
beams, tie beams and the like. For large multi-strand tendons used in these elements, 15.2
mm diameter seven wire strands are preferred. The anchorages used are the Freyssinet C
Range as shown in Figure 1 below. This system can be used internally within the concrete
section or externally.

Figure 1 – Freyssinet C Range multi-strand anchorage

The second application is for building floor systems, the advantages and economics of which
are discussed below. The preferred slab system for building works in Australia is the well
proven bonded tendon which contains between 2 and 5, 12.7 mm diameter seven wire
prestressing strands with an ultimate tensile strength of 184 kN, housed in oval ducting. The
strands are anchored in flat fan shaped anchorages and stressed mono-strand (that is, one at a
time) using light weight jacking equipment. Figure 2 shows the cast iron anchorage guide,
stressing block, reusable recess former and wedges. Minimum slab thickness for adequate
edge distance, cover to anti-burst reinforcement and the like is 130mm for 2 strands, 140mm
for 3 strands and 150mm for 4 and 5 strands.

Figure 2 – Slab system anchorage components

Why use 12.7mm diameter strands?

A question that arises from time to time is why we use 12.7mm diameter strands for building
works, when on face value 15.2mm diameter strands appears more cost effective. The first
answer is that 12.7mm has a high strength per unit weight when compared to 15.2mm, which
leads to a reduced cost. Secondly, and more importantly from an installation viewpoint, it
allows greater flexibility in choosing the tendon we want to use. This is mainly due to the
recommended maximum tendon spacing being limited to 8 to 10 times the slab thickness. The
addition of a single 12.7mm strand in a tendon leads to a relatively small increase in overall
tonnage and therefore cost, and allows for better customisation of the design.

Of course there are times when 15.2mm strand should be used. This occurs when the tendon
already contains the full 5 strands in a duct and the tendon spacing is not at the maximum
allowed. In our experience this occurs in less than 10% of structures. If this is the case, we
should substitute 15.2mm diameter strands and increase the tendon spacing. This leads to a
reduction in the number of whole tendons and a subsequent reduction in anchorage costs and
labour costs since less whole tendons have to be installed. As noted earlier, 15.2mm diameter
should also be used for specialised structural elements and large civil engineering applications,
where the aim is to use as few whole tendons as possible.

Why a bonded system?

This is another question that arises. Why do we use bonded tendons? Well there are a
number of advantages; higher flexural capacity, good flexural crack distribution, good
corrosion protection, and flexibility for later cutting of penetrations and easier demolition.
However there are some disadvantages such as an additional operation for grouting and a
more labour intensive installation.

However, the main reason why bonded tendons are preferred relates to the overall cost of the
structure and not just of the post-tensioning. With unbonded tendons it is usual to have a layer
of conventional reinforcement for crack control. Using bonded tendons there is no such
requirement and therefore the overall price of bonded post-tensioning and associated
reinforcement is less than for bonded tendons. For unbonded tendons the post-tensioning
price may be less, but the overall cost of reinforcing materials is greater.

Post-tensioned concrete slabs in buildings have many advantages over reinforced concrete
slabs and other structural systems for both single and multi-level structures. Some of the main
advantages are described below.

1. Longer Spans

Longer spans can be used reducing the number of columns. This results in larger,
column free floor areas which greatly increase the flexibility of use for the structure and
can result in higher rental returns.

2. Overall Structural Cost

The total cost of materials, labour and formwork required to construct a floor is reduced
for spans greater than 7 metres, thereby providing superior economy.

3. Reduced Floor to Floor Height

For the same imposed load, thinner slabs can be used. The reduced section depths
allow minimum building height with resultant savings in facade costs. Alternatively, for
taller buildings it can allow more floors to be constructed within the original building

4. Deflection Free Slabs

Undesirable deflections under service loads can be virtually eliminated.

5. Waterproof Slabs

Post-tensioned slabs can be designed to be crack free and therefore waterproof slabs
are possible. Achievement of this objective depends upon careful design, detailing and
construction. The choice of concrete mix and curing methods along with quality
workmanship also play a key role.

6. Early Formwork Stripping

The earlier stripping of formwork and reduced backpropping requirements enable faster
construction cycles and quick re-use of formwork. This increase in speed of
construction is explained further in the next section on economics.

7. Materials Handling

The reduced material quantities in concrete and reinforcement greatly benefit on-site
cranage requirements. The strength of post-tensioning strand is approximately 4 times
that of conventional reinforcement . Therefore the total weight of reinforcing material is
greatly reduced.

8. Column and Footing Design

The reduced floor dead loads may be utilised in more economical design of the
reinforced concrete columns and footings. In multi-storey buildings, reduced column
sizes may increase the floor net lettable area.

When is Post-tensioning Cost Effective ?

The relative economics of post-tensioning versus other forms of construction vary according to
the individual requirements of each case. In any basic comparison between post-tensioned
and reinforced concrete one must consider the relative quantities of materials including
formwork, concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning. Other factors such as speed of
construction, foundation costs, etc., must also be given consideration.

There is not always sufficient time or budget to carry out comparative feasibility studies for all
structural solutions. There are however, some useful guidelines which can be employed when
considering post-tensioned alternatives. As can be seen from figure 3 below, post-tensioned
should be considered as a possible economic alternative for most structures when spans
exceed 7.0 metres.

Figure 3: Cost comparison - Reinforced vs Post-tensioned flat slab.

The graph illustrates two main points. Firstly, how with increasing span the difference in cost
between reinforced and post-tensioned concrete flat slabs also increases. Secondly, using an
index of one for a 7.0 m span how the cost will vary for other spans. For example, a post-
tensioned 10.0 m span will cost approximately 20% more than a post-tensioned 7.0 m span.

In general, for spans in excess of 8.0 metres, savings in excess of $10 per square metre
should be regularly attained in a direct cost comparison with reinforced concrete slabs.

Speed of Construction

Economics and construction speed are heavily linked in today’s building construction
environment. The speed of construction of a multi storey building is foremost in achieving
economic building construction.
The key factor in the speed of construction of a post-tensioned framed building is expedient
use and re-use of formwork. Post-tensioning allows for the early recovery of formwork by early
stressing of tendons. Slab system tendons are usually stressed at the following minimum
compressive strengths:-

a) Initial stress of slab tendons 24 hours after the pour of concrete for control of early
shrinkage stresses at a minimum concrete strength of 7 MPa.

b) Final stressing of the slab system tendons may occur when the concrete has attained
22 MPa based on site cured cylinders in accordance with clause of AS3600.

A typical floor cycle for a multi storey office development is shown below in figure 4. This
building has a floor area of approximately 1000 m
and is divided into two pours per floor by a
construction joint . It is normal to use two full sets of formwork in this type of construction.

Figure 4. Typical 5 day construction cycle. Note that in tower construction it is usual to break
the floor into a minimum of two pours. The above cycle is for a half floor with construction of
the other half proceeding simultaneously.

Factors Affecting the Cost of Post-tensioning

Post-tensioning costs vary from project to project depending upon a number of factors. The
cost of post-tensioning is most sensitive to the following influences, some of which have been
previously documented.

1. Tendon Lengths

The major influence in the cost of post-tensioning depends primarily on the length of the
tendon. Short tendons are relatively expensive in comparison with long tendons.

The relatively high cost of short tendons results from the fixed cost such as
establishment, anchorages and the stressing operation being pro-rated over a lesser
tonnage. Experience has also shown the labour cost for larger tendons to be
appreciably less than for short tendons.

It becomes clear that designers should avoid, if possible, detailing with very short


The University of Technology, Sydney; Post-tensioned Slab Systems - A Post Graduate Short Course, 1990

2. Tendon Arrangement

The designer should always attempt to use as few tendons as possible. This leads to
tendons being placed at the maximum spacing permissible in slabs (approximately 10
times the slab thickness for one way slabs, and approximately 8.5 times the slab
thickness for two way slabs).

For example, if the design calls for a tendon containing 3 strands to be placed at 1125
mm centres, it would be more economical to use 4 strand tendons at 1500 mm centres.
If 5 tendons containing 4 strands each are required in a beam, it will be much more
cost effective to use 4 tendons containing 5 strands each.

3. Stressing Access

Stressing of tendons from the perimeter of the building is preferable to top pocket
stressing due to the following;

a) Clear access around perimeter permits a faster stressing cycle.
b) A curved nose needs to be used for stressing through a top side pan, which
adds to the total loss of prestress through the jack and anchorage by 3%.
c) Access to the top side pans is restricted by the frames supporting the floor
above and other construction debris, increasing the time required to stress the

4. Structural System

The tendon installation, and therefore fixing times for a banded slab is faster than for flat
plate and flat slab structures.

In banded slabs the order of laying is:

a) Bands first
b) Slabs second
c) Slab distribution tendons last

With flat plates and flat slabs the tendons are interwoven which demands greater
installation time than a comparable banded slab, and therefore increased labour costs.

5. Main Contractor

The ability of the main contractor to manage the sub contractors efficiently on site is
paramount as this has a direct bearing on productivity and therefore labour costs. The
main contractor also has a role to play ensuring all sub-contractors have continuity of
work thereby minimising down time. The prevailing industrial climate also plays a role.

6. Site Access

Restricted site access to the construction site is likely to affect all aspects of the project
as materials handling will be slower.
7. Treatment of Construction Joints

Wherever possible construction joints should be stitched using conventional
reinforcement in lieu of post-tensioning couplers. The couplers are made up of
expensive components and require significant labour and importantly, supervision, to
install. Even if couplers are used, significant amounts of conventional reinforcement are
required to keep the joint closed until the prestress is applied. Further guidance is
offered in the next section.

Of the above, the average tendon length has the most significant impact on the cost of post-
tensioning and historically there is a reasonable correlation between the two, with the other
influences creating a scatter of results which provide an upper and lower bound on the cost of
post-tensioning. Figure 5 shows a general range of current costs in Australia based on using 4
strand tendons in a banded slab arrangement and stressing externally.

Figure 5. Graph showing cost of post-tensioning per tonne of strand versus average tendon
length. Note that the cost per tonne of strand is inclusive of labour to install, stressing,
grouting, and post-tensioning materials such as anchorages, ducts, etc.

Economical Design

Of course, the economics of post-tensioned buildings is heavily dictated by the design of the
structure. The designer has a role to play in the minimisation of material quantities, the
selection of the most economical structural system, and the simplification of the detailing
allowing for ease and speed of installation. A few design considerations are briefly mentioned
1. Partial Prestressing

The advent of what is commonly termed partial prestressing has had a significant effect
on the quantity of post-tensioning installed into building structures. Tensile cracking is
allowed to occur, with crack control being provided by the bonded tendons and/or
supplementary reinforcement. A cracked section analysis needs to be carried out to
determine the cracked moment of inertia for use in deflection calculations as well as the
steel stresses to confirm adequate crack control. The availability of computer software
to carry out these calculations has meant that more often than not the amount of post-
tensioning is selected to satisfy deflection criteria.

2. Selection of Column Grid

A column grid spacing of between 8 and 10 metres for carparks, shopping centres and
offices usually results in the most economical structure while maintaining architectural

3. Formwork Layout

Formwork layout should be selected to enable quick fabrication with a minimum of form
ply cutting. Widths of beams should be standardised in consultation with the main
contractor and importantly, the width of the slab between bands should be selected as a
multiple of 1200 mm to suit the standard formwork sheet widths.

4. Construction Joint Treatment

As mentioned previously the detail at the construction joint will play a significant role in
the economics of the floor system. Post-tensioning couplers should be avoided due to
their cost and slow installation. Construction joints should be stitched with conventional
reinforcement as shown in figure 6 below.

Figure 6 – ‘Stitched’ construction joint detail
Note that the amount of reinforcement required to keep a construction joint closed (say
a crack width of 0.2 mm as for reinforced concrete) depends highly on the restraint of
the overall frame. If the frame is very flexible, or alternatively if the construction joint is
adjacent to very stiff elements such as core walls, then the amount of reinforcement
required is quite low. On the other hand, if the frame is very stiff, large quantities of
reinforcement will be required at which point an expansion joint should be positioned
rather than a construction joint.

5. Simplicity In Detailing

As with all methods of construction the speed of installation is highly dependent upon
the quality of the structural detailing. The designer needs to understand the installation
process and be conscious of how their decisions on detailing affects all parties
concerned on site. Detailing should be standardised and as simple as possible to
understand. Congested areas should be carefully assessed and, as appropriate, large
scale drawings and details produced.

6. Anchorage Reinforcement

Standardisation of anchorage reinforcement is important. For the slab system, helical
reinforcement is preferred by the main contractor due to the speed and ease of
installation. It must be noted that by providing a single helix around an anchorage is not
adequate since tensile forces are also generated between anchorages. It is usual to
detail u-bars plus longitudinal reinforcement along the perimeter to control these forces
and to reinforce the un-tensioned area between anchorages.

Figure 7 – Slab system anti-burst reinforcement.

7. L/D Ratios

Choosing the right L/D ratio for the structural system and applied loading is important.
Choosing a high L/D ratio may minimise the amount of concrete, but will increase the
amount of post-tensioning and/or reinforcement required, and perhaps cause increased
vibration. Choosing a low L/D ratio in order to minimise post-tensioning may not secure
the expected result due to minimum reinforcement rules and adequate residual
compression levels to ensure shrinkage cracking is controlled.
8. Load Balancing

The selection of the load to be balanced by the post-tensioning tendons is an important
factor in the economics of post-tensioned systems. One of the major advantages of
post-tensioning is to reduce the long-term deflection of the structure, however selection
of too high a load to balance may incur prestressing costs reducing the economy of the
prestressed solution. A combination of a lower level of ‘balanced load' and the addition
of normal reinforcement at peak moment regions will prove to be a more economical
solution in most applications. Table 1 is a guide to the amount of load to balance under
a range of building uses.

of building
Partitions and Other
Superimposed Dead Load
Live Load
Load to

Car Parks

Shopping Centres

(check transfer




0.0 - 2.0

2.0 - 4.0

0.5 - 1.0






2.4 kPa / m



SW + 30% of
partition load


SW + 20% LL

Note: SW denotes self weight, LL denotes live load.

Table 1. General level of load to be balanced by post-tensioning tendons to give an economic

9. Terminate Tendons Wherever Possible

Often the amount of post-tensioning required within a member varies across its
length. For example, end bays usually require a greater level of prestress to control
deflections than internal bays. Terminating the post-tensioning once it is not required
can be achieved by either terminating whole tendons or terminating individual strands
using a ‘short dead end’.

10. The Use of Finite Element Analysis for Selected Projects

With the advent of sophisticated finite element analysis programs that are relatively
easy to use, significant economy can be gained for selected projects. The types of
structures benefiting from FEA methods are residential flat plate construction with an
irregular supporting column grid and transfer structures such as transfer plates and
raft foundations.

We find that the use of FEA methods for these types of structures allow for a better
determination of structural load paths and enables the designer to detail and drape
the post-tensioning tendons to better reflect the slab bending moments. This is what
leads to economy.

The three most common floor systems used for building structures such as offices, shopping
centres and carparks are the flat plate, flat slab and banded slab. For high rise construction a
fourth system is widely used which consists of band beams at relatively close spacing spanning
from the building perimeter to the service core.

Although economy of each of these depend primarily on the span and applied load, it is
generally true to say that a band beam scheme is cheaper than a flat slab which in turn is
cheaper than a flat plate.

To illustrate this an analysis was carried out on a structural scheme for each of the three
systems to show the percentage cost of each structural component. The schemes were based
on a column grid of 8.5 m and imposed load of 5 kPa. A total relative cost figure, also shown,
is obtained by multiplying each structural element by its cost rate. This rate varies from country
to country, but the trend will remain unchanged. Refer to table 2 below.

Concrete 25 24 24
Reinforcement 6 6 8
Post-tensioning 26 23 20
Formwork 43 47 48
TOTAL 100% 100% 100%
Relative total cost 1 0.97 0.96

Table 2. Percentage floor costs.

Post-tensioning is not limited to simple flat slabs and the range of structural types which can be
economically stressed is almost limitless. Some of the most common floor systems are
presented below along with recommended concrete sizes and span to depth ratios.

Note that the span to depth ratios given depend on the element being an internal bay, end bay
or simple span. Figure 8 explains the differences.

Figure 8: Examples of single spans, end spans, and internal spans.
It should be noted that although often only of secondary consideration, the choice of the system
can depend upon factors other than column spacing, imposed loads and economics.
Headroom clearance for services, or a flat soffit for aesthetics are two other possible governing

1. Flat Plate (figure 9)

This system is commonly used in Sydney for high rise residential construction where
the span is usually 7 to 8 metres. The most attractive feature of this floor system is its
flush soffit which requires simple formwork and greatly simplifies construction.

The depth of a flat plate is often dictated by shear requirements. Thinner slabs or
longer spans can be constructed if column capitals or shear heads are employed.

Used Where spans are similar both directions

Economic Span Range 7.0 to 9.0 m

Imposed Loads Up to 7.5 kPa

Figure 9: Flat plate
2. Flat Slab (figure 10)

A widely used system today for many reasons - flat soffit, simple formwork and ease of
construction, as well as flexibility for locating services.

The economical span range over a flat plate is increase by the addition of drop panels.
The drop panels increase the flexural stiffness of the floor as well as improving its
punching shear strength.

This system provides the thinnest floors and can lead to height reductions and
substantial savings in facade costs.

Used Where spans are similar both directions

Economic Span Range Up to 13.0 m

Imposed Loads Up to 10.0 kPa

Figure 10. Flat slab
3. Banded Slab (figure 11)

This system is used for structures where spans in one direction are predominant. It is
also a very common system due to minimum material costs as well as relatively simple
formwork. In most circumstances the width of the band beam is chosen to suit the
standard sizes of the formwork. The sides of the band can be either square, or tapered
for a more attractive result.

The band beam has a relatively wide, shallow cross section which reduces the overall
depth of the floor while permitting longer spans. This concrete section simplifies the
formwork and permits services to easily pass under the beams. The post-tensioned
tendons are not interwoven leading to fast installation and decreased cycle time.

The band beam system has another advantage which is not widely appreciated. In
most circumstances depending on the actual geometry of the cross section the beam
can be considered as a two way slab for fire rating and shear design. This enables
considerable economies to be achieved in both post-tensioning and reinforcement

Used Span predominant in one direction

Economic Span Range Band Beam: 8.0 to 15.0 m
Slab: 6.0 to 10.0 m

Imposed Loads Up to 15.0 kPa

Figure 11. Banded slab. Note that the band width, Bw is generally in the range 0.15Ls to
0.25Ls. The band sides can be square or tapered.
4. High Rise Banded Slab (figure 12)

This system has gained favour over the past 10 to 15 years for high rise construction
and consists of band beams at relatively close centres spanning between a perimeter
beam and the service core. The system suits system formwork due to the amount of
re-use in high rise construction.

Services may either pass under the shallow bands or, alternatively, pass under service
‘notches’ in the band soffit.

For clear slab spans in excess of 4.5m the use of post-tensioning is economical
perpendicular to the bands and assist in reducing the weight of slab carried by the

Used Long span high rise construction

Economic Span Range Band Beam: 9.0 to 15.0 m

Imposed Loads Up to 7.5 kPa

Figure 12. High Rise Banded Slab.


Post-tensioned floor slabs in Australia are now universally regarded as the most cost effective
form of construction for shopping centres, office buildings, and carparks where spans exceed
7.5 metres. The preferred post-tensioning system used is the well proven `bonded' tendon
utilising from 3 to 5 individual prestressing strands housed in oval ducting and anchored in flat
fan shaped anchorage castings.

A question often asked of post-tensioned slab systems is what happens if we wish to make a
penetration in the slab after construction.

From time to time it has been brought to our attention that certain members of the building
profession see this question as a major obstacle and are reluctant to accept the use of
prestressing in some types of buildings. This is often due to a perceived lack of flexibility in
the structure when it comes to the formation of openings through the slabs some time after

This section will outline the options available to enable the designer to produce a building
which is both economic to construct and easy to modify in the future.

Planning For Openings

1. Possible Future Requirements

There is no doubt that during the lifetime of a structure the requirements of a tenant may alter
with time or the tenant may change several times. Each new tenant will have his own
requirements for mechanical, hydraulic and electrical services, as well as loading
arrangements and general layout.

Therefore, for a building to remain readily lettable in the future it must have the flexibility to
accommodate openings for stairs, services or lifts, and the possibility for changes in loading

2. Choice of Building System

No building system can be infinitely flexible in terms of future tenant requirements.

Whether a slab is constructed from post-tensioned concrete, pre-cast concrete, structural
steel or insitu reinforced concrete there will be certain areas such as main beam strips where
holes cannot be accepted without significant difficulty.

3. Overall Structural adequacy

Whatever the building system and material, it is important to locate the new opening with due
regard to the structural stability of the remaining portion of slab. The Structural Engineer
must check the penetration location and advise any remedial work required, such as
trimming beams, regardless of the structural system.

A post-tensioned slab will have similar strengths and weaknesses in terms of its flexibility as
insitu reinforced concrete. For example, if a new stair well were to be located in the centre of
a panel such that short cantilever slabs were retained on all sides to counterbalance the
adjacent bays, it is quite possible that no additional supporting members would be required.

A precast system or steel framed structure may require the removal of the whole panel,
construction of trimmer beams around the new void, and replacement of the slab to the
surrounding edges.

Designing Post-Tensioned Slabs For Future Openings

1. Locating post-tensioning tendons

For post-tensioned slabs and beams where tendon positions may not be readily identifiable,
soffit marking can be employed. Prior to casting the slab, stainless steel staples are use to
secure the ducts to the formwork. When the formwork is struck, the position of the tendons
is obvious, especially if the staple lines have been linked by painted lines.

Alternatively, chalk lines can be marked on the slab top surface to aid in the locating of post-
tensioning tendons. This procedure will assist in locating openings away from tendons.

2. Structural systems in post-tensioned concrete

a) Band Beam and Slab

For rectangular grids the band beam and slab solution may be appropriate. This is the
system typically used for shopping centres and carparks due to the economic benefit and
relative insensitivity to floor height restrictions.

Normally band beams span in the long direction and impose the same constraints on hole
placement as would a steel or reinforced concrete beam. However, small hydraulic type
penetrations (approximately 150 mm diameter) can usually be accommodated without the
need for remedial action.

The slabs however, are usually quite lightly prestressed with tendons in one direction only at
approximately 1500 mm centres. Reasonable size openings or large slots are therefore easy
to accommodate without the need to cut post-tensioning tendons.

b) Flat Slabs and Flat Plates

For structures requiring minimum floor to floor height and regular grids the two-way post-
tensioned flat slab is usually the most cost effective solution.

The normal installation procedure would concentrate the tendons into ‘column strips' along
the column grids at approximately 600 mm centres with tendons away from the column strip
at approximately 1400 mm centres.

Consequently small holes for services could be located without the need to cut tendons.

Using this structural system it is possible to leave the central panel as traditionally reinforced
and designed as a `soft zone' to easily accommodate large openings. The cost penalty for
the extra reinforcement required would need to be offset against the perceived benefits.

c) Ribbed and Waffle Slab

Larger grids or heavier loads may dictate the introduction of ribs spanning either one-way or
two-way (waffle) depending upon the aspect ratio of the grid.

Rib spacings for post-tensioned slabs are generally larger than for reinforced concrete, being
typically 1.2 to 1.5 metres. Consequently small to moderate holes can easily be cut through
the topping slab without disturbing the ribs. Indeed with tendons confined to the ribs their
location is readily identifiable, assisting in the siting of the openings.

Cutting Of Tendons

1. Bonded Tendons

Bonded tendons are located within oval shaped galvanised ducts which are injected with
cement grout following the post-tensioning procedure. Consequently when such a tendon is
severed, the free end will become de-tensioned but after a short transmission length the full
tendon force will be effective. This distance is in the order of 800 to 1000 mm.

Present quality assurance methods and supervision ensure that the tendons have been
adequately grouted after the application of prestress.

If a penetration is required that will need the termination of a bonded tendon, then the
procedure follows that for a fully reinforced structure.

Cutting a bonded post-tensioned tendon is, structurally, the same as cutting through
conventional reinforcement. The tendon, however, needs to be `terminated' in order to give
full corrosion protection (as does conventional reinforcement).

Tendons are easy to cut using a disc cutter. In fact, cutting tendons requires less effort than
for a fully reinforced slab due to the relative amount of reinforcing material to be cut.

2. Unbonded Tendons

These tendons come individually greased and plastic coated and are therefore permanently
de-bonded from the slab.

When unbonded tendons are severed, the prestressing force will be lost for the full length of
the tendon.

Note that this form of post-tensioning is not allowed in suspended slabs in Australia
and therefore problems associated with cutting unbonded tendons are not applicable.

When contemplating the cutting of an unbonded tendon it is therefore necessary to consider
the aspects as noted below.

a) Cutting the tendons.

The strand is packed with grease which prevents an explosive release of energy when the
tendon is severed. Even so a gradual release of force is recommended. This can be
achieved by using two open throat jacks back to back. After cutting the strand the force can
be gently released by closing the jacks.
b) Propping the slab.

Adjacent spans may require temporary propping depending upon the number of tendons
severed at one time. It is rare for a slab to carry its full design load. A design check based on
actual loading at the time of the modification may show props to be unnecessary.

c) Forming the hole.

When the edge of the slab is re-concreted new anchors are cast in to enable the remaining
lengths of tendon to be restressed, thus restoring full structural integrity. The above
operations are not difficult but will require the expertise of a post-tensioning sub-contractor.

Demolition Of Post-Tensioned Structures

In the case of post-tensioned structures using bonded tendons, demolition can be carried out
using techniques similar to those used to demolish reinforced concrete structures. Due to its
induced compression the concrete is significantly harder and whilst tendons are made from
high tensile strand there is considerably less steel to cut and generally concrete sections will
be thinner than comparable reinforced concrete structures.

Only in the case of transfer slabs or beams, which have been progressively stressed, must
extra precautions be taken to avoid upward bursting of concrete as the self weight of the
structure above is progressively removed.

The cutting of unbonded tendons may result in dramatic collapse of a structure, but properly
considered, can be used to advantage, enabling rapid demolition of large areas as the force
in the supporting tendons is released.

In Summary

It is not uncommon for post-tensioning to be rejected in certain types of building project due
to a perceived lack of flexibility. This, in the majority of cases, is based more on a fear of the
unknown than on sound technical knowledge.

With a little forethought it can be seen that post-tensioning need not mean a dense mat of
tendons in all directions. Tendons are usually spaced sufficiently far apart to allow
penetrations of reasonable size to be made later, without cutting through the tendons.

Where there is a reasonable possibility that a penetration may be required in the future, slabs
can be built with `soft zones' to allow later perforation by voids without cutting tendons.

Should it be necessary to cut tendons this can easily be achieved using well established
methods and in short, whilst the modification of a post-tensioned slab may require more
planning than other forms of construction, its use will present the client with a building which
is both economical to construct and flexible for its life.


In conclusion it is worthy to reinforce a few key points.

There is a definite trend towards large spans in buildings due to the fact that there is now more
emphasis on providing large uninterrupted floor space which can result in higher rental returns.
Post-tensioning is an economical way of achieving these larger spans. For spans 7.5 metres
and over, post-tensioning will certainly be economic and, as the spans increase, so do the

The most significant factor affecting the cost of slab system post-tensioning is the tendon
length. Other factors create a scatter of results leading to an upper and lower bound.
Notwithstanding this, it is always advisable to obtain budget prices from a post-tensioning

The main structural schemes available are the flat plate, flat slab and banded slab, with the
latter generally leading to the most cost-efficient structure. However, other factors such as floor
to floor heights, services, etc., must be taken into account in the selection of the floor structure.
For high rise construction and highly repetitive floor plates, the use of more specialised
structural schemes is appropriate with emphasis on systems formwork.

It is not uncommon for post-tensioning to be rejected in certain types of building project due
to a perceived lack of flexibility. However, tendons are usually spaced sufficiently far apart to
allow penetrations of reasonable size to be made later, without cutting through the tendons.
Should it be necessary to cut tendons this can easily be achieved using well established