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Aalborg
University

Ballerup


Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


0


Semester:

2
nd


Title:

Implementing

a Data Collection System

To Improve Content Delivery for DVB
-
H


Project Period:




From
1
st

February 2010

to
31
st

May

20
10



Semester Theme:


Application Development



Supervisor(s):


Reza Tadayoni

Allan
Hammershøj
























Project group no.:

10ic120


Members:

1


Hristo S. Blagoev 20094431









Copies:

Electronic copy and 3
printed copies

Pages:

22

Finished:

31
/
05
/20
10
/ at 12:00 hrs.

Abstract
:



The
project is about implementing a system, which is
capable of improving the content delivery for DVB
-
H. This can be accomplished by making an
application which provides a service that collects and
manages data supplied from the smart
-
phones
through an intera
ctive channel to the Service
Provider. In this case there are many privacy and
security issues that have to be addressed, to keep the
users interested in the service. The aim of this service
is to supply relevant information to the Service
Provider for fut
ure improvement on the content
delivery, without exposing the user’s privacy and
jeopardising his security. The business potential for
the service should keep the interest of the Service
Provider, while the interest of the user is to have the
service to be

as cheap as possible, effective, and with
good quality of service. There are also some technical
issues that have to be addressed, and together with
the ones coming from the business potential and the
users, they should form the requirements
specification
s for the service. From there the relevant
security and privacy policies can be developed
together with the conceptual design. This design will
be turned into a working application.

Aalborg
University Ballerup

Lautrupvang 15, 2750 Ballerup
, Denmark


Semester Coordinator: Henning Olesen


Secretary: Judi Stærk Poulsen


Phone:
9940 2468

judi
@media.aau.dk

https://internal.media.aau.dk/

Aalborg
University

Ballerup


Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


1


1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

2

1.1

Background and Motivation

................................
................................
................................
..

2

1.2

Problem Formulation

................................
................................
................................
.............

3

1.3

Methodology

................................
................................
................................
.........................

4

1.4

Structure of Report

................................
................................
................................
................

5

2

System Description

................................
................................
................................
......................

6

3

User R
equirements

................................
................................
................................
.......................

9

3.1

User Scenarios

................................
................................
................................
.....................

11

3.2

Use Cases

................................
................................
................................
............................

17

4

The Business Model

................................
................................
................................
...................

23

4.1

Serv
ice Design

................................
................................
................................
.....................

25

4.2

Technology Design
................................
................................
................................
..............

26

4.3

Organisation Design

................................
................................
................................
............

26

4.3.1

The 3G technologies

................................
................................
................................
....

26

4.
3.2

The DVB
-
H technology

................................
................................
...............................

26

4.3.3

Business Actors from the 3G and the DVB
-
H Effect on the Service

..........................

27

4.4

Finance Design

................................
................................
................................
....................

27

4.4.1

The 3G technologies

................................
................................
................................
....

27

4.
4.2

The DVB
-
H technology

................................
................................
...............................

27

4.4.3

Market Issues of 3G and DVB
-
H Effect on the Service

................................
..............

27

5

Standardization of the CCMS

................................
................................
................................
....

28

6

Requirement Specification

................................
................................
................................
.........

31

7

JavaScript, Qt, and Python

................................
................................
................................
.........

32

7.1

Qt

................................
................................
................................
................................
.........

32

7.2

Python

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

33

7.3

Py
-
Qt (combination between Qt and Python)

................................
................................
.....

33

7.4

JavaScript

................................
................................
................................
............................

34

7.5

Comparison Table

................................
................................
................................
...............

34

8

Design and Implementation

................................
................................
................................
.......

35

9

Conclusion

................................
................................
................................
................................
.

39

10

Preliminary List of References

................................
................................
................................
..

40

Appendix A
-

ADP

................................
................................
................................
.............................

42

Appendix B: Qt GUI Source Code and GUI snapshots

................................
................................
.....

48












Aalborg
University

Ballerup


Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


2


1

Introduction


In this project a
n

implementation

will be developed for a data co
llection system, which will aid

in
the improvement of content deli
very for DVB
-
H
.

The
data collection system

will be implemented in
a simulation and in real
-
life during the
period February 2010


May 2010
.



In this chapter

the relevant background and motivation will be discussed to show why this is a
problem and how important it is (in sub
-
chapter 1.1)
.

The problem will then be presented as a
problem formulation, to explain in more detail what it is (in sub
-
chapter 1.2). Th
is chapter will also
cover how the problem will be solved and by the use of which technologies and programming
languages (in sub
-
chapter 1.3). Finally the structure of the report will be explained together with the
purpose of each chapter (in sub
-
chapter 1
.4).


1.1

Background and Motivation


The CAMMP project and its’ partners DR and Nokia are interested in the development and
implementation of a data collection system for smart
-
phones. Through this data collection system,
the Service Provider is able to collec
t information about the user’s use of the smart
-
phone while
using any application on the smart
-
phone. This project in particular will focus on collecting
information from the user while viewing digital TV on the smart
-
phone. This is interesting since the
d
ata collected can be used by the Service Provider to offer interactive and personalizing services to
the user in addition to just viewing digital TV on the smart
-
phone. It can also be used to improve
the quality of the service, and for these reasons the us
er is interested. On the Service Provider side,
the innovative development is important as well as charging the user for the personalizing services
offered and making a business out of it.


The chosen problem is interesting due to the interest from both the user and the Service Provider
sides as explained in the previous paragraph. As well as the users, major companies and
organisations are interested in this problem like Nokia, DR, and the C
AMMP project.


This is a problem because the users need to have interactive and personalizing services to increase
their interest in the IP datacast services broadcasted on their smart
-
phones. That will also make the
user feel more in control of the servi
ce, and during this point of time there are more users requesting
to be in control of the services offered to them.


The target users are thus the ones using the smart
-
phones. The problem is relevant in the near
future, as IP datacasting done through broa
dcasting technologies such as DVB
-
H for mobile
handhelds is not implemented in large public areas yet. Today implementations are done in Italy
and Finland without much success and testing is done on it in the other EU countries

[5] and [10]
.
Testing of the

interactive services that can be offered through an interactive channel is done as well


like through a 3G network for example. This is possible as DVB
-
H is IP based

[1], [5], [8], and
[15]
.


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Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


3


This project is a challenge in the countries that have chosen

the DVB
-
H standard for viewing digital
TV on the mobile handheld devices (mostly in Europe). This project in particular is to be
implemented in Denmark with the aid and equipment supplied by the CAMMP project.


This problem is already researched well in m
y report called “
Conceptual Design for a Data
Collection System

t
o Imp
rove Content Delivery for DVB
-
H
”. In it the DVB
-
H standard and the 3G
interactive channel are argued for why they should be used in this project. It is relevant to mention
that the two E
SG standards CBMS (from the DVB group) and OMA BCAST (from the OMA
group) are discussed, and they are relevant as the ESG is the Electronic Service Guide. This guide
contains information about the available services amongst which the users can choose from.

It is
important to determine that the OMA BCAST ESG is more developed than the CBMS ESG
especially in terms of interactivity. The 2
nd

version of the CBMS

ESG

will include similar kind of
interactivity as in the OMA BCAST

ESG;

however, the OMA BCAST

ESG

wi
ll develop even
further so this will be the chosen candidate

[1], [5],

[8], and

[15]
.


The report also covers the requirement specifications for the service, as well as its derivation. On
the basis of that the Conceptual Design is formed, which explains ho
w the application should work,
and what functions have to be involved.

The security and privacy policies are also discussed there
-

which information about the user has to be protected and which can be revealed if any. It also has to
be decided if the user

can select himself which kind of information he needs to be protected and
which not or will the Service Provider take care of this part.
This is part

will be explained

in

more
detail

in this report with reference to the other one.


1.2

Problem Formulation


Th
is project aims to create a data collection system for smart
-
phones, through which data is
collected by the Service Provider about the user’s use of the IP datacast services offered to the
smart
-
phone user. The information collected has to be handled in su
ch a way that private
information about the user is not available to a third party that cannot be trusted. The user has to
trust the Service Provider that it will handle the received information properly for anonymous
statistics, and for the use of improvi
ng the quality of service and for offering the user interactive
and personalizing services with accordance to the user’s liking. The service that will do all of the
data collection and management will be referred to as the collection and content management

service (CCMS). The application developed may be just in the form of a GUI without having all the
functions working; however the compulsory requirements are mandatory and they will be working.
This part is mandatory.


This project will also aim to develop

and implement some personalizing services that will be
offered after the Service Provider has received the information from the user. This part however is
optional, as there might not be enough time.




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1.3

Methodology


The setup in figure 1

has to be operational in order to create the
CCMS. This setup

is accomplished
by the use of the OMA BCAST CAMMP backend platform and the OMA BCAST ESG, which are
both a part of the Service Provider and will be discussed in more detail in the chapters that

follow.


Broadcast

Network
Mobile Network
Service
Provider
Interactive
Broadcast
Mobile
-
phone

User

Figure 1

The main network setup


on this diagram it can be seen how the Service Provider (Content
Provider) connects to the Mobile
-
phone user (Content Consumer) by the use of the broadcast and
the mobile networks.



In figure 1 it can be seen that the Broadcast network is for broadcasting the services onto the

mobile

smart
-
phone user (Content Consumer), and thus the communication takes place in one direction


from the Service Provider (Content Provider) to the
smart
-
phone user through the Broadcast
network. The Mobile network is for the interactive feedback, where the communication occurs in
both directions between the Service Provider and the
smart
-
phone user.

This is where the user can
interact directly with the ta
rgeted service and can receive personalizing services related to this
interactive service.

The communication there occurs in XML form.


Assuming that the above setup is operational, the mobile
-
phone user should receive a defined
quality of service, which i
s acceptable. To make sure that this quality of service is the same for
every mobile
-
phone at any position, the
CCMS

has to be implemented
.


This project will thus deal with the
CCMS
, which will be developed and offered to mobile phone
handheld devices. T
his service will aid the Service Provider by supplying it with information about
how its’ services are used by the mobile
-
phone users


this is all possible due to the ADP
(
Associated Delivery Procedure
). It

is a procedure which

operates at the Application

level of the
OSI model and it is for distributing the various applications, which allow the Service Provider to
obtain information about how the user is utilizing the broadcasted TV services


for example how
long the user has watched certain TV programs
or channels or TV shows, and which ones. The
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Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


5


strength of the reception signal can also be known, as well as the amount of packet loss

[14
]

and
[15]
. This information

is turned into a report full of ADP files by the smart
-
phone and then sent to
the Service
Provider, where it

might later be used for updating the targeted service

or for simply
boost
ing

up the broadcasted signal for better quality of service and reception
by

the
smart
-
phone
users.

The information may also be used for offering certain personaliz
ing services to the user and
also for making anonymous statistics about which TV shows are watched and by what kind of
audience.


This
CCMS

also has to be designed in a way that it does not interfere with the
smart
-
phone user’s
privacy. The security issues

here are of great relevance and they have to be so to avoid misuse of
the mobile
-
phone user’s private information.


The
implementation of the CCMS can be accomplished if it is an application programmed on the
smart
-
phone. In the case of this project, the
smart
-
phone will be the Nokia 5800 model. On it is
possible to make programs in

JavaScript, in

Qt
,

and
in

Python

programming

languages.

In this
report it will be discussed which programming language/languages is/are to be used and for what
reason


it coul
d happen that some part of the application may be programmed in two or all of these
languages in combination or in just one of them. This has to be decided in order to produce the best
possible application for the smart
-
phone environment. In this case the
Nokia 5800 model has a
Symbian OS version 9.4 (an operating system for smart
-
phones) installed on it.


1.4

Structure of Report


Here are the contents of the report:


Chapter 1: Introduction


to introduce the problem; explain what the problem is, why it is a p
roblem
and how it will be solved. It also contains the structure of the report.


Chapter 2: System Description


to

describe in general how the system works, what technologies
are used and why.


Chapter 3: User Requirements


this chapter describes the
nature of the users
,
their needs and what
they
might expect from

the CCMS.


Chapter 4: Business Model


this chapter describes the business issues that need to be considered
when dealing with this project.


Chapter 5: Standardization of the CCMS


this cha
pter describes the idea of standardizing the
CCMS application and what the possible paths of this standardization are.


Chapter
6
: Requirement Specification


this chapter includes the requirement specifications of the
CCMS and an explanation of how they a
re derived.


Chapter
7
: JavaScript, Qt, and Python


this chapter contains a discussion on the three programming
languages, which fit for the Nokia 5800 smart
-
phone. A comparison is to be made between them in
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Innovative Communication Technologies and Entrepreneurship


6


order to decide which programming language/lang
uages is/are to be used/suits best for the purpose
for the application for the CCMS.


Chapter
8
: Design and Implementation


this chapter includes the security and privacy policies, as
well as the design and the implementation of the system. It will be exp
lained in detail how it works.


Chapter
9
: Conclusion


in this chapter the results from the implementation will be presented and
elaborated on and on that basis, the design will be evaluated.


Chapter
10
: Preliminary List of References


this chapter inc
ludes the various sources of literature
used.


2

System Description


In figure 1

the general description of the system can be seen,

however in

figure
2

it is illustrated
with more

details of the components and operation of the Service Provider, and the type of
technologies used for the broadcast and the mobile networks.


Broadcast
DVB
-
H Transmitter
3
G Antenna
Service Provider
Interactive
Data link
Mobile
-
phone user
Gateway
XML
CAMMP Application Server
Internet
XML Data Files
ESG Server Interface
XML
From and Back to the
3
G Antenna
DiviTech EPG
Generator
DiviTech EPG OMA
BCAST ESG
EPSILON
Software
Solution
Multicast UDP
Multicast UDP
RTP
To DVB
-
H Transmitter
Darwin Streaming Server
DVB
-
H TV Exciter and UHF
Amplifier

Figure 2


The overall system description


it is important to notice that the
one
-
way communication occurs
from the Service Provider to the mobile phone through the DVB
-
H transmitter, whereas the
communication occurring through the 3G antenna connecting the mobile phone and the Service
Provider is in both directions. The circled blu
e part consists of the components of the Service
Provider, and that is why it is also inside a blue circle.


In Figure 2

the general network system with an IP broadcast and a datalink is described, and in
particular this shows that the project deals with i
nteractive TV services offered to a mobile
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handheld client. Notifications are used to collect the information about this kind of service’s
operation. For this to work the DVB
-
H and the 3G technologies are used:


-

DVB
-
H is used for offering the

IP datacastin
g and the

broa
dcasting services to the
mobile smart
-
phones in acceptable quality [5, p. 34].

-

3G technologies are used for providing the interactivity and personalization of the
broadcasted services (works in connection with the DVB
-
H).


The users require
that there should be more personalization and interactivity to the TV services
offered to the mobile handheld devices


otherwise the only gain for the user is that he will be able
to watch the digital TV channels and be on the move at the same time (the u
ser might as well watch
the digital TV at home on a nice large TV screen). However, with the personalization and
interactivity services added, the user will have more options.


Interactive services are ones that offer the interactive feedback seen in figu
res 1 and
2
. With it the
users are able to communicate with the Service Provider. Examples of interactive services are when
the user can select the user’s favourite TV shows or allow the user to vote for some favourite
shows.


Personalizing service are one
s that deal with the user’s preferences, which depend on their likes and
dislikes. Examples of personalizing services are ones that allow the Service Provider to recommend
TV shows, programs and channels that the user might want to watch.


There can be int
eractive services that work together with personalizing services. In this project the
interactivity can come from the
CCMS
, which could collect and save information about the
operation of the available TV services, offered to the mobile handheld. This is t
he interactive part.
The personalizing part can then be made by making applications that offer personalizing services
based on the information received from the interactive collection and content management service
(like suggesting TV shows the user might
want to watch), for updating some of the other interactive
services working with the TV services, and for improving the quality of the link (the
communication) between the Service Provider and the mobile phone handheld.


As it can be seen in Figure 2
, the

Service Provider sends the service to the DVB
-
H Transmitter
through a wired connection. The transmitter then uses a DVB
-
H wireless signal to push the
broad
casted services onto the mobile
-
phone. The user at the receiving end can choose to accept the
CCMS

o
r to reject it, and

that will result in the mobile
-
phone sending back a notification signal to
the Service Provider through the 3G antenna. The Service Provider will then respond accordingly as
described in
chapter
5
, and further communication will take pl
ace through the interactive 3G
channel.


As for the components of the Service Provider, the Gateway and the CAMMP Application server
are connecting to the mobile
-
phone user. Since it is a two way communication, content can be
exchanged between the two par
ties in XML form. The CAMMP Application Server can then send
the information as XML Data files to the ESG server about the operation of the service offered to
the mobile
-
phone user. From there the applications can be developed to regulate with what strengt
h
the DVB
-
H Exciter and UHF amplifier should amplify the signal in accordance of the quality of the
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8


reception received by the mobile
-
phone. From the ESG server applications can also be developed to
supply the mobile
-
phone user with other personalizing or i
nteractive services. For all this to work
the first step is to develop the
CCMS
.


The 3G technologies in this project are used for the interactivity. These 3G technologies offer
simultaneous data and speech services through the Internet (they use the IP pr
otocol). It is
characteristic that they have high data rates (for example the 3GPP HSPA+ technology as defined
in release 9 has peak speeds up to 84 Mbit/s on the downlink and 23 Mbit/s on the uplink) [4, p.
86]. The 3GPP LTE has a downlink peak data rates

up to 326 Mbit/s with 20 MHz bandwidth, and
the uplink peak data rates up to 86.4 Mbit/s with 20 MHz bandwidth [4, p. 94]. If one of these 3G
technologies is used, then it will aid is fast data transmissions between the mobile handheld clients
and the Ser
vice Provider.


The advantage of the 3G technologies is that they allow the mobile phone to access the Internet no
matter of the location, but they come at a cost. The Wi
-
Fi although offered for free in most places,
the mobile phone will have access to th
e Internet through that technology only if it is in close range
to a Wi
-
Fi network. For the Bluetooth technology to be used, then the mobile phone has to be even
closer to the source


at the most about 100 meters away. Since the range of operation for the

3G
technologies is much wider, it will be used. It will also allow the Service Provider

to bill the user of
the mobile
-
phone.


To deliver digital TV to the users of handheld mobile phones a broadcast system is to be used. This
is where the DVB
-
H comes i
n, as it has many attractive properties for this kind of service [1,
chap.
4, 5
], [5], [8]:


-

It is a broadcast technology, meaning that the quality of the digital TV channels received is
the same for all the users and it does not get worse as more users
are hooking up to the
channel.

-

It has great picture quality, indoor reception, and tolerance to transmission errors.

-

It is IP based (uses the IP protocol) and this allows it to work with the 3G technologies for
the interactivity part of the service.

-

It is
designed specifically for mobile handhelds in terms of power consumption. This is
achieved through the use of the time slicing technique, which saves up to 90% of the power
used by the battery
-
powered mobile handheld.


The DVB
-
H (Digital Video Broadcasting

-

Handhelds) is similar to the DVB
-
T (Digital Video
Broadcasting
-

Terrestrial) as they are both used for digital video broadcasting to mobile devices.


One difference is that the DVB
-
H targets mobile handheld users (mobile phones, where the memory
and t
he CPU power and the battery power are not so large), whereas the DVB
-
T aims at DVB
-
T
mobile or stationary receivers, which are connected to hardware with large CPU power and
memory.


For this reason the DVB
-
H will be used instead of the DVB
-
T.


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As for th
e DVB
-
SH, it uses satellites as well.
In this project only terrestrial transmitters will be
used. DVB
-
SH can use only the terrestrial transmitters as well, but in this project the focus is on the
use of the DVB
-
H.


3

User Requirements


For the
CCMS

to take p
lace, the mobile handheld device (the user behind it is the Content
Consumer) must send information about the operation of the service to the Service Provider (the
Content Provider). Along with that some personal information about the user might be receive
d by
the Service Provider. Users are usually not so willing to give away personal information, and thus
the system should contain the proper security and privacy policies, and those have to be developed


what kind of information can be obtained from the u
ser through the notifications and which kind
the user will not want to be revealed by the Service Provider to a 3
rd

party? It can also be
programmed that the private information about the user may be used anonymously for statistics and
improvement of the service by the Service Provider, but never to reveal this private information to
any other party. This will assure s
ecurity and privacy to the user, who then might make a
compromise and agree to send the necessary information required to update the service.


It is relevant to mention that most users prefer the service to be free or as cheap as possible and at
the same t
ime to obtain as much as possible out of it. This CCMS could be made for free, but the
business potential for it will then rely on the personalizing services that could be offered to the user
after the Service Provider has received the relevant information

about the user through the CCMS.


The users like to feel in control of operatio
ns occurring between the mobile
-
phone and the Service
Provider. To provide this feeling, the interactive
CCMS

should offer as many options to the user as
possible.

For instance

the user should be able to decide for some of the information he sends to the
Service Provider whether it should be protected or not. For this kind of information the user could
also decide whether to send this information at all to the Service Provider.


Another issue is how often the CCMS should actually collect the information from the smart
-
phone


and that can be decided by the user by letting him select between automatic and manual data
collection options at any point of time as he is using the serv
ice. During the automatic option the
Service Provider will be able to collect information about the user every time he is viewing the
digital TV on the smart
-
phone, while during the manual option the user selects when the Service
Provider is to obtain info
rmation about his viewing of the digital TV. The user might also be able to
disable and enable the collection of the data at any point of time.


It might also be relevant that the user is able to see for himself which channels, TV shows, movies,
and series

he has watched. They can then be ranked in accordance to this, and the user might also be
able to clear it if he wishes to, or to edit the ranking, or keep it as it is.


The information that the Service Provider has obtained about the targeted smart
-
phone with the use
of the CCMS, could be used for offering personalizing services to this mobile
-
phone in accordance
to the user’s likes and dislikes. For that to be effective
it will be important that the user is informed
about the personalizing services that might be offered. The CCMS application might allow the user
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to view the list of available personalizing services, be able to read about them, and even have the
option to d
ownload them


for these the user can be charged.


There might be problems with the interactive connection through the 3G network linking the smart
-
phone and the Service Provider. In this case the Service Provider might not receive all the
information abou
t the user’s viewing of the digital TV. Therefore this information can be stored in
error logs together with information about why the connection was not good. These error logs could
be stored in the smart
-
phone, and the user may then have the options to v
iew them, to update them,
and to send them to the Service Provider when the connection through the 3G network is better. In
this case the information that was supposed to be sent can then be sent to the Service Provider
together with a report explaining th
e type of error that caused the bad connection between the
smart
-
phone and the Service Provider.


The CCMS application should also contain instructions about how to use the service and what the
user options are. It should also contain information about the

version and developer of the
application and service.


Another relevant issue is the quality of the TV service that is received at the mobile handhelds


it
should not depend on the amount of users using it. This is the case when watching Internet TV


t
he
quality gets worse as more users are using it. This is a typical unicast system, and thus that supports
the idea to use a broadcast technology. With that technology every user is able to view the TV
channel with the same quality and this quality does no
t decrease as more users use it. A future
application might be that the
CCMS

is used for supplying relevant information for the regulating of
the strength of the broadcasted signal from the various transmitters. This can be done to insure that
the mobile p
hone’s reception is the same everywhere, and to insure minimum

loss of the
transmitted signal. This is the case if the all the smart
-
phones in a certain transmitter’s range are
having problems with the reception. However, if only a couple of the mobile
-
pho
nes are having
problems with receiving the full content that is broadcasted, then the users will be able to receive
the missing data through the interactive 3G network connecting the smart
-
phone and the Service
Provider.


By summing up the points made in
this chapter, the following services and applications are offered
or are to be offered:


-

Broadcasting digital TV channels to the mobile phones (operational).

-

Interactive services such as the user selecting the favourite TV programs, and voting systems
(par
tially operational).

-

Interactive services that offer possible favourite TV programs, shows, and channels to the user
(not operational).

-

Interactive CCMS

(not operational, to be developed).

-

Interactive updating service on the base of the information receive
d by the
CCMS

(not
operational).

-

Application for regulating strength of the broadcasted signal on the basis of the information
obtained by the data
CCMS

(not operational).


Again by summing up the points above, the user requires the following from the
CCMS
:

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-

It is interactive and the information obtained from it is used for improving the other
interactive and personalization services offered with the broadcasted channels

or through
the 3G network
. It should also be used for improving the quality of service.

-

Proper security and privacy policies, issues, and protection schemes be developed to
make the user make a compromise and send more information about the use of the
service, and to protect the user’s private information from being misused by a 3
rd

party
on
ce it is received at the Service Provider end.

-

Have as many options as possible for the user in the
CCMS

to provide the feeling of
control by the user.


On the basis of these point User Scenarios and Use Cases are developed. They can be found in
the
sub
-
ch
apters that follow
.


3.1

User

Scenarios


Automatic Data Collection Scenario:



CCMS:

Automatic Data Collection Scenario









Description


Jack is waiting at the bus
-
stop for the bus, which is going to be late for
quite some time. To pass the time he decides to view digital TV on his
Nokia 5800 smart
-
phone.
The Service Provider

at this point

sends a
wireless broadcast signal to push the broad
casted services
on his mobile
-
phone.

Through the 3G channel the mobile
-
phone receives the CCMS
prompt, which explains what the service is about and asks if Jack wants
to
subscribe to the
CCMS
.
He

can choose to accept the service or to reject it,
and

that w
ill result in the mobile
-
phone sending back a notification signal
to the Service Provider. The Service Provider will then respond
accordingly to the request of the user:


-

If
Jack

has accepted the service, then the mobile will be asked to
send further notification information regarding how well the
service is applied and all other data relevant to the service (this
communication occurs through the interactive

3G

channel). After
the

notifications are received by the Service Provider, it can use it
for monitoring the usage of the service and
to send any relevant
personalizing services to Jack
. The collection of the information
should occur only while
Jack

is watching the digital TV ch
annel.
When
he

stops watching it, then the
CCMS

stops obtaining data.
When
Jack

decides to watch the same channel again or choose
another one, then the
CCMS

should activate by itself and start
collecting the relevant information without asking the user a 2
nd

time for permeation.

While not watching the digital TV, Jack can
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then switch between automatic and manual data collection options
as he wishes.

-

If
Jack

has rejected the service then the Service Provider can sen
d
a signal asking if he

wants to be reminde
d later for the collection
service or not.



Actor(s)


A mobile phone TV viewer



Stakeholders


Service Providers, Broadcast Services, Interactive Services




Preconditions


The mobile phone device must be in range for the TV broadcast services,
and the

data transfer services. The battery of the mobile phone should
have sufficient power.

The CCMS application is at an installation stage, or
the CCMS is installed and running in manual data collection option.





Post conditions


The Service Provider recei
ves information from the mobile device

in an
automatic data collection mode

about the operation of the interactive TV
services, if the user has accepted the
CCMS
.


The user will not be bothered further about the
CCMS
, if he has rejected
it.

He still has the option to activate or get the service later.




Manual Data Collection Scenario



CCMS:

Manual Data Collection Scenario





Description


Jack has set his smart
-
phone in the automatic data collection mode or still
has not installed the
CCMS application.

He now wants to activate the
CCMS in manual data collection mode. Jack does that so that he can
decide when the Service Provider should obtain information about his
usage of the digital TV services.



One day he might be watching some foo
tball games, and during these
times he might want to activate the data collection so that he might receive
personalizing services related to the football games


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扥⁴
a歩湧⁰ ace爠r楬氠扥⁴慫楮 ⁰污ce⸠


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before and is not sure if he would like it. Then he might not activate the
data collection, and then find out if he likes the show or not. If he
likes it,
then he can activate the data collection during the next time he is watching
this certain TV show. If Jack does not like it, then he will not watch it
again and the Service Provider would not have collected the information
through the CCMS during

the time he had watched the unpleasant TV
show.



Actor(s)


A mobile phone TV viewer



Stakeholders


Service Providers, Broadcast Services, Interactive Services



Preconditions


The mobile phone device must be in range for the TV broadcast services,
and the data transfer services. The battery of the mobile phone should
have sufficient power.
The CCMS application is at an installation stage, or
the CCMS is installed and running in
automatic data collection option.




Post conditions


The Service Provider receives information from the mobile device

in a
manual data collection mode

about the operation of the interactive TV
services, if the user has accepted the
CCMS
.


The user will n
ot be bothered further about the
CCMS
, if he has rejected
it.

He still has the option to activate or get the service later.




Enable/Disable Scenario



CCMS:

Enable/Disable

Scenario





Description


Jack has decided that the Service Provider should not
collect any type of
information about his usage of the digital TV services, but wants to keep
the CCMS application still installed on the smart
-
phone in case he wants to
enable it again. Then in the main menu of the CCMS application he can
click on the ico
n button “Enable/Disable CCMS”. By clicking this button
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䅣瑯爨猩


䄠浯扩Ae⁰桯湥⁔ ⁶楥 er



p瑡步桯汤敲s


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Preconditions


The battery of the mobile phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed already. The user can use this option at any point of
time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not.




Post conditions


The Service Provider

either

receives

or does not receive

information from
the mobile device

accordingly to whether the CCMS is enabled or disabled.




Collection Data Scenario



CCMS:

Collection Data

Scenario





Description


Jack has decided that the Service Provider
should not collect only some
type of information about his usage of the digital TV services. For example
he might not want to send information about the time that he has watched
the digital TV. So Jack clicks on the “Collection Data” command button in
瑨攠
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潮o
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潲o琮


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pe牶楣e猬sf湴敲ac瑩癥 pe牶楣es



m牥c潮摩o楯湳


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周e⁃C䵓
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m潳琠捯湤楴楯湳


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g⁴漠
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what the user wants to be sent to the Service Provider.




Personal Data Scenario



CCMS:

Personal Data

Scenario





Description


Jack is curious and wants to find out himself how he has been using the
digital TV services


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CCMS application he clicks on the “Personal

Data” command button, and a
window pops up with the following options: “Favourite Channels”,
“Favourite Shows”, “Favourite Movies”, and “Favourite Series”. Jack can
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瑯⁲ta牲ange⁴桥楳琬⁵灤t瑥⁩琬⁤敬t瑥⁩琬爠汥a癥⁩ 扥⸠


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䄠浯扩Ae⁰桯湥⁔ ⁶楥 er



p瑡步桯汤敲s


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m牥c潮摩o楯湳


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周e⁃C䵓
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J
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牥ga牤re獳⁩映瑨f⁃C䵓⁩猠s湡扬敤b
摩獡扬d搮



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周q⁵獥爠r楮摳畴⁨潷⁨e⁨ 猠畳敤⁴桥⁤ g楴a氠呖l獥牶楣e献




Available
Personal
Services

Scenario



CCMS:

Available Personal Services

Scenario





Description


Jack might be bored and would like some other interactive and
personalizing services. Then he goes to the main window of the CCMS and
clicks on the “Available Personal Services” command button. A window
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摯睮汯d搠瑨敭⁴漠d桥⁳浡 t
J
灨潮p a猠s灰汩ca瑩潮o⸠䡥⁡汳漠桡猠瑨攠潰瑩潮⁴漠
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update the list, although it should also update automatically. If Jack has
already downloa
ded one of the services, then it will not appear again in the
list.


Actor(s)


A mobile phone TV viewer



Stakeholders


Service Providers, Broadcast Services, Interactive Services



Preconditions


The battery of the mobile
-
phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed on the smart
-
phone. The user can use this option at
any point of time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not, the
CCMS however has to be enabled.



Post conditions


The user finds out which kind of other interactive and personalizing
services are available for downloading, and thus can get them on his smart
-
phone. He can also just read about them and update the list of available
personal services.




Error Log

Scenario



CCMS:

Error Log

Scenario





Description


Jack is experiencing problems with receiving the digital TV services, and
also there is a problem with the 3G channel, through which he could get the
lost data if it is operational. Both the broadcast and the 3G networks are
experiencing some problems or j
ust the 3G network is having problems.
Thus the Service Provider has not received the required information about
the user’s use of the digital TV services. In this case Jack decides to remedy
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c歳渠
the “Error Log” command button. A window pops up displaying some
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Preconditions


The battery of the mobile
-
phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed on the smart
-
phone. The user can use this option at
any point of time, regardless if he

is watching the digital TV or not, the
CCMS however has to be enabled.



Post conditions


The user receives acceptable digital TV services, and the Service Provider
is once again able to receive information about his usage of these TV
services.



By hav
ing
all these options in the CCMS application,

the user will feel more in control of the
service
.


3.2

Use

Cases


Automatic Data Collection
Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Automatic Data Collection


Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the
Service Provider



Preconditions


The mobile phone device must be in range for the TV broadcast services,
and the data transfer services. The battery of the mobile phone should
have sufficient power.

The CCMS application is at an installation stage, or
the CCMS is installed and running in manual data collection option.















1.)

The user
is in

the
manual

data collection option

or has not accepted
the CCMS yet
.
Now he wants to use the
service in Automatic Data
Collection mode.

2.)

The user installs the CCMS application.

3.)

T
he user
selects the automatic data collection option at the
installation stage


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灯楮pⰠ桥 ca渠瑨e渠g漠瑯t瑨攠䵡楮i䵥湵n潦
瑨攠CC䵓 a灰汩ca瑩潮
and click on “Collection Options”, and from there select the
a畴潭a瑩c⁤ 瑡⁣潬oec瑩潮灴o潮⸠

㐮4

The
smart
-
phone sends a signal to the Service Provider to prepare
it for automatic collection mode.


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Description





Post Conditions


The Service Prov
ider receives information from the mobile device

in an
automatic data collection mode

about the operation of the interactive TV
services, if the user has accepted the
CCMS
.


The user will not be bothered further about the
CCMS
, if he has rejected
it.

He still has the option to activate or get the service later.


Extensions

N/A



Manual

Data Collection
Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Manual

Data Collection


Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service Provider



Preconditions


The mobile phone device must be in range for the TV broadcast services,
and the data transfer services. The battery of the mobile phone should
have sufficient power.
The CCMS application is at an installation stage, or
the CCMS is installed and running in

automatic data collection option.






Description


1.)

The user
is in

the
automatic

data collection option

or has not
accepted the CCMS yet
.
Now he wants to use the service in
Manual Data Collection mode.

2.)

The user installs the CCMS application.

3.)

T
he user
selects the manual data collection option at the
installation stage


楦 瑨e 畳ur 摩搠湯n 浡湡来 t漠獥汥lt 楴 a琠瑨t猠
灯楮pⰠ桥 ca渠瑨e渠g漠瑯t瑨攠䵡楮i䵥湵n潦 瑨攠CC䵓 a灰汩ca瑩潮
and click on “Collection Options”, and from there select the
浡湵m氠摡瑡⁣o
汬ec瑩潮灴o潮⸠

㐮4

The
smart
-
phone sends a signal to the Service Provider to prepare
it for manual collection mode.





Post Conditions


The Service Provider receives information from the mobile device

in a
manual data collection mode

about the operation o
f the interactive TV
services, if the user has accepted the
CCMS
.


The user will not be bothered further about the
CCMS
, if he has rejected
it.

He still has the option to activate or get the service later.

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Extensions

N/A



Enable/Disable

Use Case
:


Use
Case

CCMS

Enable/Disable



Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service Provider



Preconditions


The battery of the mobile phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed already. The user can use this
option at any point of
time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not.






Description


1.)

The user
is in the Enabled mode


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㈮O

The user goes to the Main Menu of the CCMS application, and
clicks on the Enable/Disable button.

3.)

The smart
-
phone sends a signal to the Service Provider to inform it
that the user has stopped the service.

4.)

The
user wants to activate the CCMS again


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丯k



Collection Data

Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Collection Data



Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service Provider




The battery of the mobile phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
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Preconditions

application is
at an installation stage, or the CCMS is installed already.
The user can use this option at any point of time, regardless if he is
watching the digital TV or not, regardless if the CCMS is enabled or
disabled.






Description


1.)

The user
wants to send only

some information about his usage of
the digital TV services.

2.)

The user goes to the Main Menu of the CCMS application, and
clicks on the “Collection Data” option.

㌮P

The smart
-
phone shows a list of types of information the user can
choose whether to send it t
o the Service Provider or not.

4.)

The
user clicks around to choose which ones he wants to send and
which ones he wants more protection on them if sent to the Service
Provider.

5.)

The smart
-
phone sends a signal to the Service Provider to prepare
it for these chan
ges.




Post Conditions


The Service Provider receives information from the mobile device
according to the mandatory information that has to be sent and according
to what the user wants to be sent to the Service Provider.


Extensions

N/A



Personal Data

Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Personal Data



Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service Provider



Preconditions


The battery of the mobile phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed on the
smart
-
phone. The user can use this option at
any point of time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not,
regardless if the CCMS is enabled or disabled.






Description


1.)

The user
wants to find out how he has been using the digital TV
services
himself.

2.)

The user goes to the Main Menu of the CCMS application, and
clicks on the “Personal Data” option.

㌮P

The smart
-
phone shows a list of the following options: “Favourite
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Channels”, “Favourite Shows”, “Favourite Movies”, and
“Favourite Series”.

㐮4

The
user

clicks on one of them.

5.)

The smart
-
phone connects to the Service Provider to access the
information.

6.)

The user sees how he has been using the TV channels, TV shows,
movies, and series


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楴Ⱐ潲Ia癥⁩ ⁢ .



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丯k



Available
Personal
Services Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Available Personal Services



Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service Provider



Preconditions


The battery of the mobile
-
phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed on the smart
-
phone. The user can use this option at
any point of
time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not, the
CCMS however has to be enabled.






Description


1.)

The user
wants some other interactive and personalizing services
on his smart
-
phone.

2.)

The user goes to the Main Menu of the CCMS application, and
clicks on the “Available Personal Services” option.

㌮P

The smart
-
phone shows a list of the available services that the user
can download.

4.)

The
user clicks on one of them.

5.)

The smart
-
phone connects to

the Service Provider to download the
targeted service selected by the user.

6.)

The user installs the service.



Post Conditions



The user finds out which kind of other interactive and personalizing
services are available for downloading, and thus can get t
hem on his
smart
-
phone. He can also just read about them and update the list of
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available personal services.


Extensions

N/A



Error Log Use Case
:


Use Case

CCMS

Error Log



Actors


A mobile phone TV viewer


Scope

CCMS application and the Service
Provider



Preconditions


The battery of the mobile
-
phone should have sufficient power.
The CCMS
application is installed on the smart
-
phone. The user can use this option at
any point of time, regardless if he is watching the digital TV or not, the
CCMS h
owever has to be enabled.






Description


1.)

The user
has problems with connecting to the Service Provider
through the 3G network.

2.)

The smart
-
phone saves the relevant information that needs to be
sent to the Service Provider in error logs, together with a
report of
the error in the connection.

3.)

The user goes to the Main Menu of the CCMS application, and
clicks on the “Error Log” option.

㐮4

The smart
-
phone shows various options for the user


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The
user clicks to view it.

6.)

The user clicks to update it if it is not up to date.

7.)

The user waits for a 3G connection to be established to the Service
Provider.

8.)

After getting the 3G connection to the Service Provider, the user
clicks on to send the
error log to the Service Provider.

9.)

The smart
-
phone connects to the Service Provider to send the error
log to it.



Post Conditions



The user receives acceptable digital TV services, and the Service Provider
is once again able to receive information about

his usage of these TV
services.


Extensions

N/A



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4

The Business Model


In every business, where a provider offers services to a client or a user, both parties have interests.
The governments also have interests in these services and the business behind
it, as they are the
bodies that try to have control over the situation. These are the three main stakeholders [3, pp. 52
-
54]:


-

The Users

-

The Service Provider (The Suppliers)

-

The Government


The government is interested in:


-

Protecting the safety of the
citizens.

-

Avoiding technical barriers to trade in the form of different national requirements.

-

Encourage the development of technologies and markets.


The Service Provider finds it relevant to have standardization for the following reasons:


-

Competition is

encouraged on equal terms.

-

Larger manufacturing volumes are produced.

-

New or larger markets appear.

-

More efficient research and development for the company.


The user also has an interest in standardization, but for these reasons:


-

In order to use differe
nt products or services together.

-

Products and services must be used worldwide or at least have some international
significance.

-

Competition is encouraged, and that makes the products and the services cheaper.

-

The cooperation during the standardization bri
ngs choice of a good solution.


In this specific case of the collection and content management service, the governments will mostly
be concerned with encouraging the development of the technologies


they might perceive this
development of the service as m
eans of improving the already offered services and the quality of
service. They would also be concerned about the security of the citizens, as it is possible that some
private information of theirs might be misused if the proper security and privacy polici
es are not
developed.


This is one of the main concerns for the Service Provider as well. However, there will not be so
much competition for the development on this collection and content management service, as it is
new and not developed yet. Thus it has

the potential to become a de facto standard service [3, p.
52], and that might encourage others to compete with it. The Service Provider will be interested in
this so that a successful business can be made out of it.


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The users will profit from
competition as the prices of the services will be lower. It is of great
importance that the service is as cheap as possible, and the user gets as much out of it as possible.
They also require that they give as little information about themselves as possibl
e to use the service,
and that can be a problem for the collection and content management service. The user in this case
has to trust the Service Provider and be sure he is handling the information well and not revealing it
to any 3
rd

party that will misus
e it.


However, there are more stakeholders involved in this collection and content management service.
Examples are the vendors of the hardware and technologies that make it possible for the delivery of
the service, as well as the developers of the platfo
rm from which the application can be made to
offer the service.


To account for all the issues of technical, service, organisation, and finance nature, the Business
Model defined by Faber et al and Osterwalder will aid.


In the Faber et al and Osterwalder

business model there are four main designs defined in [3], [10]:


-

Service Design for description of the kinds of services that the company is offering.

-

Organisation Design for description of the actors involved in the service exchange (including
the comp
anies supplying the service).

-

Technology Design for description of the technology used to provide the services.

-

Finance Design for description of the economic aspects of providing the service.


All these four designs affect each other (as it can be seen o
n figure 7), and that is why it is relevant
to balance them well to make a successful business out the service.




Figure 7

The balance of designs within the Business Model


it is relevant to note that every design affects
all the rest, and there is no
design that is not affected by the other three.


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In the following sub
-
chapters each of the designs will be addressed to see how each one is affected
and in what way from the other designs.


4.1

Service Design


All of the issues in chapters 1 and
3

describe the

kinds of services offered by the Service Provider to
the user.


Thus the description in this chapter covered aspects of the Service Design. To sum up, the
following services and applications are offered or are to be offered:


-

Broadcasting digital TV
channels to the mobile phones (operational).

-

Interactive services such as the user selecting the favourite TV programs, and voting systems
(partially operational).

-

Interactive services that offer possible favourite TV programs, shows, and channels to the u
ser
(not operational).

-

Interactive service for data collection and management (not operational, to be developed).

-

Interactive updating service on the base of the information received by the collection and
content management service (not operational).

-

Appli
cation for regulating strength of the broadcasted signal on the basis of the information
obtained by the data collection and content management service (not operational).


The first two are technologically possible, and that is what the Technical Design ca
n determine.

According to that design the 3
rd

one is impossible without having the collection and content
management service operational as the Service Provider will have no idea what kind of TV
programs, shows, and channels to offer to the mobile
-
phone u
ser


it simply does not know what
the user will like to watch as it has not collected data about that yet.


The 4
th
, which is the development of the collection and content management service, is possible
technologically. The 5
th

and the 6
th

are not going

to be operational until the 4
th

one is.


Thus the intended value (the service intended for the users) is the interactive collection and content
management service. This affects the Technical Design as it sets some requirements, which are then
turned into
technical requirements.


The delivered value (service delivered in accordance to technical possibilities) in this case is the
same as the intended value, as technically the Technical Design has defined that this value must be
accomplished first.


The aff
ects from the Organisation Design come from the users, who are stakeholders. They expect
that the collection and content management service is safe, and that it does not interfere with the
user’s privacy. This is the expected value of the service.


From th
e Finance Design comes the issue of how much the service should cost and how much value
the user will see from it


they will expect it to be as cheap as possible.

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Both of these affects from the Organisation and the Finance Designs affect the perceived v
alue of
the service


the value the value that the customer actually perceives when consuming or using the
service.


4.2

Technology Design


The chapters
1

and 2 covers the aspects of the Technology Design part of the business model
defined by Faber et al and O
sterwalder


it is explained how the technical architecture is and how
the collection and management service is to be supplied to the user. It also explained which
technologies, platforms, and devices are used and why. It is also explained for what parts o
f the
overall design they are used. In the previous chapter

(4.1)

it is explained how they affect each other
with the Service Design.


The Organisation Design defines the actors involved in the service transaction. Each actor has
different technical and
service requirements that they bring up, and they have to be translated into
technical requirements.


The Finance Design points out the business value and perspective of the service, and thus the
requirements for the service may change again, and so will t
he technical ones.


4.3

Organisation Design


4.3.1

The 3G technologies


The stakeholders for the 3G technologies are the subscribers and users of these technologies (both
regular users and mobile phone vendors), the creators who defined the 3G technologies (ITU


I
nternational Telecommunication Union [7]), and the governments working with the ITU.


The ITU has acted by defining the requirements for the 3G technologies, on the basis of user and
government needs. The mobile phone vendor companies achieved the require
ments and offered the
3G related products and services together with the ITU to the users.


4.3.2

The DVB
-
H technology


The stakeholders for the DVB
-
H technology are the EU governments, the DVB group, and the TV
channel companies who broadcast digital TV to the
mobile phones capable for receiving these TV
services, and the users and vendors of these mobile phones.


The EU governments first have to make agreements with the TV channels in their country, which
wish to broadcast digital TV to the mobile phones. Then

the TV channel has to make agreements
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with the DVB group to use the DVB
-
H technology, in order to be able to broadcast the channel.
Once the TV channel company is able to broadcast the channel and the proper agreements are made
with the government, then t
he license is issued


it will allow the TV channel to broadcast its’ TV
content.


4.3.3

Business Actors
f
rom the 3G and the DVB
-
H Effect on the Service


All of this implies that the actors are of international origin, and thus their products and services are

internationally recognized and used. This makes their technologies standards, as the demand of the
users to have a simple and user
-
friendly products and services rises.


In this project to supply the collection and content management service to the mobil
e phone users,
the DVB
-
H and the 3G technologies are to be used. Just within them there are many actors, who
have an influence on their usage, as for this project it also disregards the developers of the CAMMP
platform (access is granted to the platform).
However, if all actors are combined, then a rather
complex Organisation Design is obtained.


4.4

Finance Design


4.4.1

The 3G technologies


In the market, the 3G technologies show huge demand for them:


-

By May 2009 more than 3.7 billion subscribers were using
GSM
-
HSPA [4], which is more
than half the world’s total population of 6.8 billion.

-

By the end of 2013 it is expected that the number of subscribers for the 3G technologies will
be 2 billion, out of which 1.6 billion will use 3GPP technologies


they repres
ent 80% of the
market share [4].


4.4.2

The DVB
-
H technology


The DVB
-
H is preferred in the EU’s (European Union’s) market for the terrestrial mobile
broadcasting to the mobile phone handhelds. It competes with the MediaFLO and the MBMS
technologies [5].


4.4.3

Market

Issues of 3G and DVB
-
H Effect on the Service


Since the collection and content management service requires the use of both the 3G and the DVB
-
H technologies, then that will imply that this service could be offered mostly in the EU countries.
The 3G and DV
B
-
H technology developers and inventors (including the vendors of the devices)
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will have to share the profit with the developer of the service and the developers of the platform
(allowing the service to function).


The initial costs of the service may be
high at first, but will radically drop as it is spread onto the
mobile phones. Since there are many mobile phone users with 3G and DVB
-
H capabilities, then the
service can be spread in short time, and thus reduce the costs of the service.


To make the pro
fit, the user can be billed and quite cheaply too


as the costs are not so high, then
the price can also be lower. That will increase the demand and purchase of the service, as users like
to spend as little as possible for the given service or product.


To increase the profit, the service might be offered and implemented in countries outside the EU as
well. This can be done by combining the 3G technology with another broadcast technology (not the
DVB
-
H). Examples of such other technologies are CMMB (in Ch
ina), MediaFLO, and MBMS [5].


The risks are mainly related to the trust of the user towards the Service Provider in regards of
handling the user’s personal and private information. It might occur that not so many people will
trust the Service Provider and

thus will not be so willing to use the collection and content
management service. Then the profits will be lower for that service. This is where the proper
security and privacy issues come in to prevent this from happening.


5

Standardization of the CCMS


The CCMS (Collection and Content Management Service) will be applied as an application on the
mobile
-
phones, which will work as a data collection system for these smart
-
phones. Data about a
user’s use of any application can be collected by the Service Prov
ider, and this is done with an
interactive 3G (or later with a 4G) link connecting the two. In specific data will be collected, while
the user is watching digital TV on the smart
-
phone through the broadcast channel, so that the
Service Provider can offer b
etter quality of service to the user through the interactive channel. If
some data is lost from the broadcast channel, it can be offered through the interactive channel so
that it is not missed. All the data collected through the CCMS will also aid in the
Service Provider
making general, anonymous statistics about the users viewing the digital TV. According to their
likes and dislikes the CCMS will offer them some other personalizing and interactive services;
however, in order for these to be developed the
CCMS must be operational first. It has the potential
of becoming a standard, which the other services will need to use in order for the users to download
them to their smart
-
phones.


For the CCMS to be developed it needs to use standards from the broadcast
ing and the mobile
worlds like DVB
-
H, OMA BCAST ESG, and the 3G and 4G technologies. This means that they
might affect the path of standardization of the CCMS, although they are not path
-
dependently
connected to it. The CCMS will be the first service of th
is kind in this area.


There might be, however, some standards from the Internet world like the Internet TV that might
also influence this path of standardization of the CCMS.


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The purpose of this chapter is to reveal such factors and determine to what e
xtent they might affect
this path.


A standard is an explicit or implicit norm that is followed by more than one person or by one person
but many times [23, slide 3]. Standardization is thus the process of getting the norm to become a
standard. According t
o Stango [24] the following triggering factors are of importance:


-

Be the first (no other such standard in the area


innovation from scratch)

-

Path dependency (standard developed like it is because of past experience)

-

Brand/trade mark (related to path depe
ndency)

-

Marketing (product preannouncement and advertising)

-

Expectations (due to trade mark and marketing and thus also path dependency)

-

Be the best product

-

Luck or coincidence

-

Co
-
operation with complementary producers


Stango [24] explains that due to th
e different triggers the standards evolve in different ways and
thus they are of different types. For example a de facto standard is the product of a norm coming
from a Standard war (a temporary state of fragmentation, where standards still coexist and are

competing to win in a market or markets. The winner in the market or markets then creates a
“winner
-
take
-
all situation” and thus the fragmentation or standard war is then broken


as a result a
de facto standard is created [25]). A de jure standard is one

that originates from the industry
consensus, and from there it is said that de jure standards are often not supported financially


they
are unsponsored. Sometimes they can be sponsored, but then the sponsor will end up giving the
property rights to the s
tandard away. De facto standards on the other hand are often sponsored [24].


Nevertheless, the triggering factors mentioned above can be responsible for creating a state of