Proceedings of Workshop on Smart Grid Technologies Issues and Challenges

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Proceedings of Workshop on

Smart Grid Technologies


Issues and
Challenges

(20
th

August 2011)




Organized By

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

S.V University, Tirupati

Co
-
sponsored By

IE (I), Tirupati Local centre & IETE, Tirupati Cen
tre

Co
-
ordinators

Prof. R. V. S. Satyanarayana
&

Er. C
h
. Chengaiah


Smart Grid: Issues and Challenges in

Power Systems Engineering

Prof. K. Shanti Swarup,
IIT(M)


Role of Smart Grid in Information
Technology





V
SC Based FACTS and HVDC: ABB’s Experience

B. Gopichand
,

Manager
,

ABB Chennai


Abstract:



The traditional power grid is based on centralized generation plants that supply end
-
users via long
-
established, unidirectional transmission and distribution systems.

But
times are changing. Today’s demands for increased power supplies with higher
reliability from cleaner and preferably renewable energy sources cannot be met with
today’s grid infrastructure. We need an intelligent system that can receive power of all
q
ualities from all sources


both centralized and distributed


and deliver reliable
supplies, on demand, to consumers of all kinds. We need a Smart Grid.


ABB’s vision for the smart grid is of a self
-
monitoring system, based on industry
-
wide
standards, pro
viding a stable, secure, efficient and environmentally sustainable network.
The system will cross national and international borders and provide a wholesale
energy trading capability. It must be able to detect and react automatically to
disturbances and ch
anges in supply and demand, re
-
establishing balance and
maintaining the stability demanded by both end
-
users and government legislation. It
must also accommodate customer response manage

ment systems that allow utilities to
optimize the performance of the
grid.


Smart Grid encompasses a number of technologies ranging from SCADA/EM S (Energy
Management System), substation automation, utility communications, protection and
control equipment, FACT S (Flexible AC Transmission System) and HVDC (High
Voltage Dire
ct Current).


The objective of this presentation is to highlight the role of HVDC and FACTS
technology in development of power transmission systems that are more intelligent,
more effective and environmentally sustainable







Key Technologies

of Smart G
rid

Material from Murutharaj Ganesan, Schneider Electric India,
Bangalore


Abstract

“Smart grid” is a nebulous term spanning various functionalities geared towards modernizing the
electricity grid. At its core, a smart grid utilizes digital communications

and control to monitor
and control power flows, with the aim of making the power grid more resilient, efficient, and
cost
-
effective. Some of the desired functionalities include:

• Knowing the status of the power system in great detail and granularity (id
eally in real
-
time)

• Reacting to any changes in supply (disruptions) or demand

• Enabling small
-
scale (distributed) storage and power generation (especially renewable)

• Controlling loads as per either operational conditions or financial incentives (thr
ough, e.g.,
time of use or Real
-
time pricing)

• Enabling new solutions for improved customer service, reliability, and future offerings

Smart grids are still under evolution, and different utilities will need different solutions as per
their underlying

infrastructure, legacy requirements, and business case. Most ingredients of a
smart grid exist today, but have not been fully packaged into integrated solutions. The price
points also need improvement, especially for residential deployments and developing

country
roll
-
outs where per user loads are lower. Despite all the challenges, there are large benefits to
smart grid technologies, especially as the solutions mature and volumes grow, which will be
spurred by the adoption of standards. Smart grids will be

an important enabler to make the
power system more environmentally sustainable, and represent an opportunity for developing
countries to leapfrog in the growth of their power sector to more manageable, reliable, and
scalable designs.

This material is di
rected to a broad audience interested in Smart Grids. It focuses on the
US and India as representations of developed and developing countries, with both
similar requirements and as well as different underlying conditions and drivers.

“Smart grid” is a bro
ad, general term, and this material presents a general set of
definitions and interpretations, and highlights some of the challenges in smart grid
deployments. This material isn’t meant to be exhaustive.



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The technologies that c
omprise a smart grid address the existing grid’s shortcomings by providing
actionable intelligence and enhanced management capabilities that can improve operational efficiency
and performance. These technologies are available now, and some of the largest u
tilities in the world,
including Xcel Energy, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and American Electric Power (AEP), ABB,
Schneider Electric have undertaken initiatives to implement them.


According to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) the smar
t grid consists of five key
technology areas.



Integrated Communications

High
-
speed, standardized, two
-
way communication allows for real
-
time information flows and decision
-
making among all grid components. Several existing technologies, including wide
-
are
a wireless internet
and cellular networks, could provide the communications infrastructure needed.



Sensing and Measurement

Sensing and measurement allow utilities and consumers to understand and react to the state of the
electric grid in real
-
time. For e
xample, households could monitor their energy demand and the current
price of electricity through smart meters, which communicate with home networks that link smart
appliances and display devices.



Advanced Components

Advanced components such as GPS syste
ms, current limiting conductors, advanced energy storage, and
power electronics will improve generation, transmission, and distribution capacity and operational
intelligence for utilities.



Advanced Control Methods

As more information is available to grid
controllers and faster response times are required, the task of
managing an electric grid is becoming more complex. Advanced control systems find and process
important information quickly, streamlining operations and providing clarity to human operators.





Improved Interfaces and Decision Support

New tools, such as software to visualize networks at any scale (from an individual neighborhood to the
entire national grid), provide system operators with greater situational awareness and diagnostics and
allow
planners, operators, and policymakers to make informed decisions.

1.2

Key Applications


The smart grid technologies that form the foundation of a new grid enable new smart grid applications,
including:



Automatic Meter Reading / Advanced Metering Infrastruct
ure (AMR / AMI)

AMR allows utilities to read electricity, water, and gas meters electronically; as opposed to sending a
meter
-
reader to each house every month. AMI goes the next step, adding 2
-
way communications that
allow the utility to act on informatio
n coming back from meters, adjusting prices and responding to
outages or power quality events in real
-
time.





Real
-
Time Pricing (RTP)

RTP goes beyond Time
-
of
-
Use Pricing by changing electricity prices dynamically to reflect the realities of
the electrici
ty market. Successful RTP depends on a price
-
elastic demand for electricity, allowing markets
to clear quickly and keeping prices in a reasonable band for consumers. A smart grid lets consumers
prioritize and monitor their electricity use, resulting in cos
t
-
savings and a more economically efficient
electricity market.



Demand Response (DR)

DR allows utilities to reduce demand during periods of peak load and thus avoid dispatching high
-
cost
generating units which are often among the least efficient and dirt
iest. DR can distinguish between
valuable and low
-
priority electricity uses

for example, dimming lights and adjusting air conditioners
without disrupting vital services.



Smart Charging / Vehicle to Grid (V2G)

PHEVs and electric vehicles will greatly inc
rease the load on the grid. A single PHEV can draw more
power than a typical household. Smart Charging devices allow PHEVs to communicate with the utility,
timing their charge cycles to coincide with low prices, low grid impact, and potentially low emissio
ns
periods (when renewable energy sources are available). V2G takes this concept one step further by
allowing PHEVs to feed their power back into the grid to help stabilize voltage and frequency, reducing
the need for spinning reserves and regulation servi
ces and thus avoiding emissions from electric
generating units that would otherwise need to provide these services.



Distribution Automation

Distribution automation allows distribution systems to reconfigure themselves when a fault occurs,
restricting the
problem to a smaller area.11 This reduces the amount of time that backup generators
(usually diesel
-
based) operate and cuts total outage time.



Distributed Generation Integration

By providing greater fault tolerance and islanding detection, a smart grid al
lows for safer and
more reliable connections of distributed generation units such as rooftop solar installations,
small natural gas turbines used for heat and electricity in commercial buildings, and building
integrated wind systems.


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Policy and regulation


The current policy and regulatory frameworks were typically designed to deal with the
existing networks and utilities. To some extent the existing model has encouraged
competition in generation and supply of power but is unable

to promote clean energy
supplies. With the move towards smart grids, the prevailing policy and regulatory
frameworks must evolve in order to encourage incentives for investment. The new
frameworks will need to match the interests of the consumers with the

utilities and
suppliers to ensure that the societal goals are achieved at the lowest cost to the
consumers.

Generally, governments set policy whereas regulators monitor the implementation in
order to protect the consumer’s and seeks to avoid market explo
itation. Over the last
two decades, the trend of liberalized market structure in various parts of the world has
focused the attention of policy
-
makers on empowering competition and consumer
choice. The regulatory models have evolved to become more and more

effective to
avoid market abuse and to regulate the rates of return.

Moving forward, the regulatory model will have to adopt the policy which focuses much
on long term carbon reduction and security of supply in the defined outcomes and they
need to rebal
ance the regulatory incentives to encourage privately financed utilities to
invest at rates of return that are commensurate to the risk. This may mean creating
frameworks that allow risk to be shared between customers and shareholders, so that
risks and re
wards are balanced providing least aggregate cost to the customer.




Business Scenario


The majority of examples results in negative business cases, undermined by two
fundamental challenges:


High capital and operating costs


Capital and operating costs include large
fixed costs linked to the chronic communications network. Hardware costs do not
cause in significant growths in economies of scale and software integration
possess a significant

delivery and integration risks.


Benefits are constrained by the regulatory framework


When calculating
the benefits, organizations tend to be conservative in what they can gather as
cash benefits to the shareholders. For example, in many cases, line
losses are
considered to be put on to the customer and as a result any drop in losses would
have no net impact on the utility shareholder. The smart grid benefits case may
begin on a positive note but, as misaligned policy and regulatory incentives are
fac
tored in, the investment becomes less attractive. Therefore regulators are
required to place such policies and regulations in place which could provide
benefits both to the utilities and the consumers. Therefore the first factor to be
considered is to prov
ide incentives to the utilities in order to remove inefficiencies
from the system. They should be aptly remunerated for the line losses on their
networks.


On the budget side of the calculation, there is no avoiding the fact that smart
technologies are ex
pensive to implement, and at the present level it is right to
factor in the risk associated with delivery. But the policy makers and regulators
can mitigate that risk by seeking economies of scale and implementing advanced
digital technologies.




Technolog
y maturity and delivery risk


Technology is one of the essential constituents of Smart Grid which include a broad
range of hardware, software, and communication technologies .In some cases, the
technology is well developed; however, in many areas the tech
nologies are still at a
very initial stage of development and are yet to be developed to a significant level. As
the technologies advances, it will reduce the delivery risk; but till then risk factor have to
be included in the business situation.

On the h
ardware side, speedy evolution of technology is seen from vendors all over the
world. Many recently evolved companies have become more skeptical to the
communications solutions and have focused on operating within a suite of hardware
and software solutions
. Moreover the policy makers, regulators, and utilities look upon
well
-
established hardware providers for Smart Grid implementation. And this trend is
expected to continue with increasing competition from Asian manufacturers and, as a
consequence, standard
s will naturally form and equipment costs will drop as economies
of scale arises and competition increases.


On the software and data management side, the major challenge is to overcome the
integration of the entire hardware system and to manage high vol
ume of data. With
multiple software providers come multiple data formats and the need for complex data
models. In addition, the proliferation of data puts stresses on the data management
architecture that are much similar to the telecommunications industry

than the utilities
industry. Many of these issues are currently being addressed in pilots such as Smart
Grid task force and, as a consequence, the delivery risk will reduce as standards will be
set up




Lack of awareness


Consumer’s level of understanding

about how power is delivered to their homes is often
low. So before going forward and implementing Smart Grid concepts, they should be
made aware about what Smart Grids are? How Smart Grids can contribute to low
carbon economy? What benefits they can driv
e from Smart Grids? Therefore:


home, offices...etc.

Smart Grids.


overall capabilities of Smart Grids rather than
mere implementation of smart meters. They need to consider a more holistic
view.




Access to affordable capital


Funds are one of the major roadblocks in implementation of Smart Grid. Policy makers
and regu
lators have to make more conducive rules and regulations in order to attract
more and more private players. Furthermore the risk associated with Smart Grid is
more; but in long run it is expected that risk
-
return profile will be closer to the current
situa
tion as new policy framework will be in place and risk will be optimally shared
across the value chain.

In addition to this, the hardware manufacturers are expected to invest more and more
on mass production and R&D activities so that technology obsolesce
nce risk can be
minimized and access to the capital required for this transition is at reasonable cost.




Skills and knowledge


As the utilities will move towards Smart Grid, there will be a demand for a new skill sets
to bridge the gap and to have to dev
elop new skills in analytics, data management and
decision support. To address this issue, a cadre of engineers and managers will need to
be trained to manage the transition. This transition will require investment of both time
and money from both governme
nt and private players to support education programs
that will help in building managers and engineers for tomorrow. To bring such a change
utilities have to think hard about how they can manage the transition in order to avoid
over burdening of staff with

change.




Cyber security and data privacy


With the transition from analogous to digital electricity infrastructure comes the
challenge of communication security and data management; as digital networks are
more prone to malicious attacks from software h
ackers, security becomes the key issue
to be addressed.

In addition to this; concerns on invasion of privacy and security of personal consumption
data arises. The data collected from the consumption information could provide a
significant insight of consu
mer’s behavior and preferences. This valuable information
could be abused if correct protocols and security measures are not adhered to.

If above two issues are not addressed in a transparent manner, it may create a negative
impact on customer’s perceptio
n and will prove to be a barrier for adoption.




Upfront Consumer Expenses


In the responses of 200 utility managers to a 2009 survey, 42 percent cited “upfront
consumer expenses” as a major obstacle to the smart grid. These concerns were
confirmed by cons
umer responses in which 95 percent of respondents indicated they
are interested in receiving detailed information on their energy use; however, only 1 in 5
were willing to pay an upfront fee to receive that information. Regulatory approval for
rate increas
es needed to pay for smart grid investments is always difficult, and the
receptiveness of regulators varies from state to state.



Lack of Standardization


30 percent of utility managers cited “lack of technology standards” as a major obstacle
to smart gri
d deployment.31 Uncertainty about interoperability and technology
standards present the greatest risk to utilities, who do not want to purchase components
that will not work with new innovations down the road.



Regulatory Barriers

Many of the obstacles to
a smart grid are regulatory issues. Electric power is
traditionally the regulatory domain of states. The patchwork of regulatory structures and
jurisdictions is only loosely coordinated, and final authority on many decisions can be
unclear, as projects are

subject to multiple levels of review. Local (municipality, county),
state
-
level, and federal jurisdictions overlap, and conflicting decisions can result in
regulatory lead times of several years. Some regulatory decisions can also be
challenged in court,
resulting in more potential delays at each level. This series of
delays adds significantly to the cost and regulatory risk of pursuing a smart grid project.



Lack of Widespread Understanding

Because smart grid is still a new concept and the technologies t
hat enable it are rapidly
evolving, there is misunderstanding amongst consumers, regulators, policymakers, and
businesses about what its costs and benefits are. Stakeholders that are generally
aligned may reach different conclusions based on a different un
derstanding of the smart
grid.



Costs

If a smart grid made easy business sense, it would have been the norm everywhere.
Cost is clearly one of the biggest hurdles for smart grids. The investments per node
average some hundred
-
plus if not two hundred dolla
rs per consumer, depending on
design and functionality. Thus, for most utilities, we’re talking billions of dollars. Will this
be worthwhile? Merely saving money over physical meter readings will not justify a
smart metering system (or smart grid). Other s
avings come from improved operations
(e.g., reducing equipment failures or the need to over
-
engineer), avoiding additional
capacity, etc. Beyond such savings, typically seen by the utility under Return on
Investment (RoI) calculations, there are a number o
f benefits enjoyed by consumers
and broader society, which are not appropriated by the investing utility. E.g., power
quality and predictability may improve, or there may be more use of “green” supply. It
takes careful societal cost
-
benefit analysis beyond

RoI calculations to properly justify a
smart grid.

A regulator also needs to manage the inevitable disruption a smart grid may create.
Modifying tariffs, e.g., Time of Use or Real
-
Time Pricing will lead to some winners and
some losers. In addition, there

are transaction costs. So, why bother if this is worse than
a zero
-
sum game? The loads should shift, allowing changes in fuel as well, so that the
overall average costs should fall with proper pricing incentives. The regulator (and,
perhaps, policy
-
makers
) must spell out how the smart grid should be deployed. Is full
(universal) deployment mandatory? Given many of the benefits will accrue from
targeted deployment.



Fears of Transformation

Ultimately, a smart grid must lead to a fundamental transformation o
f the power sector
beyond a technical re
-
design. Most distribution utilities world
-
wide are regulated and
many operate on a costs
-
plus mechanism. Thus, the more they sell the more money
they make. Such profit mechanisms must be re
-
engineered to incentives
saving energy.
What fraction of investment costs can be passed through to consumers must also be
clarified.

In the long run, one change advocated by analysts and planners is the shift from energy
and electricity as a commodity to one as a service. Thus, t
he need in India is not
electricity for powering pump sets (some 30% of the total load) but water. One needs
light, not electricity per se. One advantage of such a model is that regulatory and
business boundaries can be broken down more easily. A smart gri
d could also interface
with other utilities (gas, water, etc.). New services such as home monitoring, healthcare
monitoring, etc. could be unleashed, which could provide new revenue streams to
utilities as well as enhance consumer convenience. A power util
ity with its own network
could become an Internet Service Provider, either directly or through a partnership or
subsidiary. However, such changes are not only resisted (because of the creation of
winners and losers) but also because there is vast uncertain
ty in how these will evolve.

If we consider the vast complexity in ICT and other systems in a smart grid, one has to
remember that power utilities have historically been conservative in technology choices,
and also have not invested much on R&D (historica
lly a fraction of a percent, reportedly
lower than the pet food industry). Thus, their ability to innovate, experiment, and foster
radical innovation will take time. Utilities have often considered ICT as a product, to be
dropped in by ICT specialists. ICT
, and, in particular, a Smart Grid, is more a process,
which requires active participation and engagement by the utility at all phases of the
process: needs assessment, design, prototyping, business case analysis, deployment,
integration, and scaling. In a
ddition, such steps are not sequential, but require iterative
learning and experimenting.




Design Challenges

There are a number of technical design issues for which there are no easy answers


each utility will be slightly different based on existing arc
hitecture, legacy equipment,
topology, demographics, etc. Utilities often span different geographies, consumer
mixes, etc., not to mention often incorporate assets decades apart in technology
(sometimes made more complex through acquisitions or restructuri
ng). What would
work well in one case may not be optimal in another.

As an example, the US power grid typically has relatively small distribution transformers
serving 4
-
7 homes. In Asia or Europe, the consumer voltage is 220 or 240 volts instead
of 110 vo
lts, and a distribution transformer typically serves 100
-
200 homes. This could
dramatically impact the choice of wide area communications technologies, e.g.,
enhancing the value of and increasing the bandwidth requirements of an aggregation
point or concen
trator for data flows.

Beyond issues of complexity and scale, there are several broad technology issues all
utilities will have to face. ICT evolves very rapidly, while power systems have much
longer lives. It is tough to design for something that should
last 20 years. This requires
modularity and upgradeability, which raises costs. ICT can be made cheaper by
integration on
-
chip, but this reduces the flexibility. A balance must be struck.

Security of the system is paramount given the vast financial and sa
fety implications of a
smart grid. This is one reason that most people do not advocate using the Internet per
se, though they may use Internet Protocols on a private network. Security cannot be
added on but must be designed in from the start. A worst case
scenario would be for a
hacker to turn on our stove!

A subset of security is privacy. At the very least, the power company will know when
you are or aren’t home. More sophisticated analysis could lead to much more
information, including consumption patter
ns (a proxy for wealth), how many people are
home, etc. There have already been cases of law enforcement using power data for
investigatory needs. This space needs integrated legal, regulatory, and technical
planning, keeping in mind the needs of the citiz
ens.



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Despite the challenges mentioned above, there are a number of steps that can be taken
to speed up the implementation of smart grid technologies. Foremost step that is
required to be taken is th
at policy
-
makers and regulators need to restructure the
economic incentives and align risk and reward across the value chain. By building the
right economic environment for the private sector investment and focusing more broadly
about the way that social v
alue cases are created and presented implementation would
become much easier. By analyzing these solutions in bigger environments i.e. in cities,
the entire industry will learn what it takes to implement smart grids successfully and will
result in developi
ng an industry that is set to boom in the coming periods.



Forming Political and Economic Frameworks

Policy makers and regulators have to implement a framework which optimally spread
the risk over the whole value chain i.e. to guard the investors from ris
k and to yield the
result at lower cost to the customers. They have to form a robust incentive model in
order to attract more and more private investment. Also rate of return should be based
on the output generated. Rewards and penalty mechanism should be
considered in
order to monitor the performance of the utilities and to encourage them to deliver the
outcomes in the most efficient manner.

Technological and delivery risk associated with Smart Grid are significant. And this can
be overcome over a due cou
rse of time as more issues arise and are addressed. Risks
associated with Smart Grid have to be shared by every member across the value chain.
While making the framework regulators must consider how much of that risk a utility can
pass on to the contractor
s, suppliers and consumers. By maintaining the proper
balance, there will be an improved alignment of the incentives. And further they have to
tackle numerous policy disputes and recommend potential solutions
.



Moving Towards a Societal Value System

The m
ajor challenge for the transition from analogous to digital infrastructure will be to
move from utility
-
centric investment decision to societal
-
level decisions which determine
wider scopes of the Smart Grid. This would help in the accelerated adoption of S
mart
Grid Technology by the society.



Achieving greater efficiency in energy delivery

Smart Grid Technology should consider building greater efficiency into the energy
system which would result in reduction of losses, peak load demand and thereby
decreasi
ng generation as well as consumption of energy. New regulatory framework
which incentives utilities for reducing the technical losses would help utilities to perform
more efficiently
.




Enabling distributed

generation and storage

Smart grids will change wh
ere, when and how energy is produced. Each household and
business will be empowered to become a micro
-
generator. Onsite photovoltaic panels
and small
-
scale wind turbines are the predominant examples; developing resources
consist of geothermal, biomass, hyd
rogen fuel cells, plug
-
in hybrid electric vehicles and
batteries. As the cost of traditional energy sources continues to rise and the cost of
distributed generation technologies falls, the economic situation for this evolution will
build.



Increasing Aware
ness on Smart Grids

There is an imperative need to make the society and the policy makers aware about the
capabilities of a Smart Grid. The main step is to form a perfect, universal description on
the common principles of a smart grid. Beyond agreement on

a characterization, the
matter also needs to be debated more holistically as a true enabler to the low
-
carbon
economy, rather than as an investment decision to be taken within the meeting room of
distinct utilities. The importance of consumer education is

not to be under estimated.
The formation of user
-
friendly and state
-
of
-
the
-
art products and services will play a
significant role in convincing the society about Smart Grids.

Also the utilities are required to scrutinize the major challenges in implement
ation of
Smart Grid and their impact on their business model and operations.



Creating a Fresh Pool of Skills and Knowledge

Successful implementation of the smart grid will require a large number of highly skilled
engineers and managers mainly those who a
re trained to work on transmission and
distribution networks. As a result to on
-
job training and employees development will be
vital across the industry. Simultaneously, there is a requirement for investment in the
development of relevant undergraduate, p
ostgraduate and vocational training to make
sure the availability of a suitable workforce for the future. The investment in T&D should
not be limited and neither in research and knowledge development, which would be
essential for the development of this se
ctor.



Addressing Cyber security Risks and Data Privacy Issues

Smart Grid success depends on the successful handling of two major IT issues:



With increase in computers and communication networks comes the incr
eased threat of
cyber
-
attack. The Government should look into this matter because consumer’s
consumption data can be misused by the utilities and the third party. Utilities have to
give assurance to the consumers that their valuable information is handled
by
authorized party in ethical manner. The government has to adopt high standard level in
order to withstand cyber
-
attacks.

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In this material an attempt has been made to analyze the key challenges in
implementing the Smart Grid concept in India
. In most of the advanced countries
Utilities have made major achievements in terms of productivity, reliability, and
efficiency through the use of Smart Grid technology. Indian utilities are still lagging far
behind when compared to other countries. Today

their main focus is on providing
energy at reasonable price but soon the day will come when the utilities will be focusing
on encompassing sustainable use and environmental improvement into their agendas.

And Smart Grids will play a vital role to help utilities in accomplishing this mission. So,
the utilities will need to invest heavily in new hardware, software, business process
development, and staff training. Further there would be high investment in hom
e area
networks and smart appliances by the customers. Achieving the broader view of Smart
Grid will require complex task prioritization and right set of policies and regulations to be
in place.

Justifying its implementation however requires a full unders
tanding of the long term
benefits it would bring to the customers, utilities, societies in terms of minimizing the
cost and improved

Customer service: In addition to these benefits it would play important role in addressing
global issues like energy secur
ity and climate change.

5
5


R
R
E
E
F
F
E
E
R
R
E
E
N
N
C
C
E
E
S
S
:
:










1.

Smart Grids White Paper from
Center

for Study of Science, Technology and Policy


(CSTEP) by Dr.Rahul Tongia, Ph.D.

2.

Challenges Of Implementing Smart Grids in India

by: Ravi kaushal