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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids


From a Vision for Intelligent Electrical Grids

Ronnie
Belmans

Katholieke

Universiteit

Leuven, Belgium

ronnie.belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

NMBS Group
-

24 / 04
/ 2010

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Agenda

o
New Energy
Challenges

o
Transition

towards

a
SmartGrid

o
What

value

is
created
?


Helping

integration

of
renewables

towards

a CO2
-
lean
society


Consumer

engagement


Long term job
growth

o
Research,
Development




&
Deployment


2

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

EU 20
-
20
-
20 Goals

Reduction of

greenhouse gases

Energy consumption,

Efficiency increase

Share of renewable

energy

-
20%

-
20%

100%

20
%

8.5
%

3

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

IEA 2030

Ref: IEA WEO 2009

4

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges

Overview

1.
Future

of
energy

demand

2.
Generation

paradigm

shift

3.
Ageing

assets

4.
Markets and
regulation


5

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges

1.
Future

of
electricity

demand

o
Rise

of
consumption

at 2% a
year


1250
TWh
/
year

extra
by

2030

o
Dependence

on

imported

fuels
?

o
Plug
-
in
Hybrid

Electric
Vehicles
?

6

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges


2. New
generation

paradigm

o
Increasing wind generation & CHP units in Denmark

7

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges


2. New
generation

paradigm

o
Importance

of wind
forecasting


Wind speed
change

of 1 m/s =
variation

of 320MW
on

a
capacity

of +
-
2400MW.


Control

systems

needed


to
avoid

excessive

backup

capacity

8

“Fresh breeze”

means somewhere

between 200

and 1,600 MW

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges


3.
Ageing

assets

o
Lagging

investments

in
infrastructure


Rising

demand

=
decreasing

safety

margins

9

Installation wave in European
distribution systems in the

60s
& 70s



Replacement wave
expected
with business
-
as
-
usual approach



Opportunity for
new system
architecture and operation

schemes

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

New
grid

challenges

4. Markets and
regulation

o
Energy
market







o
Data + information need > 20G


investment
(based on 100


per connection)

10

GenCo

GenCo

DistCo

DistCo

Retail

Retail

GenCo

TransCo

DistCo

Retail

REGULATED

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Drivers

towards

a smart
grid

11

Regulation of

Monopolies

Innovation and

Competitiveness

Low Prices

And Efficiency

Primary Energy

Sources

Reliability and

Quality

Capacity

Nature

Preservation

Climate

Change

Kyoto and

Post
-
Kyoto

Environment

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

12

Environmental
policy

User
-
centric

Stakeholder
ownership

Networks
renewal

Distributed and
central
generation

Demand response


Interoperable European
Electricity

Networks

Liberalised

markets

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Challenges for 2020 and beyond

13

30GW of solar
power in the
South ?

Ackgt TechFreep

50GW of wind power in
the North ?

Customer Interaction and
Intelligent Appliances

New DC Links and

Interconnections

Micro
-

generation in
millions of homes ?

plus

wind variation / cloud cover
/ customer choice…

Smart Grids

will be needed to ensure
supply security
, connect and operate
clean

and

sustainable energy
, and give
value for money


Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

14

Central & dispersed sources

Smart materials
and power

electronics

Central & dispersed

intelligence

Seamless integration

of new applications

End user real time

Information & participation

Multi
-
directional
‘flows’

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

15

Enable active
customer
participation

Accommo
-
date
all
generation
and storage

options

Enable new
products
services and
markets

Provide
power quality

for the 21
st

Century

Optimise
assets

and
operate
efficiently

Anticipate
and respond
to
system
disturbances

(self
-
heal)

Operate
resiliently
against
attack
and natural
disaster

Enable
fundamental
changes in
Transport and
Buildings

(Source: SmartGridNews.com)

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids

Vision

a smart metering revolution?

a networks perspective


16

“an RTU at every service
head”

the portal to demand &
micro
-
gen services

operational visibility of
local networks

intelligent demand
control in emergencies

local network also the
comms channel ?

new services to delight
customers….

Load
-
limiting & remote
disconnection

losses management &
rewards

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids

Vision

How will the future grid look like?

Can we manage by stretching the current 380 kV grid to its
limits?





Or do we need a new overlay grid?









17

We must accept the limits of
today’s situation

Be aware of the “sailing ship syndrome”…

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids

Vision

A renewed grid vision?

18

?

1948

1956

1974

2008

2020
-
2050

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

19

DSO’s

SmartGrid

Consumers

Generators

TSO’s

Actions

Consumers

sustainable, economic and secure
electricity supply

Technology

Standards

Small

scale

generation

Regulations

Market

considerations

Consumer

choice

Reduced

environmental

impact

Security

of
supply

Communication

Innovation

Self
-
healing

Energy
Awareness

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids

Vision

Key Challenges

o
Strengthening the grid
ensuring sufficient transmission
capacity to interconnect energy resources, especially
RES,
across Europe


Moving
offshore


Integrating
intermittent generation


Preparing for
electric vehicles

o
Enhancing intelligence
of generation, demand and most
notably in the grid


Communication

between millions of parties in a single market


Developing
decentralized architectures
to enable smaller scale
electricity supply systems to operate harmoniously

o
Activating consumers
, with or without their own
generation, to play an active role in the operation of the
system


20

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

21

Users

Energy service

providers

Technology providers

Researchers

Regulators

Network

companies

Traders

Generators

Governmental


agencies

Stakeholders

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

From passive towards active grids

Integration of decentralized generation?


o
Passive grids = Fit and Forget


Fault Detection: power can come from any direction


Power Quality: responsibility?


Voltage Control: responsibility?


Grid Planning: deterministic peak planning,
cfr

ER P2/5 in UK



Significant grid problems at low levels of decentralized generation


o
Active grids


Normal operation


Curtailment of generation


Local power balance


Coordinated voltage control


Voltage regulators in
-
line


Fault situations


22

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

From passive towards active grids

Active distribution system has three layers


1.
Copper based energy

infrastructure (electricity)


2.
Communications layer


3.
Software layer

23

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Current Status


Global recognition of the benefits
towards
implementation of Smart Grids for all actors


Widespread rollout of “Smart” is
technically
possible
during the next decade

?
Complex and not fully clear


how this evolution is going


to take place in practice


24

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Current Status

o
Large
-
scale deployment not yet happened, why
not? Some reasons:


Limited pilot experiences so far


Limited statistical significance of the quantification
of benefits achieved in these experiences


Uncertainties regarding the global investments

o
Key challenges for the Smart Grid deployment:


Largely of regulatory nature


To a lesser extent influenced by research and
development issues and by a lack of suitable
demonstration pilot projects



25

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Main drives for more electric
vehicles and grid impact

o
Global warming and Kyoto restrictions

o
Use all energy sources to “fuel” vehicles

o
Secondary energy vectors may compete:
hydrogen or electricity

o
Transition is key

o
Hydrogen: totally new distribution system
required; transition far from evident

o
Electricity: gentle transition built on the existing
infrastructure

o
Smooth transition improves social acceptance

26

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Possible charging points

o
Charging at home: feasible

o
Charging everywhere: telecommunications

o
Fast charging stations: grid impact

o
Battery swapping stations: impact on the car
design

o
Charging options define the interactions with the
grid

27

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Charging at home

o
Regular charging: standard electric outlet


230 V, 20 A, 4.6 kW, availability is extremely high


o
Semi
-
fast charging: high power level but possible
in domestic
environment:
very

low
cost



Heavy single phase electric outlet


230 V, 32 A (electric cooker), 7.4 kW


Three phase electric outlet


3 x 400V, 16 A, 11 kW

o
Almost no power linked investments needed
locally with the consumer

28

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Charging everywhere

o
GPRS identification system

o
Price information needed in time and in space

o
ICT infrastructure

o
Billing system has to developed

o
Flexible grid tariffs are needed

o
Data

29

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Fast charging stations

o
Charging stations


Impact on transmission grid


fast charging: depending on the grid connection


Particular connection for high power systems


Power > 20 kW, up to 80kW


Heavy infrastructure


Heavy cables


Psychological advantage (range anxiety)

o
Towards the grid: very critical load

o
Requires new European standard

30

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Vehicle
-
to
-
grid

o
Bidirectional power flow

o
Grid services: voltage supply, balancing

o
Intelligent communication:


Amount of energy delivered/consumed


Willingness of the PHEV
-
owner to discharge


Privacy?


31

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Vehicle
-
to
-
grid

o
Now: little storage in the grid:


Generation and demand: perfectly matched


Forecasting errors


Variable behavior of wind (and sun)

o
90% are available (not driving)


Network availability


Battery capacity


Incentives

32

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Grid services by vehicles

o
Surplus value for PHEV
-
owners?


Payment for consumed energy


Compensation for delivered energy


Economical feasibility


Battery wear?

o
Requirements for V2G


Connection with the grid


Communication


On
-
board metering battery capacity


33

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Grid services

o
Frequency regulation


Primary reserves: automatically and continuous


Secondary reserves: automatically and continuous


Tertiary reserves: manual


few times per year




o
Voltage regulation


Regulation active power


voltage regulation in distribution
grid


Embedded in the controller

o
Load leveling en peak power


Peak power:


Charging off
-
peak hours


Discharging peak hours


Load leveling:


Charging off
-
peak hours


Discharging peak hours is not necessary


34

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Feasible grid services


Management of charging


Coordinated charging


With voltage control embedded in charger


35

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Investments

needed


Grid

layers

have different impact
depending

on

charging

approach

36

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

Home

Everywhere

Fast

Swapping

Power



Limited

Low voltage

Limited

Low voltage

Very

high

Medium
voltage

Limited

Medium

voltage

ICT
-
Hardware

Nothing

beyond

smart
metering

Very

high

High

Medium

ICT Software

High

Very

high

High

Low

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

37

Green Cars Spanish Presidency Conference

Grid

services
capability


Voltage
control
, power
quality

and
balancing

Home

Everywhere

Fast

Swapping

Balancing



Limited

Low voltage

Limited

Low voltage

Even
negative

Very

high

Power

quality

Good

Low voltage

Good

Low and
medium voltage

Even
negative

Very

good

Medium
voltage

Voltage
control

Good

Low voltage


Very

good

Low voltage

High

Very

good

Medium
voltage

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

What are the Elements for
Success?


Action Now!

38

2020 targets

2050 targets

and beyond

REQUIRE


application

of today’s
technologies

REQUIRE
development

of
today’s technologies

REQUIRES
research

for
tomorrow’s technologies

These actions must be put in hand NOW

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

EIT

39

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

40

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

o
A pilot project will be realized in a region containing
appr. 4000 units, with an emphasis on the
residential
function

(but also combined with other building
functions), for 25% of the units.


o
A
virtual power plant

(VPP) will be realized,
containing a combination of primarily industrial
decentral production and demand units
(geographically dispersed).


o
Tentative timing:


Linear start:


May ‘09


Installation:

April ’11
→ end ‘11


Monitoring:

January ’12
→ mid ‘13


End project:

June ‘14


© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

WP1


WP2: Energy
consumption patterns
and flexibility of
energy consumers

Smart metering, user
survey, profiles, flexibility


WP3: Concepts for
energy storage

Decentralized units,
storage, power
electronics

WP4: Coupled local
energy networks

Bidirectional flows, µ
-
grids, natural gas,
communication

WP5: Integrate
buildings and
transport

Profiles, PHEV and
demand side participation

WP6: Integration tools and control strategies

Integration tool, control strategies, potential estimation and general advice

WP7: Intelligent concepts at district level

Decision tool for projects
→ basis architecture pilot projects

WP8: Major pilot projects

Design concept, simulations, user motivation, realisation, monitoring and analysis, optimisation, linked laboratory
infrastructure

Implementation

WP9: E
-
Market

Value chain, business cases, legal aspects, energy price prediction

E
-
Market

Research
, knowledge

building

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Research partners

Industrial partners

Additional steering

commitee

members

Linear acknowledges the

Flemish Government for its support

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Waterschei: from black gold to
green gold

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Waterschei physical implementation


/

KUL

Vito

EIT

VSGP

GAF

Stad Genk (spin
-
offs)


© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Offices building 2

o
Chairs: 200

o
Meeting rooms: 6


2 x 50 people


2 x 35 people


2 x 8 people

o
Auditorium 120 people



/

EIT

VSGP

KUL

Vito

GAF

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

Result

Energyville:

Energy for green cities


/

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids Vision

47

Grid Infeed

SS

Energy

Storage


Aggregator and
manager of dispersed
power sources


Aggregator and
manager of ancillary
services for local
network and the grid

Aggregator


Manage constraints and
minimise losses


Utilise smart meter data


Manage asset condition / predict
failure events


Intelligent demand management
in emergencies

Optimiser


Energy efficiency


Customer overall

participation


Customer micro
-
gen

types


Heat networks


Carrier communications


Integrator

(Source:
EON Central Networks)

New roles for Network Co’s

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

© K.U.Leuven


ESAT/
Electa

SmartGrids


From a Vision for Intelligent Electrical
Grids


Thank you

for your attention !


48

Ronnie
Belmans

Katholieke

Universiteit

Leuven, Belgium

ronnie.belmans@esat.kuleuven.be

Ronnie.Belmans@esat.kuleuven.be