Interconnectors and RES

peanutplausibleΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

90 εμφανίσεις

Interconnectors

and

RES

04
.0
7
.2013 | www.ast.lv

Arnis

Staltmanis

AS AUGSTSPRIEGUMA TIKLS

Board member

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv


EU
Strategy




The

developments

of

generation

capacity

in

Baltic

States



RES
long

term

challenges



The

projects

in

Baltic

States

towards

2050

Content

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

EU milestones towards 2050

Electricity Highways 2050


Large and intermittent wind
volumes in the northern
Seas.


Large
-
scale solar in
southern Europe and
possibly in northern Africa.


The Middle East along with
the develop
me
nts

in storing
and consuming electricity
and in decentralized models
of electricity generation.

Towards carbon
-
neutral
technologies in the future energy
mix

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

Drivers

of

P
ower

System

Evolution


Security

of

supply


Renewable

energy

integration


Internal

Market

integration

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

Bulk

power

flows

related

to
generation

connection

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

The

developments

of

generation

capacity

in

Baltic

States

0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
2013
2015
2016
2020
Case

B,
optimistic

Not Clearly Identifiable Energy Sources
Hydro power (total)
Biomass
Solar
Offshore wind
Onshore wind
Mixed Fuels
Oil
Gas
Hard Coal
Lignite
Nuclear Power
10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

The

available

capacity

in

Baltic

States

0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
2013
2015
2016
2020
Case

B,
optimistic


System Service Reserve
Outages
Maintenance and Overhauls
Non-Usable Capacity
Reliable Available Capacity
Load
The

reliable

available

capacity

is

shown

without

market

rules
.

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

The

developments

of

RES
in

Baltic

States

Nuclear Power

0%

Fossil Fuels

64%

Renewable
energy sources

36%

Not Clearly
Identifiable
Energy Sources

0%

2013

Nuclear
Power

10%

Fossil Fuels

49%

Renewable
energy sources

40%

Not Clearly
Identifiable
Energy Sources

1%

2020

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

The

RES long term challenges

Wind energy


the most challenging
forecasted generation unit in grid operation



Balancing

the

unpredictable

renewable

energy

sources

(RES)



Wind,

Sun

and

Biomass/Biogas
.


High

surplus

by

2020

expected

in

the

Nordic

countries

will

need

to

be

transmitted

to

the

Continental

Europe
.


Grid

development

may

not

be

in

time

if

RES

targets

are

met

as

scheduled,

due

to

internal

grid

reinforcement

restrictions
.


Uncertainties

regarding

the

market

development

on

the

EU
-
Russian

border
.


Large

uncertainty

regarding

generator

investments

is

a

challenge

for

grid

development
.


North

-

South

flow

direction

in

all

the

Baltic

Sea

countries
.


Changing

of

power

balance

in

Germany

is

significant

in

the

short

term
.



Where

renewable

energy

interconnects

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

Performance Expectations at Various
Connection Points in the Electric System

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

RES
Connection

level

Interconnection

rules

System

Integration

Concerns

Local

and

System

Values

Connection

at

Distribution

(DV)

Local

connection

requirements

Feeder

level

issues
,
such

as

power

flows
,
protection

and

voltage

impacts



issues

related

to
high

penetration

levels


Power, heat, load
control, quality and
reliability





Ancillary service
support to utility T&D
e.g. reserve capacity,
demand response,
deferral of expansions,
etc.

Variable energy
resources displace fuel
use and avoid
emissions




Connection

at

Transmission

(HV)

National

Grid

Codes,

General

requirement

for

generation

connection


Understanding how to
plan and operate the
transmission grid and
other generation
resources based on RE
operating characteristics




2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

Concerns

with

Integrating

Renewables

21.09.2012


Penetration


Affected by utilities' existing generation mix regulating capabilities, load
characteristics, resource availability, and correlations between system
load and resources


Additional systems costs imposed by variability and uncertainty may go
up with increasing penetration


Costs are moderate


up to 20
-
30% Penetration


and depend on
balancing authority and market structure

Technical

Concerns

Real

but

solvable




Infrastructure
Capacity


Lack of transmission capacity from stranded renewable resource
locations


Variable and Uncertain Generation

Solved by


spatial diversity of the resource


flexible conventional generation


grid operations and control areas


limited curtailment for extreme events


load
management


s
ufficient

AC
interconnection

capacity


and at high penetrations possibly storage

2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

RES
Interconnection



Technical

Concerns

21.09.2012

Wind and Large Solar (Bulk System Connected Generation)


Steady state and transient stability analysis


Load/Generation Coincidence (Peak Load and Variability of
Source)


Regulation Requirements


Integration with Automatic Generation Control (AGC)


Incorporation of renewable resource forecasting


Examine current operating practice and new concepts to
enable high penetration;


frequency responsive (create regulating reserves)


demand side coordination

Most technical concerns at the bulk level have been solved
with modern wind turbines and grid codes


2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

RES
Interconnection



Technical

Concerns

21.09.2012

Distributed Solar and Small Wind (Distributed Generation)

Issues listed above, plus


Voltage and VAR Regulation


Power Quality (Harmonics, Flicker, DC Injection)


Unintentional Islanding


Protection design and coordination (short circuit,
recloser
, etc.)


Equipment grounding


Load and generation imbalance


Generation interaction with controllable loads (DSM)


Storage and storage controls

Technical concerns at the distribution level have been
identified, but small
RE
S

have not been fully integrated into
planning and operations

2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

Solutions to Variable and Uncertain Generation

21.09.2012


Spatial diversity of the
resource



Flexible conventional
generation



Sufficient

AC
interconnection

capacity



Grid operations and control
areas



Load
management



Limited curtailment for extreme
events



And at high penetrations possibly storage

Wind

diversity

Energy Storage to Address
RE
S

Generation

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

Costs of Less Wind Than Forecasted
:


Spot market electric purchases


Greater
“wear & tear” costs due to more
starts/stops than assumed in Retail rate
design


Potential
depletion of gas system pressure
due to higher than expected
starts/usage


Power
Plant
Cycling


Imports
on

AC
interconnections

Costs of
More

Wind
Than Forecasted
:


Value

of

Day
-
Ahead

contracts

not

realised


Day
-
Ahead

Nominated

Gas

not

used


Power
Plant
Cycling


Exports

on

AC
interconnections

2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

Historical and
Current
Integration Activities
Regarding Large Wind Integration Studies

21.09.2012



A large amount of research has looked into the technical
concerns regarding integration of wind farms into the electrical
grid
.



Several studies have examined 20
-
30%
penetration



For large, diverse electric balancing areas, existing regulation
and load following resources and/or markets are adequate and
associated costs are
low

2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

Historical and
Current
Integration Activities
Regarding Large Wind Integration Studies

21.09.2012



Moderate
cost increases may be needed to account for
variability and uncertainty of wind resource (3
-
4% low to 7
-
10%
high
)


Largely
dependent on local utility market design and
resource constraints



State of the art forecasting can reduce
costs


majority
of the value can be obtained with current state
-
of
-
the
-
art forecasting


additional incremental returns from increasingly accurate
forecasts



Realistic studies are data intensive and require sophisticated
modeling of wind resource and power system operations

2012.09
|
www.ast.lv

Needs for Distributed Renewables

21.09.2012


Distributed
renewable interconnection technologies with
advanced functionality


Integration of renewable energy with
dispatchable

load and
storage


Electric power systems technologies, controls, and operations
that enable high penetration of distributed renewable energy
systems


Models for renewable energy systems that allow them to be
included in the planning and analysis tools


The

main

objectives

are
:


1
.

increase

of

the

security

of

supply
;


2
.

increase

of

the

competition

in

liberal

electricity

market
;


3
.

development

of

the

robust

and

reliable

transmission

system
;


4
.

Baltic

States

integration

in

European

power

system
;


5
.

RES

integration
.


External

interconnectors
:


NordBalt


2016
;


Estlink
2



2014
;


LitPol

link



2015
.

Internal reinforcements in
2020 (LV, LT un EE):


EE
-
LV 3rd
interconnection


2020;


Kurzemes

ring, LV


2018;


Panevezis
-
Musa
-
Klaipeda, LT


2018;


Harku
-
Sindi
-
Tartu, EE


2018.

10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

The

Long

term

challenges

for

transmission

grid









Interconnectors

play

cruicial

role

in

order

to

meet

EU

RES

targets


In

order

to

have

maximum

benefit

from

interconnectors
:


forectasting

methods

has

to

be

improved
;


o
pportunities

given

by

smart

grids

has

to

be

fully

utilzed
;


n
ew

ways

of

effiecient

energy

storage

has

to

be

developed



10.05.2013 |
www.ast.lv

Conclusions

Latvian

Transmission

System

Operator

AS AUGSTSPRIEGUMA TĪKLS

Dārzciema

iela 86, Rīga, LV
-
1073

T: (+371) 67728353

F: (+371) 67728858

ast@ast.lv

www.ast.lv

Thank

you

for

attention


2012.03.29| www.ast.lv

22