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SMAART

Sophisticated Mobile Application using Augmented Reality Technology

TECHNICAL REPORT

SPRING 2011

Instructor:

Dr.Kwok
-
Bun Yue

Mentor:

Mr.Dilhar De Silva

Project Team Members:

Nithin Kumar Dudde

Manoj Gidda

Shivani Kovvuri

Srikanth Inapurapu

Srikanth Majji (Team Leader)

Report Date:

29

April 2011





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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


We take an immense pleasure in expressing our sincere thanks to our instructor, Dr. Kwok Bun
Yue,

for providing us with
va
luable feedback throughout the capstone p
roject. We really
appreciate his advice, support, and feedback.

We are very much grateful to our mentor
,

Mr. Dilhar De
S
ilva, for his inspiring guidance and

advice througho
ut our project
. Mr. Dilhar De Silva has been the inspiration and was always up
front to motivate and encourage us for bringing out our project successfully. We would like to
thank him for his
excellent technical expertise, guidance, support, and time.

Finally we extend

our thanks to each of our families
, who gave us encouragement whenever we
had a tough time.
















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ABSTRACT


In today’s world,
m
obile applications are triggering a fundamental shift in the way people
experience computing and use mobile.
The explosive growth in smartphones in the last three
years facilitated the development of hundreds of thousands of mobile applications that promised
to fundamentally change how people use the Web.
Our mentor,

Mr
.

Dilhar De Silva, CEO
of
AtLinks

Communicat
i
ons, was

interested in developing an android mobile prototype application
using augmented reality technology.



The overall goal of the project is to
develop an Android
-
based augmented

reality (AR) mobile
application
through which images and text can be placed on top of the objects of the phone
camera view based on the geo
-
location of the objects detected by the phone. For example,
u
sing
this application
,

administrative user
can

place the
schedule
of the
event
at a par
ticular geo
-
code

(latitude and longitude) on
a
server

by using a web application

and the mobile users

can

open the
mobile application
on android phone
to view the augmented image of schedule overlying on
camera’s view.

Mobile user can

also download the sch
edule
into their mobile phones by
providing their login credentials.


To provide the necessary AR functionality, our team developed and used a metric to study
about

AR
API’s and selected QUALCOMM API for pattern based augmentation
,

and WIKITUDE API
for geo
-
code based augmentation.


This project
was

carried out in accordance with R
ational Unified Process
(R
UP
), using Scrum
proce
ss.

The process went

iteratively and incrementally delivering sprints and finally delivering
the end product.

The project will be do
cumented using UML 2.0.




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CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

2

ABSTRACT

3

1.

INTRODUCTION

5

1.1 Purpose

5

1.2 Overview

5

2.

SOFTWARE DEVE
LOPMENT MODEL

8

3.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT
ATION

10

3.1 Architecture diagram:

10

4.

TECHNICAL DETAILS

12

5.

Technical Challenges and Lessons Learnt

13

5.1

Selection of Android Mobile phone

13

5.2

Selection of Augmented Reality Browser/Engine

13

6.

CONCLUSION

14

7.


FUTURE WORK

15

8
.

REFERENCES

15

9
.

APPENDICES

16

Appendix A: Project Management and Team Information

16

Appendix B: Major Tasks and Contributions

17

Appendix C: Software Requirements Specification

18

Appendix D: Database Design Schema

22

Appendix E: Use case and Sequence Diagrams

25

Appendix F: Screenshots of Client Side and Serve
r Side

35




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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1
Purpose

The
goal of
our capstone

project is to
develop an Android
-
based augmented reality (AR) mobile
application through which
images and text can be placed on top of the objects of the phone
camera view based on the geo
-
location of the objects detected by the phone
. It will also

develop
a server
-
side
web application

where users can place graphical image at a specific geocode
(loc
ation) using Google Maps
.

1.2 Overview

In today’s
business
and educational
world, every
industry
and educational institutions
wants to
share any specific information at
lightning speed
.
This may be a part
of manufacturing industries
promoting

their
new
product
,
or
shopping malls and restaurants promoting their new discount
offers,

or
educational institutions

announcing
on
-
campus
job
vacancies

and any special events

etc.

In the existing system, manufacturing industries does t
hese promotions
by displaying

the
new product details

on big hoardings

or by advertising it on Television. Shopping malls and
restaurants promote their discount offers
and
by adding pamphlets in the daily news paper.

Students of university have an only option of reaching the special ev
ent place to obtain the
schedule of it.


However the existing
system of sharing the specific information to people has several drawbacks

1)

Cost factor in case of advertising on TV and displaying large hoardings.

2)

Pamphlets

outmode
d
-

Majority of the news
paper readers are more interested on reading
news rather than the pamphlets added in it.




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3)

Students would not know the schedule of an event unless they reach the place and also
printing schedule brochures would add an extra budget to the event.

I
n today’s wo
rld

of technology,
i
nternet is one of the most important technological
breakthroughs of the 20th century

along with the mobile computing.


A
ccording to

the

results of
a recent online survey conducted by IBM,

television sets are losing ground to the internet

when it
comes to personal leisure time
”[6]
.
These kinds of promotions and advertising based on the
existing systems mentioned abov
e are reaching to very less peopl
e.

As the
growth of internet

and
mobile users are growing day by day, all the mobile carrier
services are offering smart phones
to them
at low prices possible with a contract based.

Our
mentor Mr. Dilhar De Silva wants us to build a mobile application on
android using augmented
reality technology
to overcome the above drawbacks

by targeting all the android mobile users

as
an initiative step
.

SMAART, an android
-
based augmented reality

technology application
makes android mobile

phone

users life easier in finding the information they looking for. Rather going to the places i
n
person
, an android

mobile phone owner
can download an augmented r
eality

application/software

that uses the phone
's camera and

GPS

capabilities to gather information ab
out the surrounding
area. For example,
if the user selects restaurants from the categories available, it shows
information

(order menu

and discount offers
)

about restaurants

in the area, overlaying this
information on the phone's screen. You can even point the phone at a

building, and it will tell
you if any companies in that building are hiring

by displaying a text image on
your mobile



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phone.

Aiming the camera towards the educational institution wou
ld fetch the mobile user with
a
n event schedule overlying on the phone’s screen.

Th
e server side
web
application shall

have a web based interface
which uses

Google Maps API
to
aid
administrative users to
place
the
images at specific geo
-
code locations. Usi
ng sensor
services

such as GPS
, the mobile application shall
get the current geo
-
code (latitude and
Longitude).The current geo
-
code (latitude and Longitude)

of the device

along with
user selection
of
categories and

the

radius

(distance user wants to find places within)
is sent to server to figure
out if any images have been placed in the virtual world.
The i
mages
that are augmented
are
displayed through the camera of the d
evice. The mobile users
then
should be able to download
and store the imag
e augmented
onto

the device.














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2.

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT MODEL


We
used Rational Unified Process (RUP) as the software development model.
It provides a
disciplined approach t
o assign
tasks and responsibilities within a development organization.
The

goal

of RUP

is to ensure the production of high
-
quality

software that meets the needs of its end
-
users, within a
predictable schedule and budget.



Fig 1: RUP pha
ses

RUP has a project lifecycle that consists four phases.



Inception:

In the inception phase, the team met with Mr. Dilhar De Silva and gathered
all the requirements. One of the requirements of our project is researching on different
AR browsers and select
ing the best open source browser that suites our project. We have
selected Qualcomm API for pattern recognition and Wikitude API for geo
-
location. The
team developed a basic use case diagram depending upon the requirements. Our team



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also made research on
different kinds of android mobile phones and chose the Dell Streak
for our project
. We have also learnt about the Android SDK by dividing it into sections
and later explained it each other. The team worked for almost three weeks in the
inception phase.



Elaboration:

In the elaboration phase, we have revised the basic
use case diagram. The
team developed

sequence diagrams as well. The team also designed a high level
architecture diagram showing the flow of communication between the client and server.
The t
eam worked for four weeks in the elaboration phase.



Construction:

The construction phase was almost seven weeks. The team learnt new
technologies like Android SDK, Qualcomm API,
and Wikitude

API. We have divided the
team into two groups. One group working

on server side and other group working on the
client side. As we have divided the work, we were able to work independently and
complete the project on time.



Transition:

During the transition phase
,

the team performed
some
tests to verify the
project requ
irements. The prototype was demonstrated to Mr. Dilhar De Silva

to

validate
that the project met the end users’ expectations.

The team worked for two weeks on
transition phase.










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3.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION


3.1
Architecture diagram:


The architecture diagram
shows

the working of the project in detail. Images uploaded on to the
server by authorized user wi
ll be stored on the database as shown in the diagram below.

Client
side mobile application
receives the images from the server to
augment
it

on
the mobiles camera.

The technical details

of the project

are explained in next section.









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The communications between the client, server and database is explained

Communication between
Client

& Server
:

1.

On the A
ndroid phone, the user
shall select the category

to view his required choice of
images or text overlying on camera’s view by clicking on categories menu button
.

2.

A mobile user shall set the radius (maximum distance to consider from the current geo
-
code) to display the requested
category of images with in the distance of radius.

3.

The current geo
-
code, along with selected categories and radius is sent

to the server
as a
HTTP request
.

4.

The client application receives all the images of user
-
selected categories within the user
-
defined
radius as an XML file from the server.

5.

Once the

augmented images are displayed on the camera’s view,

user
can select

a
n image
for download, which in
turn

requests for mobile user login credentials.

6.

Once the mobile user provides the login information,

serve
r authenticates the user and

then he/she would be able to download the image on to the device

on a
successful log
in
.

Communication between Server & Database:

1.

When authorized users provide login credentials to logon to web application
, t
he server
checks with the database
to authenticate them.

2.

Whenever an authorized user adds an image
along with the image name and description
on the server side
application at a specific geo
-
code,
it is stored in
to
the database.

3.

When a HTTP request with ge
o
-
code, informational categories and radius are received
from client application, the server checks with the database to find images of the
categories within a certain radius.




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4.

TECHNICAL DETAILS

This section explains the various technologies we u
sed to deve
lop this application.

Mobile Application (Client Side):

The Client side application was implemented using Java on Android 2.2 platform. We have used
WIKITUDE API for augmenting images

on camera view

based on geo
-
code. We have used
QUALCOMM API for augmenti
ng image

on camera view

based on pattern recognition. We
have also used Google Maps
API
on client side
and placed

markers on
server
-
specific geo
-
code
s
.




Web Application (Server

Side):

The Server

side
web
application was implemented using J
ava server pages for user interface and
MySql for the database. We have used Google Maps API to place the marker and add images
with description at user
-
specific geo
-
code.





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5.

T
ECHNICAL CHALLENGES AND LESSO
NS LEARNT


5.1

Selection of
Android Mobile phone


The
first challenge the team had was
,

determining what
Android ph
one to use for the project.
The team

gathered all the requirements of the project

to

determine the required functionalities of
android phone
. The team determined that
,

an

android phone

supportin
g a Qualcomm
API and

GPS would be the most reliable for the application
.

The team has done good research and
selected some android phones which have

satisfied the requirements criteria
.
By comparing the
chosen android phones based on
certain

metrics
, the team has decided Dell Streak 5
will satisfy
the requirements of the project
. The
Dell Streak 5

has a built
-
in
Qualcomm chip
and GPS which
would be used both for pattern recognition and geo
-
code based augmentation.

Both mentor and
instructor have agr
eed and recommended our selection of android phone
.

5.2

Selection of Augmented Reality Browser/Engine


Another challenge the team had
was
determining
the best AR browser/engine for the project. AR
browser/engine is used to augment images or text on top of the

objects of camera’s view

in our
project
. The team has done research on it and come across many AR browsers/engines. Based on the
metrics, the team has compared
all the

AR browsers/engines and found Qualcomm API is best
suitable for a pattern
-
based augment
ation
. Qualcomm API is an open sourced API and does not
augment images based on the
geo
-
code;

it augments images based on pattern recognition. The team
has determined Wikitude API as the best AR browser in augmenting images based on the geocode
.
Wikitude
API is

an open sourced

browser and it is very well documented.




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6.

CONCLUSION


Our team was
successful in completing all

the requirements that were specified
,

even though
the

concept of augmented reality

was entirely new

for all our team members.

In the proces
s of
completing this project
,

we were able to
learn

various new

technologies
. Learning all the
se new
technologies

and providing a working prototype in the short aggress
ive schedule was
challenging.
The team enjoyed working with the mentors and getting the opportunity to
learn
from this project.
Overall, we had good experience working on the capstone project.

7.

FUTURE WORK


In future
,

performance

of the

application (SMAART)

can be improved
using
WIKITUDE API

to
a
ugment images on camera based on geo
-
location
. SMAART, an augmented reality based
android application

has
also been able to augment images on camera

using a
basic pattern
recognition

with the help of
Qualcomm API
. There
is lot of scope
to
enhance on

pattern
recognition

based augmentation
in this application.










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8.

REFERENCES


[1].
IBM Rational Software. "Rational Unified Process : Best Practices for Software
Development Teams."
IBM DeveloperWorks: Rational.

January 10, 2003.
http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/rational/library/content/03July/1000/1251/1251_bestpracti
ces_TP026B.pdf


[2].
Benismobile (November 23, 2010).
Comparing AR browsers
. Retrieved from

http://mobilegeo.wordpress.com/2010/11/23/comparing
-
ar
-
browsers/

for comparing different AR
browsers.

[3].
Learning about Qualcomm API

https://ar.qualcomm.com/qdevnet/developer_guide

[4]. Information about Android fundamentals

http://developer.androi
d.com/guide/basics/what
-
is
-
android.html

[5]. Basic knowledge about Augmented Reality

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented_reality

[6]. Survey between Television and Internet


http://www.bit
-
tech.net/news/2007/08/23/tv_vs_the_internet_internet_wins/1











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9.

APPENDICES


Appendix A: Project Management and Team Information




Srikanth Majji: Team Leader,
Research Analyst, Developer, Database Administrator



Srikanth Inapurapu: Software Designer, Developer



Shivani Kovvuri: Software Designer, Technical writer
, Webmaster



Nithin Kumar Dudde: Software Designer, Developer, Webmaster



Manoj Gidda: Research Analyst,
Technical writer


Project schedule:

Week

Date

Phase

Week 1

01/20/2011

Inception phase

Week 2

01/25/2011

Week 3

02/01/2011

Week 4

02/08/2011

Elaboration phase

Week 5

02/15/2011

Week 6

02/22/2011

Week 7

03/01/2011

Construction phase

Week 8

03/08/2011

Week 9

03/15/2011

Week 10

03/22/2011

Week 11

03/29/2011

Week 12

04/05/2011

Transition phase

Week 13

04/12/2011

Week 14

04/19/2011

Week 15

04/26/2011






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Appendix B: Major Tasks and Contributions


Tasks

Srikanth

Majji

(%)

Srikanth

Inapurapu

(%)

Shivani
Kovvuri

(%)

Nithin
Kumar
Dudde

(%)


Manoj
Gidda

(%)


Research & Analysis on
different AR browsers

20

20

20

20


20

Documentation on
Abstract, Agenda &
Meeting Minutes

20

15

35

15


15

Modeling Use cases and
sequence Diagrams

15

15

15

35


20

Software Requirements
Specification(SRS)

15

20

2
0

15


30

Website Creation,
Maintenance

15

15

20

35


15

UI Design


15

35

20

20


15

Database Design

35

10

1
0

20


25

Database connectivity
with UI

25

25

15

15


20

Technical Report

15

20

35

15


15









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Appendix C:

S
oftware Requirements Specification


Client side:



Open the Application



User

shall
start the application by clicking on the shortcut

key of the application in the
A
ndroid phone.



System shall
retrieve the current location of th
e user using
GPS
.




Choose a category



When the user selects the category from menu, the category list shall be retrieved from the
server and displayed to the mobile user.



User shall select any one of the categories

that he/she is interested in
from
a
number of
categorie
s available. (For example categories
may
include Restaurant, Motel, School, Coffee
shops etc.)



System shall retrieve
all the markers

belonging to that particula
r category by connecting to
the server
.



System shall display all these retr
ieved markers

to the
mobile user.




Set Radius



User shall set the radius to a particular range. The default radius is set to 10

miles and the
maximum radius is set to 60

miles.




System shall retrieve all the
markers

within that particular range.



System shall display all these
markers

to the mobile user.




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Open App Camera



User shall
select the camera option once he/she is done selecting the categories and setting
the radius.



User shall select the augmentation type. The two types of augmentation are
using geolocation

and
using
pattern

recognition.




Open Map View



User shall
open the map view option once he/she is done selecting the categories and setting
the radius. The map shall
display markers in the map
belonging to that particular category
with
in

the selected radius range.



User shall select the augmentation type. The two types of augmentation are
using geolocation

and
using pattern

recognition.




Download images



User shall
download and store the image selected into the Android phone memory.



W
hen the user shall download an image, the system asks the user for login information.




Open images



User shall
open a stored image from the Android phone memory.



User shall need a JPEG viewer to open the stored images.






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Server side:



Login to web server



System shall allow the user to enter a valid mobile number and password.



System shall successfully login and display


login successful


when authenticated.



System shall prompt an error message when an invalid user logs in

or
when the user does not
enter
his mobile number and password.





User Registration



User shall enter mobile number

which is 10 digits.



User shall enter a password which should be a minimum of 8 characters.



User shall enter first name
.



User shall enter last name.



User shall enter email.



User shall enter mobile model number.



User shall click on

submit


after entering all the details.



If the mobile number already exists, the user shall be displayed an error message that the

mobile number already exists

.




Pick geo
-
location



User sha
ll
select a geo
-
location from Google M
aps.



System shall display the latitude and longitude of the geo
-
location selected.




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Add image at geo
-
location



User shall add an image to the geo
-
location he/she has selected.




Create category



User shall create a new
category and add an image to that particular category.





Categorize image



User shall categorize the image
to any

one of the categories
that is been added to a particular
geo
-
location.



User shall create

a new category if he/she wants

to.




Update

image



User

shall

browse through the images that are available in the system and choose one of
them
,
upload
ing

it to that particular geo
-
location.












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Appendix D
:
Database Design Schema




DATA DICTIONARY:

The

table descriptions are as follows

1.

Authorized user:

This table holds the authentication details like Mobile number and
password for every user who logins to the system. This Mobile number and password

is



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used by the client for login purposes on the Android phone, whenever the user needs to
download images.


Column Name

DataType

Default Value

MobileNumber

bigint[10]

Not Null

Password

varchar
[45]

Not Null


Primary Key: {MobileNumber}

Functional Dependency: MobileNumber

Password

Highest Normal Form: BCNF


2.

Profile: Each

Authorized user has one account. The profile information contains Mobile
number, First name, Last name, E
-
mail, Mobile_model.

Column Name

DataType

Default Value

MobileNumber

bigint
[10]

Not Null

First
Name

v
archar
[45]

Not Null

LastName

v
archar
[45]

Not
Null

E
-
mail

varchar
[60]

Not Null

Mobile_model

varchar
[45]

Not Null


Primary Key: {MobileNumber}

Functional Dependency:
MobileNumber

{FirstName, LastName, Mobile_model, E
-
mail}

Highest Normal Form: BCNF


3.

ImagePlot: An authorized user can upload any
number of images. In order to know which
user has uploaded the image at particular Geo Location, we consider Mobile number,
Latitude and Longitude as a primary key.




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Column Name

DataType

Default Value

ImageID

i
nt
eger[5]

Not Null

Image
Name

varchar[
6
0]

NotNull

ImageDescription

Varchar[300]

NotNull

ImageLink

Varchar[200]

NotNull

Latitude

double
(
20
,
15
)

Not Null

Longitude

double(20,15)

Not Null

MobileN
umber

bigint
[10]

Not Null

CategoryID

i
nteger
[15]

Not Null


Primary Key: {
ImageID}

Foreign Key: {
CategoryID, MobileNumber}

Functional Dependency: ImageID


ImageName
,

ImageLink, ImageDescription,

Latitude,
Longitude, MobileNumber, CategoryID

Highest Normal Form: BCNF


4.

Category: Each image which is placed at a particular geo
-
location by an Authorized
user
has a related Category Name.

Column Name

DataType

Default Value

CategoryID

i
nterger
[15]

Not Null

CategoryName

v
archar
[4
5]

Not Null


Primary Key: {CategoryID}

Functional Dependency: CategoryID


CategoryName

Highest Normal Form: BCNF




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Appendix E
:
Use case and Sequence Diagrams


Use case Diagram:

Client side:










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Kite level written Use Case for displaying images in a virtual world using Augmented Reality
technology
:

Use
-
Case Title: Displaying images in a virtual world using Augmented Reality tech
nology


Primary Actor: Mobile User


Level: Kite (Summary)


Stakeholders: Mobile user


Precondition: Mobile users should have a camera phone with android operating system


Minimal guarantee: Mobile users retrieve the geo codes facing camera lens


Success guarantee: Display images at the specific geo code on camera


Trigger:

M
obile users access the application utilizing Augmented Reality technology


Main success scenario:

1.

Mobile Users opens the Augmented Reality application on Android phones using

camera
lens to retrieve the geo code locations.

2.

Mobile Users requests server for the images by sending the geo codes.

3.

Images are displayed at corresponding geo code locations on camera after receiving it
from the server database.

4.

Images can be maximized b
y touching it.

5.

Images can be downloaded and stored in to the mobile phone.


Error conditions
:

1.

a. Sending geo codes to the server is interrupted


1
.a.1 Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User starts again.


1
.a.2

Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User quits.


2
. a. Receiving images from server is interrupted


2
.a.1 Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User starts again.


2
.a.2 Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User quits.


3. a. If images are not downlo
aded


3
.a.1 Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User starts again.


3
.a.2 Transaction Rolled back, Mobile User quits.









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Server side:











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Kite level written Use Case for adding and updating images on server side GUI
:

Use
-
Case Title: Adding and
updating Images on Server side GUI


Primary Actor: Authorized user


Level: Kite (Summary)


Stakeholders: Authorized user


Precondition: Server side GUI should be embedded with Google maps API.


Minimal guarantee: Accessing the Google maps from server
side GUI with internet


Success guarantee: Adding images at the specific geo code location on server side


Trigger: Administrator access the GUI enabled with Google maps API


Main success scenario:

1.

Administrator logs in to access the server side GUI.

2.

Pi
ck a geo location to add an image.

3.

Add images at specific geo code locations using Google maps API
.

4.

Update all the images with the recent one.

5.

Maintain the server side GUI regularly.


Error conditions
:

1.

a. “Log
-
in” Use case failure

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a. Adding images at Geo codes are interrupted


2.a.1 Transaction Rolled back, Administrator starts again.


2.a.2 Transaction Rolled back, Administrator logs out.


3. a. Updating images are interrupted.


3.a.1 Transaction Rolled back, Administrator starts again.


3.a.2 Transaction Rolled back, Administrator logs out.










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Sequence Diagram:

Client s
ide:

Sequence diagram for selecting the category:










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Sequence diagram for setting radius and perform camera options:











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Sequence diagram for authentication:




Sequence diagram for opening downloaded images:






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Server side:


Sequence Diagram for
successful login onto web application:











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Sequence diagram for picking a geo location to upload an image:











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Sequence diagram for adding image and choose category:

















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A
ppendix

F: S
creenshots of Client Side and

S
erver

S
ide

Server Side:


Fig 1: Home Page


Fig 2: Login Page




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Fig 3: Registration page



Fig 4: After successful login the user can place a ma
rker on the Google Maps and uplo
ad a
n

image.





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Client Side:

Images of application running on Dell Streak


Fig 5: Initial Screen



Fig

6: Screen when clicked on menu






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Fig 7
: Screen with list of categories




Fig 8
: Screen
when clicked on Camera





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Fig 9
: Screen
when clicked on Map




Fig 10
: Screen
when
tapped on the marker. Login page





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Fig 1
1
: Screen
when clicked download

after successful login



Fig 1
2
: Screen
when clicked on info menu button





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Fig 12
: Screen
when clicked pattern recognition in camera button


Fig 13
: Screen
when clicked on Geolocation on Camera menu button