INFS7004 Accounting Information Systems

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INFS7004 Accounting Information Systems




Lecture 11

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: SAP








(The contents of this lecture are heavily based on Cheryl Calvert’s Lectures in 615
-
260)

2

Objectives for Lecture 11


What is SAP R/3?


SAP’s client
-
server architecture


Using R/3 4.7 for this subject


Five different views of SAP ECC


V1: Management view


V2: User view


V3: Implementation
-
team view


Some YouTube videos about SAP

3

1. Role of SAP R/3 in INFS2005


SAP R/3 is an example of PEAS (
P
ackaged
E
nterprise
A
pplication
S
oftware)


We are here to learn about how to use and manage ES
and PEAS in general, not SAP R/3.


You will end up knowing a lot about SAP and R/3.


You will also have hardly scratched the surface of what
there is to know about SAP!

4

Definition of ERP (Deloitte Consulting’s ERP’s
Second Wave’ report, 1998)

“An
Enterprise Resource Planning

system is a packaged
business software system that allows a company to:


Automate and
integrate

the majority of its business processes


Share common data

and practices across the entire enterprise


Produce and access information in a
real
-
time

environment.”

5

Most of what we cover in this Lecture will be
about SAP


SAP is an extremely complicated system


Supports most administrative functions


Mastering a module requires in
-
depth specialist knowledge
of a given area (e.g. accounting, inventory management)


Too complex for any individual to master all modules
.


What is SAP?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J9Vmlbn1H0Q



Fortunately most ERP systems are similar


if you understand part of one ERP, you have a good basis
for understanding similar function in ERP from another
vendor

6

2. What is SAP R/3?


If someone says “we use SAP”, usually mean mySAP ERP


we use version mySAP ERP 2004 (ECC 5.0)


SAP is more than one product


Includes appn’s (e.g. ERP) + infrastructure (e.g. NetWeaver)


mySAP business suite = 5 product “
families



mySAP Customer Relationship Management


mySAP Supplier Relationship Management


mySAP Product Lifecycle Management


mySAP Supply Chain Management


mySAP ERP


Each component of business suite = multiple products


mySAP ERP = 4 products (must also decide which modules to
use)


mySAP ERP Financials


mySAP ERP Analytics


mySAP ERP Corporate Services


mySAP ERP Human Capital Mgt

7

8

The evolution of SAP

9

Components of mySAP ERP


Enterprise Central
Component ECC 5.0


ECC extension set


SAP Web AS 6.40
(Application server)


SAP BW 3.5
(Business warehouse)


SEM 4.0 (Strategic
Enterprise Mgt)


SAP Enterprise Portal
6.0


WebDynpro

This is the focus of
INFS2005. The
components of ECC 5.0 are
detailed on the next slide

10

Components of ECC 5.0

11

SAP’s NetWeaver architecture

Software to
support
organizational
processes

Application
infrastructure

http://www.sap.com/solutions/netweaver/index.epx


12


SAP =
S
ystems,
A
pplications and


P
roducts in Data Processing


Significant amount of code written in ABAP language
(
A
dvanced
B
usiness
A
pplication
P
rogramming)


Customised/Configured via IMG (
IM
plementation
G
uide)


Main system components are


SAPGUI (front
-
end running on desktop PC)


SAP Basis (common platform for applications)


RDBMS (usually Oracle, DB2, or MS SQL Server)


See
http://searchsap.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid21_gci989635,00.html#instances


SAP Terminology

13

3.SAP’s client
-
server architecture


(overview)

Client PC
running SAP
SAPgui

Application Server
in QLD running
mySAP ERP 2005

Internet

Database
server (Oracle)

3
-
tier

“gui = graphical
user interface”

14

The emerging 4
-
tier architecture

Browser
(thin client)

Application server
running SAP R/3 4.7

Internet

Database server
(Oracle)

Web server running
portal software

Its advisable
not to use this

15

What the organization gets is:


A highly configurable software product,


(Some) “end
-
to
-
end” support for current business
processes


Many good ideas for process design


…but also some not
-
so
-
good ideas






Are these best practices?

Not necessarily!

16

The problem for the licensing organization is to
achieve fit


When implementing SAP, managers need to
know


How do we do things here?


How would those processes work under SAP?


Should we change the way SAP works or the
way we do things?



Case Study: Arco


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3vaSLDU4os


Case Study:
Fischer & Wieser


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KTvJttQ0M0s


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Configuration


Screen masks (e.g., 3 screens into one)


Workflow programming


Extended reporting


User exits


ERP programming (e.g., ABAP/4)


Interface development


Customization (=Code Modification)

Source: Brehm, Heinzl, and Markus, “Tailoring
ERP Systems: A Spectrum of Choices”, 2000

Changing PEAS: Options range from Configuration
to Customization

Discussed
later in
this
lecture

18

Is our MySAP ERP system at QUT configured or
customized?


Configured (i.e. “vanilla” SAP)


for a company called IDES


Uses “default” data definitions and process
structures (not customized).


How has it been configured?


Enter company names, organizational structure,
chart of accounts, etc., for a specific organisation
(see next slide)


Changed by entering values in tables using the
Implementation Guide (IMG) part of R/3.

19


SAP AG
1999
6000
Mexico
3000
USA
4000
Canada
1000
Germany
2000
England
2100
Portugal
2200
France
2300
Spain
5000
Japan
IDES North America
IDES Europe
IDES Asia/Australia
IDES International Frankfurt, Germany
1000
Machinery
1000
Machinery
2000
Plant constr.
2000
Plant constr.
3000
Automotive
3000
Automotive
Some of the Business Areas of IDES
Group = Client

Subsidiaries (self
-
contained sets of accounts)

Business areas


(combined internal report definitions)

Example of IDES FI structure

20

3. Five Different Views of SAP R/3


V1: Management view


V2: User view (Process, Data, Screens)


V3: Implementation team view


Configuration


Customization


V4. Software developer’s view


V5: External Observer’s view

21

User View: Screens

22

Technical view: architecture

23

Technical view: Basis, Applications

Since 2002
“Basis” is
called Web
Application
Server. We
are using
WAS 6.40.

24

Technical view of ECC: Instance


A central ECC System consists of a single
“instance” that is essentially all the code and a
single database for ECC (usually on one
database server and one or more application
servers)


Compare
: when you start up MS
-
Word on your
PC, you start up an instance of Word.


We have two clients running on the one instance
(clients 200 and 400).


Compare:

you can edit more than one document
in MS
-
Word.

25

V3. Implementation Team View


Configuration activities will give you an
implementation team view of SAP R/3.


The implementation team view =


Technical view of R/3


Work with R/3 internals


parameter tables,


procedures,


database,


“transports”


Also work with development and production
versions of the system.

26


27


Configuration


Screen masks (e.g., 3 screens into one)


Workflow programming


Extended reporting


User exits


ERP programming (e.g., ABAP/4)


Interface development


Code Modification

Source: Brehm, Heinzl, and Markus, “Tailoring
ERP Systems: A Spectrum of Choices”, 2000

Funkies

ABAPers

PWC speak

Implementation team view: Configuration to
Customization

28

Implementation team view: Achieving Fit

Changes to
Org.
Processes

Assess and

explore Org.
Processes

Agree on

Redesigned

Processes


Assess and
explore the
PEAS


Changes to
the PEAS

Kirchmer, Mathias. Business Process Oriented
Implementation of Standard Software: How to achieve
competitive advantage quickly and efficiently.

Berlin, New York:Springer
-
Verlag, 1998

29

Configuration


I will use the term “configuration” to refer to changing
parameters in tables in SAP R/3


SAP promises that configuration specifications will
transfer without problems to later versions of their
software


(Confusingly, SAP calls configuration “customization”!)

30

Tools, Accelerated SAP, Customizing, SPRO


Edit Project, SAP Reference IMG

1

2

Configuration

31

Inside the IMG: Configuring global parameters

4

3

32

The ‘Standard’ Sales Order Process (2)


SAP AG
1999
Sales Processes
:
Overview
Diagram
Pre
-
Sales Activities
Pre
-
Sales Activities
Sales
Order
Processing
Sales
Order
Processing
Inventory
Sourcing
Inventory
Sourcing
Shipping
Shipping
Billing
Billing
Invoice
Payment
Payment
33

The OE/S System

(Based on Gelinas, p.341, but adaptable to Hall)

Customer

Carrier

1.

Respond
to price
enquiry

B/AR/CR
System

Inventory
System

2.

Receive
sales order

Enquiry/

RFQ

Customer
Order

Edited
Order

Inventory

Allocation

Quotation

Quotation

5.

Execute
shipping
notice

Shipping's Billing

Notification

Bill of Lading

Completed Packing Slip

Shipping's

Inventory

Notification

4.

Complete

Picking

Ticket

Completed
Picking Ticket

3.

Validate
sales order

Picking Ticket

Sales order

notification

Packing

slip

34

Support for the Sales process in mySAP
ERP

1.

Respond to
price
enquiry

2.

Receive
sales order

4.

Complete

Picking

Ticket

3.

Validate
sales order

5.

Execute
shipping
notice

35

OE/S level 0 Logical DFD

Fig 10.5

p.326

Customer
B/AR/CR
process
P/AP/CD
(payroll)
Carrier
1.0
Validate
Sales
Order
2.0
Complete
Picking
ticket
3.0
Execute
shipping
notice
Sales order
master data
Marketing
data
Inventory
master data
Shipping notice
data
Sales order
master data
Customer
master data
Sales order
Notification
Shipping's
billing notification
Bill of lading
Completed
packing slip
Completed
picking ticket
Picking ticket
Commissions
Customer
Order
Customer
acknowledgement
Completed picking
ticket data
Packing
slip
Accounts receivable
master data
1

4

3

2

5

6

3

7

7 Files in OE/S

36

Some interesting YouTube videos about SAP (in no
particular order)

Introducing SAP ERP

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1fAcjEIEEM


Procter & Gamble use SAP to make productivity gains

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0tX_kThfDY


SAP and swine flu

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fO2Syq5zn7w



SAP & the internet of things

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BBqUGTfV0r0


MySAP ERP

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsM2fqC3Pd4


SAP Jobs in the USA

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1O5qpH669do



Interview with SAP CEO

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn_11gbzYwQ

















37

Possible Exam question????

What does mySAP ERP do?


Imagine you are in an employment interview with the
CIO of a mid
-
sized company who is testing your
knowledge of mySAP ERP with a view to hiring you.


Explain to that CIO what mySAP ERP does and how
it might add value to his/her firm.


Use examples from the SD process to illustrate your
answer.