Greg Chittim

parsimoniousknotΔίκτυα και Επικοινωνίες

16 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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AutoID

Automatic Identification Technologies

at the MIT Media Lab



http://www.autoidcenter.org



Gregory Chittim


ES 112


03S

Agenda


Introduction


What is it?


Technologies


RFID


“An Internet of Things”


Developed Technologies


Electronic Product Code (EPC)


Object Name Server (ONS)


Product Markup Language (PML)


Savants


Field Testing




Introduction


How can an organization:


Eliminate human error from data
collection


Reduce inventories


Keep product in stock


Reduce loss and waste


Improve safety


Improve security

What is it?


Broad term given to a host of
technologies that are used to help
machines identify objects


Often coupled with automatic data
capture


Item

Information
Capture

Data
Translation

Data
Storage

Application

Web Services?

Technologies


Bar codes


Smart cards


Voice recognition


Biometrics


Retinal scans


Fingerprints


Optical Character Recognition (OCR)


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)*

* Focus of the MIT Lab


http://www.autoidcenter.org

RFID


Use radio waves to automatically
identify individual items


Store a serial number on a microchip
attached to an antenna


Called an RFID transponder / tag


Antenna enables the chip to transmit
information to a reader


Reader converts the radio waves
computer readable form (A to D)

RFID

Item

Information
Capture

Data
Translation

Data
Storage

Application

Web Services?

RFID
Transponder

RFID
Reader

-
Active vs. Passive

-
Read
-
only vs. Read
-
write

-
Agile reader


multiple frequency

-

Reader collision


TDMA

-
Tag collision


header requests

-
50 tags / second



“An Internet of Things”


Identifying products faces many of the same
problems as networking computers in the
early days of the Internet


Expensive hardware


$1000 readers, $0.50 transponders


Multiple protocols


No common RF frequency for AutoID


Proprietary systems


No AutoID across supply chain

Developed Technologies


Electronic Product Code (EPC)


License plate for an individual product


Derivative of Global Trade Item Number
(GTIN) of which the barcode is a subset


64 and 96 bit version

Header
------

EPC Manager
----

Object Class
---------------

Serial Number

EPC v. 1.0


Coca Cola Corp


Vanilla Coke 12oz Can


1234567890

-----------------

268 Million
--------

16 Million
--------------------

68 Billion

Developed Technologies II


Object Naming Service (ONS)


Similar to DNS, but points to info
about an object, instead of a website
address

Developed Technologies III


Physical Markup Language


Derivative of XML


Common data types


Temporal vs. Dynamic Data


Common transaction types


purchases, requests for quotes, etc…


Info stored on PML servers, pointed to
by ONS


PML Usage Examples


Name and broad category


Soft drink, auto part, clothing, etc…


When/where made


Expiration date


Current location


Instructions for where a pallet should be
shipped


Point
-
of
-
sale instructions


How long your microwave needs to cook a
particular brand of frozen pizza.

Savants


Solves the bandwidth problem


ONS/PML in a distributed network


Tasks:


Data smoothing


Reader coordination


Data forwarding


Data storage


One Savant controls inventory,
another displays, another shipping

Field Testing


Phase 1



Pallets


Fall 2001


Bounty Paper Towels


Phase 2



Cases


Winter 2002


Coca
-
Cola, P&G, Kraft, etc


Phase 3



Units


Winter 2003

Questions?

http://www.autoidcenter.org