Media 2.0 - Center for Systems Integration (CSI)

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Media 2.0

Hedley Pierre

Juan
Gaviria

Vanessa Romero

A Study of how web 2.0 and hardware technology advancements
have influenced today’s media.

A quick look at Media 1.0


We will define Media 1.0 as media before the Media 2.0 revolution.


This will include Web 1.0

Media 1.0


Throughout the second half of the twentieth century media 1.0 has been
present,
barely reflecting
the wants of the private
consumer.


The shallowness and greediness of consumer culture appalled many people
concerned with blind Capitalism.


Force
feeding large amounts of advertisements and subliminal messages
to
shape the choices of an unsuspecting
public.


Trends are dictated.

Media Reflects the times

Web 1.0


Users are busy searching through limited content.


Content dictated for the user by the webmaster.


All about company advertisement.


Technologies that contributed to Media 2.0


Mobile Phones


High Speed Internet


New Software Development


Mobile Phones


In 1990 mobile phone users
number
11 million.
In
2004 the figure
was 1 billion.


Phones are most obvious sign of the success of wireless technology. Handsets
have gotten smaller
, lighter, yet more
powerful.


Service prices are
dropping.


Service quality
is always
being improved
.


The applications have expanded from voice application to Internet
applications.



Cellular Network Evolution

High Speed Internet


Faster communication speeds between computers allow for more content to be
shared even faster.


News, videos and pictures can be shared instantly.

BroadBand

Vs

Dial
-
up Adoption

New Software Development


Netscape

o
JavaScript

o
Secure sockets Layer Protocol (SSL)

o
Mozilla Organization


Netscape was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World
Wide Web


Netscape advertised that "the web is for everyone" and stated one of its goals
was to "level the playing field" among operating systems by providing a
consistent web browsing experience across them.

Media 2.0 Revolution


No longer is content dictated.


Now comes the savior in the form of Web 2.0.


In a way Stealing fire from the gods.

Four
fundamental ways that people’s media
habits
have changed:


Choice


Conversation


Creation


Collaboration


Web 2.0


Web 2.0

describes web sites
that use technology beyond
the static pages of earlier web
sites.


Examples of Web 2.0 include
social networking sites, blogs,
wikis, folksonomies, video
sharing sites, hosted services,
web applications, and
mashups.


T
echnologies


client
-
side (web browser) technologies
used in Web 2.0 development include
Ajax and JavaScript frameworks such
as Yui Library, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools,
jQuery, Extjs and Prototype JavaScript
framework.

Web 2.0


The Web 2.0 application is a rapidly
growing technology that promises to help
various businesses operate more
efficiently and generate more profits.


It encompasses applications such as RSS,
blogs, tags, wikis, social bookmarking,
interactive encyclopedias and
dictionaries, and advanced gaming.


More and more people have started to
realize how it enhances interaction in
various websites and how it has made
online activities a lot more enjoyable and
easier.



Media and Web 2.0



Web 2.0 tries to tap the power of humans connected
electronically through its new ways at looking at social
collaboration. This is one of the commonalities between
social networks and Web 2.0
-
both have people as their
fulcrum.

Social
Media



The main agenda of Web 2.0 is to
connect people in numerous new ways
and utilize their collective strengths. In this
regard, many new concepts have been
created such as: Techniques(Blogging,
Social Networking, Communities,
Mashups, and Tagging), Standards
(XHTML,
CSS,and

REST) and Tools (RSS,
AJAX, DOJO, PHP and Ruby). The power
of Web 2.0 is the
creationof

new
relationships between collaborators and
information.

Social media

The power of
web 2.0 and
social media:

Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFZ0z5Fm
-
Ng

OCIAL MEDIA

Web 2.0 media applications


Chicago Every block: a crime
reporting tool.


The medical community: benefiting
from the sharing of information.


Waze.


Photosynth
.



Citizen media


Citizen media is a term coined
by Clemencia Rodriguez, who
defined this concept as 'the
transformative processes they
bring about within participants
and their communities’.


Benefits of citizen media


citizen journalists are
complementing mainstream
media by providing speedier
reports and information from a
range of sources that allow
mainstream media reports to
be better balanced and
factually more accurate.

Benefits of freely sharing information



Wikileaks is empowering the common
citizen by placing classified reports in
his/her hands and urging them to think
before they lend direct and
unfaltering support to any leaders.


This also results in increased
accountability of the global leaders.


Also, there is an increased fear in the
government and a sense of increased
security among anonymous reporters
and journalists.


Media 2.0


Negatives



Privacy, Security and Safety
-

Too much transparency creates vulnerabilities


Disconnect
-

Generational and social divide


Misinformation
-

Information distribution without
checks

Media 2.0


Negatives



Privacy, Security and Safety


Individuals


Public affairs for Business and
government


Hackers and Impersonators



Media 2.0


Privacy, Security

and Safety


Individual


The sociologist Erving
Goffman

observed that people have "front
-
stage" and
"backstage" presentations of themselves
--

the former a polished form intended for
public consumption, the latter raw and unedited. "I think there's more and more of
the backstage leaking into day
-
to
-
day conversation," says Ron Bishop, a pop
culture professor at Drexel University.
1


Without proper Social Media
etiquette, users
can expose more of themselves to
unintended audiences
. The ramifications can be catastrophic.


Social Media use without a level of common sense and awareness of the tool
being used can risk personal safety.


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

1
http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/06/tech/social
-
media/misinformation
-
social
-
media/index.html

2
https://lauraleewalker.wordpress.com/tag/albuquerque
-
police
-
department/

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Individual Privacy


In Albuquerque, N.M., a police officer was

demoted

for listing his occupation as “human waste disposal” on his
Facebook
page.
1


In one 2009 case, charges against a man accused of illegal gun possession

were dropped

after it was
discovered that the arresting officer had listed his mood as “devious” on his
MySpace

page and said he was
“watching ‘Training Day’ to brush up on proper police procedure
.

1


T
hree
junior Congressional staffers were

caught on Twitter

posting about drinking on the job and insulting their
boss. Although the staffers were tweeting from personal accounts, their identities were eventually discovered
and they were fired
.

1



Patterson, N.J., schoolteacher was

suspended

after describing herself as a “warden for future criminals.”
Another New Jersey schoolteacher

recently came under investigation

for making anti
-
gay remarks on her
Facebook page
.
1


On April 9th, 2010, four staff members at St. Mary Medical Center in Long Beach, California took photos of a
60
-
year
-
old, nearly
-
decapitated stabbing victim and posted them on Facebook. He died shortly after the
photo was taken. This incident was a gross violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
(HIPAA), which protects patients’ privacy
.
2


1
http
://
blog.ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2012/07/25/7
-
reasons
-
every
-
government
-
agency
-
needs
-
a
-
social
-
media
-
policy.aspx

2
https://lauraleewalker.wordpress.com/tag/albuquerque
-
police
-
department/


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Individual Security and Safety risked. Examples from the recent incidents reported in the news.


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Public affairs for
Business and
government.


Old Model


Controlled dissemination of information


Today
-

Every organization now has

unofficial

communicators
in their employees
“who
are not trained or closely
controlled” and who have twitter, Facebook and
LinkedIn accounts.


Today


Promotion hashtags in Media 2.0 websites can be a double edge sword.
Unhappy Social Media users can misappropriate or hijack the hashtag and us it to
incur bad publicity or drive their own agenda.


Today


Public Image is tied to your Facebook and twitter posts. A storm of criticism
can be easily created from misinterpreted posts or promotions.


Media 2.0 enables persistent memory. Nothing ever seems to go away.


http://blog.ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2012/07/25/7
-
reasons
-
every
-
government
-
agency
-
needs
-
a
-
social
-
media
-
policy.aspx


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Examples of how Media 2.0 has affected public
affairs for Business and government
.


In November of 2011, a Kansas high school student named Emma Sullivan tweeted some

unkind things

about Governor
Sam Brownback. Brownback’s staff hastily and clumsily responded to Sullivan, and before they knew it, the politician
found himself in the middle of a full
-
blown public relations nightmare.

1



CelebBoutique
, an online store, posted a promotional tweet with the Aurora hashtag to take advantage of a trending
topic. Unfortunately, the company's PR apparently did not take the time to read up on why Aurora was trending, so the
tweet came off as incredibly
insensitive.
2



American Apparel offered 20% off for those in states affected by Hurricane Sandy, in case they were "bored" by the
storm. Customers quickly took to Twitter and other social networks to criticize the ad
.

2


As the storm made its way up the East Coast, The Gap seemed to encourage those hunkering down for the storm to do
some online shopping. The company eventually took down the tweet and offered a semi
-
apology
.

2


Macy's was pressured to drop spokesman Donald Trump after Trump's publicity stunt, in which he offered to donate $5
million in exchange for President Obama's college records and passport application. More than half a million people
signed an online petition asking Macy's to sever its relationship with Trump, and the retailer's Facebook and Twitter pages
were bombarded with anti
-
Trump
comments.
2

1
http
://
blog.ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2012/07/25/7
-
reasons
-
every
-
government
-
agency
-
needs
-
a
-
social
-
media
-
policy.aspx

2
http://mashable.com/2012/11/25/social
-
media
-
business
-
disasters
-
2012/#gallery/biggest
-
social
-
media
-
disasters
-
of
-
2012/521295e95198
406611001875


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


While
Wikileaks

and other Media 2.0 mediums have provided more government
transparency, they have also brought on disruption of security and have risked lives.


A 2011 report by the Congressional Research Service said that terrorist groups have been
known to use social media networks to plot attacks. “Social media could be used as a tool
for such purposes by issuing calls for assistance to an area, or notifying officials of a false
hazard or threat that requires a response,” the report stated.



http://blog.ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2012/07/25/7
-
reasons
-
every
-
government
-
agency
-
needs
-
a
-
social
-
media
-
policy.aspx

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Hackers and impersonators



In 2012
Facebook
released
statistics showing
that
there
are more than 83 million fake accounts on
its social network
.

1

1
http
://
blog.ohmygov.com/blogs/general_news/archive/2012/07/25/7
-
reasons
-
every
-
government
-
agency
-
needs
-
a
-
social
-
media
-
policy.aspx

2
http://www.webpronews.com/you
-
can
-
buy
-
1000
-
fake
-
followers
-
for
-
18
-
and
-
thats
-
a
-
huge
-
problem
-
for
-
twitter
-
2012
-
08


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?


According to
WebProNews

“Over 27% of the Top
10 Twitter Accounts’ Followers Are Fake”


Barracuda Labs [a multi
-
disciplinary research and
threat analysis team] found 20 eBay sellers and 58
websites devoted to the selling of fake Twitter
followers.
2


The average “Abuser” has 48,885 followers.

2


The average fake account follows 1,799 people.

2

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety




Hackers and
impersonators


Methods: Phishing, Malware, Vulnerability Exploits on Media 2.0 websites
and apps.


What can they do?






http://socialmediatoday.com/mrisher/1227536/asocial
-
network
-
how
-
hackers
-
use
-
social
-
networks
-
destroy
-
your
-
online
-
life


How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?


Ruin your reputation


Use your PII


to hack your bank
account.


Get access to other more private
or secrete documents


Acquire more friends to increate
their reputation through your
account


Acquire access to more accounts


Is that all?


They can overwhelm Organizations

such as businesses and government
driving
their own
agendas with floods of fake demands or appeals

Media 2.0


Privacy, Security and Safety


Hackers and impersonators




How can Media 2.0 pose a risk to our privacy or security?

Media 2.0


Negatives



Disconnect


Society’s Generational and social divide


Closely tied in to the digital divide.


Media 2.0 has psychological effects.


Self


promotion: Hyper lives in Social Media feed narcissism


Communication breakdown


Effects in education and learning


What is the connection between Social Networks and Being Lonely?
1



1
http
://
journal.digitaltheatre.com/content/innovation
-
loneliness

Media 2.0


Negatives



Disconnect


Generational Divide

1
http
://royal.pingdom.com/2012/08/21/report
-
social
-
network
-
demographics
-
in
-
2012
/

2
http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/new
-
concern
-
social
-
media
-
divide
-
6C10406195


The generational divide indicates a social
network
divide


"The more people use
[Social Media]
for
socializing and for their professional life, the more
costly it becomes for others (who aren't
members
)”
2


As younger generations use Media 2.0 in place
of normal paths of communication (i.e. Phone
call) and this becomes the norm, a greater
communication rift is created with older
generations that are not adopting this
technology.


Non
-
adopters might miss personal and
professional opportunities.

Media 2.0


Negatives



Disconnect


Social Divide


Similarly we have other groups where we can find divides on the Media 2.0
front.


Privacy
supporters do not join Social Media websites or do not participate in order to protect
their privacy.
1


Certain
Socio
-
Economic groups are also slow comers into this new form of communication
.
2

1
http
://www.nbcnews.com/technology/new
-
concern
-
social
-
media
-
divide
-
6C10406195

2
http://www.atwebo.com/social_media.htm#Social Media Divide

Psychological
effects?

“The
biggest
cybersecurity

agency in Europe
[European Network and Information Security
Agency

(ENISA)] peeked at the future, 2014, to
predict the effects of online social media connectivity
24/7 and concluded that too much social networking
could make you
paranoid

and feel like you are
constantly under surveillance by
Big Brother
.”

http
://www.networkworld.com/community/blog/too
-
much
-
social
-
media
-
networking
-
paranoia
-
big

Media 2.0


Negatives



Media 2.0 Nourishes a culture of Self


promotion

In “
Cultural
differences in social networking site use: A comparative study of China and the
United States
” by Jin
-
Liang Wang and Linda A.
Jacksona


“In the United States, it’s all about promoting yourself and taking credit for positive
outcomes and denying blame for negative outcomes,” Jackson says. “In China, it’s the
opposite. If something bad happens, you take the blame and talk about how you can
improve. If something good happens, the credit is shared for the good of the group.”


The researchers surveyed over 400 social networkers in each country to try and find out
how they used the sites.


The study finds that US participants spent nearly twice as long on
social networking sites (nearly 52 minutes a day) compared with Chinese participants
(about 28 minutes a day). Further, nearly a fifth (19 percent) of Chinese participants said
they almost never use social networking sites, compared to just 4 percent in the United
States
.
2

1
http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563212003299

2

http
://www.adigaskell.org/blog/2013/02/08/the
-
social
-
media
-
cultural
-
divide/#
sthash.67bVmlYD.dpuf



How can it affect
Learning?

Media 2.0


Negatives



Effects on Education and Learning

In “
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Sosial

Networking
” by
Don Quick PHD

1.
Being connected and search for information on Facebook, Google, and other web services
simultaneously, seize and fragment our attention. Although students can develop “scanning and
skimming” skills, they could also get used to not paying enough attention to what is important
.

2.
They can subvert higher
-
order reasoning processes, “including the kind of focus, concentration,
and persistence necessary for critical thinking and intellectual development” (
Lederer
, 2012
).

3.
Some researchers have correlated heavy Internet use with greater impulsivity, less patience, less
tenacity, and weaker critical thinking skills (Connelly, 2011).

4.
Prolonged Internet use exposes students to interactive, repetitive, and addictive stimuli that
produce permanent changes in brain structure and function damaging their learning skills
(Connelly, 2011
).

4.
While it is true that the more one uses the Internet and social media, the better the brain can skim
and scan, research suggests that these gains degrade the capacity for concentration.


http://www.termpaperwarehouse.com/essay
-
on/Advantages
-
And
-
Disadvantages
-
Of
-
Sosial
-
Networking/165292

What is the
connection between
Social Networks and
Being Lonely?

http://journal.digitaltheatre.com/content/innovation
-
loneliness

Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=c6Bkr_udado

Media 2.0


Negatives



Misinformation
-

Information distribution without
checks and it’s impact

Image “borrowed”
from an Art
Installation

Misinformation spread
rampant in social media.

Who falls far it?

Individual persons

Media Agencies

Large Organizations

“Banker’s Tip” reported by multiple
media entities including CNN.

1
http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/06/tech/social
-
media/misinformation
-
social
-
media/index.html

Reporter Myers later stated
“You
know, I got that from the
National Weather Service Chat
bulletin
board”

More Disruptive behavior generated by
Social Media


Misinformation


Unsupported claims posted and reposted by users


No Fact checking by Media Agencies


Spread of misrepresented information seeps into our daily lives and slowly twists facts.


Why does it matter?


Misrepresentation


cultural impact

"I mourn the loss of thousands of precious lives, but I will
not rejoice in the death of one, not even an enemy."
-

Martin Luther King,
Jr


“When
Osama Bin Laden was killed in May 2011, certain rousing quotations captured the social
media
sentiment and were repeated and spread
widely.”
1

1 http
://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/04/it
-
wasnt
-
sunil
-
tripathi
-
the
-
anatomy
-
of
-
a
-
misinformation
-
disaster/275155/

"I've never wished a man dead, but I
have read some obituaries with great
pleasure."
-

Mark Twain

“All
men have an emotion to kill; when they strongly dislike some
one they involuntarily wish he was dead. I have never killed any
one, but I have read some obituary notices with great
satisfaction
.”
-

Clarence Darrow

Impact during Tragedies

Impact during Tragedies

In 2011, rescue efforts after the tsunami
disaster in Japan were hampered by
misleading and confusing tweets, according
to a

report

by

International Journal of Web
Based Communities.

“The biggest problem
was the reliability of Twitter updates,
particularly in calls for help, that were
misplaced or lies,” the report noted.


Impact during Tragedies

… On
Monday, social media site
Reddit

acknowledged its
role in helping to disseminate false information, saying,
"Some of the activity on
reddit

fueled online witch hunts and
dangerous speculation."


Reddit

also said it apologized to the family of missing Brown
University student Sunil
Tripathi
, who was misidentified on
social media as a bombing
suspect…

Missleading

Health Information

Why Does it Matter?


http://mashable.com/2012/04/18/social
-
media
-
and
-
the
-
news/

Why Does it Matter?


Why Does it Matter?

Why Does it Matter?


Information is power and can trigger positive changes.


Misinformation and misrepresentation are confusion and can create hurdles.


Stocks were affected by a malicious twit from a (hacked) reputable handle.


News Media Credibility drops as they continue to report unsupported news.


Police efforts to investigate crimes are cluttered by distractions generated by false twitter and
Facebook reports.


Quotes, images, and erroneous postings end up seeping into our everyday lives as more and
more people share and re
-
share the misinformation and do not bother to check its authenticity.


Ultimately, this information becomes part of our social interaction degrading the quality of our
culture.

Our Social Interaction based on
Misinformation



Not only did #
HelpFindKara

trend worldwide on
Twitter, nearly 34,000 people retweeted her call for
help to raise awareness about the incident. She also
gained about 95,000 followers by Monday morning
and the local police department received more than
6,000 calls after her tweet went viral.

What’s next for media 2.0?


Web 3.0
(Still in development stages)


“Semantic Web”


Tagging


Web 4.0
(Still in development stages)


“Symbiotic Web”.


Web will become a personal companion.


(Voice recognition could be perfected)