GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING

BARGUR
-
635104


PAPER PRESENTED ON

ACCIDENT PREVENTION USING BLUETOOTH

TECHNOLOG
Y


Paper Presented by

K
.vignesh

,

D
.manivannan
(FINAL YEAR ECE)

E
-
mail

:

vignesh0058@gmail.com

Mobile

:

9600429240

ABSTRAC
T

:

In the current
scenario,

the world is plagued by accidents
which are primarily due to human errors in
judgment

and hence thousands
of lives
are

lost. These accidents can be avoided if only
if
there was a
mechanism to alert the driver
s

of approaching danger. This can be done by
mo
nitoring the distance between nearby cars and alerting the driver
whenever the distance becom
es too short. This is prime aim of our

paper. In
this paper
,

we propose the
use
o
f Bluetooth Technology

by which

we can

check the speed of the car

whenever it comes dangerously close to any
other vehicle up front
, thereby saving

many lives
.

CONTENTS:


A.
INTRODUCTION

1.

ROAD ACCIDENT STATISTICS

2.

OPERATION

3.

AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM

4.

MATLAB SIMULATION OF OUR MODEL

5.

CONCLUSION

6.

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
:

Bluetooth devices are capable of communicating with
eight other devices simultaneously
.

W
e can monitor and check the speeds of
eight
neighboring
cars simultaneously
, thus preventing accidents.
Thus if we
have two Bluetooth enabled devices in two cars
,

the

devices automatically
communicate with each other when they

come in the range

of up to 100

meters
. The range is depende
nt on the power class of the product.

Power
transmission rates

vary in many Bluetooth devices
depending upon the
power saving features available in a particular
unit, bandwidth
requirements, transmission distance
. The statistics of road accidents is
tremendous and highlights the need for such

a system.




3

RO
AD ACCIDENT STATISTICS OF INDIA IN
1970
-
200
3
:














Sl.

No.

Year

Total No.
of Road
Accidents

(in
numbers)

Total No.
of Persons
Killed (in
numbers)

Total
number of
Registered
Motor
Vehicles
(in
thousands)

No. of
Accidents
per ten
thousand
Vehicles

No. of
Persons
Killed
per ten
thousan
d
Vehicles

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

1970

114100

14500

1401

814.42

103.50

2

1980

153200

24000

4521

338.86

53.09

3

1990

282600

54100

19152

147.56

28.25

4

1991

295131

56278

21374

138.08

26.33

5

1992

275541

60113

23507

117.22

25.57

6

1993

284646

60380

25505

111.60

23.67

7

1994

325864

64463

27660

117.81

23.31

8

1995

351999

70781

30295

116.19

23.36

9

1996

371204

74665

33786

109.87

22.10

10

1997

373671

76977

37332

100.09

20.62

11

1998

385018

79919

41368

93.07

19.32

12

1999

386456

81966

44875

86.12

18.27

13

2000

391449

78911

48857

80.12

16.15

14

2001

405637

80888

54991

73.76

14.71

15

2002

407497

84674

58924

69.16

14.37

16

2003

406726

85998

67033

60.68

12.83



4


Source:


Data received from States/UTs.




OPERATION
:

The Bluetooth radio is a short distance,

low power radio operating

in the
unlicensed spectrum of 2.4 GHz and using a nominal antenna power

of 20
dB
.

The modulation used

in bluetooth

is Gaussian frequency shift keying
, i
n
which zeros are represented by low frequency and ones ar
e represented by
high frequency as shown in the figure 2
.



DATA

CARRIER

FREQUENCY

SHIFTED SIGNAL

0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
PERSON'S
KILLED
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
YEARS
Series2
Series1
Figure 2
-
shows the Gaussian frequency shift keying



5



BLUETOOTH:

Radio communication is subjected to noise and interfe
rence, as the 2.4 GHz frequency

is
shared between the all
devices

in piconet.
T
he Bluetooth specification has solved this
problem by employing what is
called as spectrum spreading, in which the Bluetooth
radio hops among different frequencies very quickly. There are 79 hops starting at 2.402
GHz and stopping at 2.480 GHz, each of which is displaced by 1 MHz. The Bluetooth
avoids interference by hoping ar
ound these 79 frequencies 1600 times per second. So in
order to avoid it we use bluetooth equipped car
,

in which each car have bluetooth
transmi
tter and receiver. And
every car should have mini computer to monitor the
relative position of the car with the
other car.



At the 10 dB level, the range is 100 meters, meaning the equipment must be within 100
meters to each other (about 328 feet) to communicate using the
Bluetooth standard.
With the help of this technology, we can send data to seven devices(cars). The group of
eight devices is known as Piconet. Figure 4 shows the screen of the computer inside our
car. Our car will monitor seven other cars which are closest

to us. Based on the distance
the tabulation is plotted.



Fig
ure 3
-

shows the how does the pc card receives

the signal



6






CAR 6

CAR 1

CAR 4

CAR 3

CAR 7

CAR 8

CAR 5

CAR 2

BLUETOOTH


DISTANCE

DEVICE NAME


CAR1


6M


CAR 4

10m


CAR 6


30m


CAR 8

40m


CAR 2

50m


CAR 5

60m


CAR 7

70m


Figure 4

shows the screen of the mini computer inside the car



7


RFID:








Radio frequency identification is a technique used to tracking& identification
of

obstacles using radio waves.It consists of readers & tags.Most of the RF
ID
tags contains two parts,they are



integrated circuit for storing & processing the information

and
modulates and demodulates the signal.



second

MASTER SLAVE CONFIGURATION




8



The

diagram shows the relationship between each car using
Bluetooth. It helps us to find the distance between the cars. Based on
the distance automatic breaking system
works.

It has some limitations in the distance. when vechile crosses the
limitation, it calls ABS and stop the vechile.




CAR 7

CAR 6

CAR 1

CAR 1
0

CAR 5

CAR 2

CAR 4

CAR 9

CAR 3

CAR 8

CAR 1
2

CAR

1
1

Figure 5
-
shows the contacts between
the cars



9

I
f a car comes within 10m,

it is indicated by a
red colour

(
warning signal
)

in
the computer

and then it will send
braking signal to the corresponding car.

I
f

there are

more than 8 cars means
,

piconet extends
to scaternet.




When any car comes close
together,

Bluetooth
device sends warning signal
to the
car. Based on the type of warning signal

received
,

the computer
sends signal to the brake control system to slow down

the

speed of the car.
There are various

types of control
signals.
O
ne

type of

signal control
s

the
speed of the car and the
other type of c
ontrol

signal is to

overtake the car
which is moving forward
.





CAR TO BE
OVERTAKE
N

CAR NEED
S

SERVICE

There is a problem during overtaking. This can be solved as follows. In the
figure 5 the red car wants to
overtake the blue car. The red car driver just
touches the car in the computer that he wants to overtake.After receiving the
signal, the blue car driver allows the red car to go, after the
acknowledgement signal is given by the blue car to the red car.

Figure 6
-

shows problem during overtaking and the solution



10

SCHEMATIC

DIAGRAM OF CAR:



AUTOM
A
TIC

BRAKE SYSTEM:


The automatic brake system is

the next generation braking system for
controlling the speed of the car.
On

receiving

the control signal from the
traveling car
,

the computer inside the car manipulates the signal and gives
control signal to the braking system
.

There are four main components o
f

an automatic braking system:



speed sensors



pump



valves



controller

Fig
ure 7



11




The computer constantly monitors the distance between each of these
cars and when it senses that the car is getting too close it moves the
hydraulic valves to increase the pressure on the braking circuit,
effectively increasing the braking force on the whe
els.
I
f the distance
between two vehicle
s

is within the 100m the Bluetooth devices get
enabled and if the distance come closer within 10m the automatic
braking system takes the control. After the speed of the car is reduced
,

the hydraulic valves decrease
s the pressure on the braking circuit, thus
effectively decrease the braking force on the wheels.
The following steps
show the
various functions of the hydraulic valve
:



I
n position one, the valve is
open
; pressure from the master cylinder



is passed
right through to the brake.



I
n position two, the valve
blocks

the line, isolating that brake from
th
e

master cylinder.
This

prevents the pressure from rising further

and
the

driver
’s


effort

in
push
ing

the brake pedal harder.



I
n position three, the valve
releases

some of the pressure from the

brake
.

Figure
8
-

Automatic

braking pump and
valves




12




The processed signal from the computer is given to the electromagnet and it
gets magnetised and moves the spring downwards,the other end of the
spring is attached to the steel plate. The movement of steel plate is nothin
g
but a force and it will add with the force applied by the driver. The signal is
then given to the anti
-
lock braking system and it takes the control is shown
in the figure 9.




FORCE APPLIED BY

THE DRIVER

ANTI
-
LOCK BRAKING
SYSTEM

ELECTRICAL SIGNAL FROM THE COMPUTER

ELECTROMAGNET

STEEL PLATE

LEVER
MECHANISM

TO BRAKING
SHOES

SPRING

Figure

9

-
B
lock diagram of automatic braking system



13

.




Figure
10



Mat lab simulation for the automatic braking system



14



Figure
11



Mat lab simulation for the automatic braking system not including


signal from the computer



15



Figure 1
2


Mat lab simulation for the automatic braking system inc
luding the signal from
the computer




16




CONCLUSION:


The

Bluetooth

technology is being widely adopted by the

Industry leaders
.
The

possibility for new applications is very exciting with
this

versatile

technology.
It

provides a simple

logical answer to a
ll

the

problem
, which

built a single common radio into every mobile
computer
.
T
hen

companies
have

to worry
about neither WAN

nor building external
cables.
The

Bluetooth

communication device will thus be a small, low
powered radio in

a c
hip that will talk to other
Bluetooth

enabled products.
Bluetooth

has been

designed to solve a number

of connectivity problems
experienced by the mobile

workers & consumers.
Thus
, this technology
is
user friendly

and helps address

to
various other problems

like accidents.




REFERENCES:

[1] The Bluetooth specification v1.2.
http://www.bluetooth.org
,

Nov 2005.

[2] Brian S. Peterson, Rusty O. Baldwin, and Jeffrey P.Kharoufeh. A
specification
-

compatible

bluetooth inquiry simplification. In Proceedings of
the 37th Hawaii

International Conference on System Sciences. IEEE, 2004.



17

[3] Howstuffworks .com/Bluetooth

[4]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti
-
lock_braking_system.

[5] Theodore S. Rappaport, wireless co
mmunication Principles.

[6] Jean
-
Paul J
\
1.G.Linnartz, wireless communication,1993, 1995.



.