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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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1 Question

1.1

Describe how RFID works?

Radio
-
frequency identification

is a
technology

that uses
radio waves

to
transfer data from an electronic t
ag, called RFID tag or label, attached to an
object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object.
Some RFID tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight
of the reader. The application of
bulk reading

enables an almost
-
parallel reading
of tags.

The tag's information is stored electronically. The RFID tag includes a small
RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio signal
to

interrogate the tag. The tag receives the message and responds with its
identification information. Many RFID tags do not use a battery. Instead, the
tag uses the radio energy transmitted by the reader as its energy source. The
RFID system design includes

a method of discriminating several tags that might
be within the range of the RFID reader.A number of organizations have set standards
for RFID, including the
Interna
tional Organization for Standardization

(ISO),
the
International Electrotechnical Commission

(IEC),
ASTM Inte
rnational
, the
DASH7

Alliance and
EPCglobal
. (Refer to
Regulation and standardization

below.)There are al
so several specific industries that have set guidelines
including the
Financial Services Technology Consortium

(FSTC) has set a standard
for tracking IT Assets with RFID, the Computer Technology Industry Association
CompTIA

has set a standard for certifying RFID engineers and the International
Airlines Transport Association
IATA

set tagging guidelines for luggage in
airports.

RFID can be used in many applications. A tag can be affixed to any object
and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc. For example, it can
be affixed to cars, computer equipment, books, mobile phones, etc. The Healthcare
industry has used R
FID to reduce counting, looking for things and auditing items.
Many financial institutions use RFID to track key assets and automate compliance.
Also with recent advances in social media RFID is being used to tie the physical
world with the virtual world.
RFID in Social Media first came to light in 2010
with Facebook's annual conference.

RFID is a superior and more efficient way of identifying objects than manual
system or use of
bar code

systems that have

been in use since the 1970s. Furthermore,
passive RFID tags (those without a battery) can be read if passed within close
enough proximity to an RFID reader. It is not necessary to "show" the tag to the
reader device, as with a bar code. In other words it
does not require line of


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sight to "see" an RFID tag, the tag can be read inside a case, carton, box or
other container, and unlike barcodes RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time.
Bar codes can only be read one at a time.

In 2011, the cost of passive tag
s started at US$0.05 each and special tags,
meant to be mounted on metal or withstand gamma sterilization, can go up to US$5.
Active tags for tracking containers, medical assets, or monitoring environmental
conditions in data centers all start at US$50 and

can go up over US$100 each.
Battery Assisted Passive (BAP) tags are in the US$3

10 range and also have sensor
capability like temperature and humidity.

2 Research Topics

2.1
Value Chain and Business Models of M
-
Commerce

ANSWER:

(1)

Mobile ticketing

Template:Main:Mobile ticketing

Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using
a variety of technologies. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately
,
by presenting their phones at the venue.

Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of
simple application downloads, or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel
agents or direct service providers.

(2)

Mobile vouchers, co
upons and loyalty cards

Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers,
coupons, and loyalty cards. These items are represented by a virtual token that
is sent to the mobile phone. A customer presenting a mobile phone with on
e of
these tokens at the
point of sale

receives the same benefits as if they had the
traditional token. Stores may send coupons to customers using
location
-
based
services

to determine when the customer is nearby.

(3)

Content purchase and delivery

Currently, mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale
of ring
-
tones, wallpapers, and games for mobile phones. The conver
gence of mobile
phones, portable audio players, and video players into a single device is
increasing the purchase and delivery of full
-
length music tracks and video. The
download speeds available with
4G

networ
ks make it possible to buy a movie on
a mobile device in a couple of seconds.

(4)

Location
-
based services

Main article:
Location
-
based service

The location of the mobile phone user is an imp
ortant piece of information
used during mobile commerce transactions. Knowing the location of the user allows


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for
location
-
based services

such

Local discount offers

Local weather

Tracking an
d monitoring of people

(5)

i
nformation services

A wide variety of information services can be delivered to mobile phone users
in much the same way as it is delivered to PCs. These services include:

News
;
Stock quotes
;
Sports scores
;
Financial records
;
Traffic reporting
.

Customized traffic information, based on a user's actual travel patterns,
can be
sent to a mobile device. This customized data is more useful than a generic
traffic
-
report broadcast, but was impractical before the invention of modern
mobile devices due to the
bandwidth

re
quirements.

(6)

Mobile banking

Main article:
Mobile Banking

Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their
customers to access account information and make transactions, s
uch as purchasing
stocks, remitting money. This service is often referred to as
Mobile Banking
,
or M
-
Banking.


(7)

Mobile StoreFront

The reinvention of the mobile phone as a touch sensitive handheld

computer
has for the first time made mobile commerce practically feasible. 'According to
ABI Research, mobile is going to get a lot bigger in the ecommerce market. The
research firm is predicting that in 2015, $119bn worth of goods and services will
be pu
rchased via a mobile phone.'

(8

)
Mobile brokerage

Stock market services offered via mobile devices have also become more popular
and are known as Mobile Brokerage. They allow the subscriber to react to market
developments in a timely fashion and irrespecti
ve of their physical location.

(9)

Auctions

Over the past three years[
when?
]
mob
ile reverse auction

solutions have grown
in popularity.[
by whom?
] Unlike traditional auctions, the reverse auction (or
low
-
bid auction) bills the consumer's phone each time they pla
ce a bid. Many mobile
SMS

commerce solutions rely on a one
-
time purchase or one
-
time subscription;
however, reverse auctions offer a high return for the mobile vendor as they require
the consumer to make multi
ple transactions over a long period of time.



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3 KEY TERMS

3.1 GPS

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space
-
based
global navigation
satellite system

(GNSS) that provides
location

and time information in all weather,
anywhere on or near the Earth, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to
four or more GPS satellites. It is maintained by the
United States

government
and is freely accessible by anyone with a GPS receiver with some technical
limitations which are only removed for military users.

3.2 PDA

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palm
top computer, or
personal data assistant,
[1]
[2]

is a
mobile device

that functions as a
personal
information manager
. Current PDAs often have the ability to connect to the
Internet
. A PDA has an
electronic
visual display
, enabling it to include a
web
browser
, but some newer models also have audio capabilities, enabling them to
be used as
mobile phon
es

or
portable media players
. Many PDAs can access the
Internet,
intranets

or
extranets

via
Wi
-
Fi

or
Wireless Wide Area Networks
. Many
PDAs employ
touchscreen

technolog
y.

3.3
RFID

Radio
-
frequency identification (RFID) is a
technology

that uses
radio waves

to transfer data from an electronic tag, called RFID tag or

label, attached to
an object, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object.
Some RFID tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight
of the reader. The application of
bulk reading

enables an almost
-
parallel reading
of tags.RFID can be used in many applications. A tag can be affixed to any object
and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc
.
Many financial
institutions use RFID to track k
ey assets and automate compliance. Also with
recent advances in social media RFID is being used to tie the physical world with
the virtual world. RFID in Social Media first came to light in 2010 with Facebook's
annual conference.



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4 Internet Exercises

Resea
rch the status of 3G and the future of 4G by visiting
3gnewsroom.com. Prepare a report on the status of 3G and 4G
based on your findings.


1,
3gnewsroom.com



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1.

ANSWER:

(1)
3G:



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3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standard
s
for
mobile phones

and
mobile telecommunication

services fulfilling the
International Mobile Telecommunications
-
2000 (IMT
-
2000) spe
cifications by the
International Telecommunication Union
.
[1]

Application services include
wide
-
area wireless voice
telephone
,
mobile Internet

access,
video calls

and
mobile TV
, all in a mobile environment.

Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet
services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G
wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are requir
ed to meet IMT
-
2000
technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer
rates). To meet the IMT
-
2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data
rates of at least 200
kbit/s

(about 0.2
Mbit/s
). However, many services advertised
as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service.
Recent 3G releases, often denoted
3.5G

and
3.75G
, also provide
mobile broadband

access of several
Mbit/s

to
smartphones

and
mobile modems

in laptop computers.

The following standards are typically branded 3G:

the
UMTS

system, first offered in 2001, standardized by
3GPP
, used primarily
in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other
regions predominated by
GSM

2G

system infrastructure. The cell phones are
typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing
the same infrastructure:

1,
The origina
l and most widespread radio interface is called
W
-
CDMA
.

2,
The
TD
-
SCDMA

radio interface was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered
in China.

3,
The late
st UMTS release,
HSPA+
, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s
in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the
uplink.

4,
the
CDMA2000

system, first offered in 2002, standardized by
3GPP2
, used
especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the
IS
-
95

2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS
-
95 hybrids. The latest
release
EVDO

Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.

5,
The above systems and radio interfaces are based on kindred
spread spectrum

radio transmission technology. While the
GSM EDGE

standard ("2.9G"),
DECT

cordless phones and
Mobile WiMAX

standards formally also fulfill the IMT
-
2000
requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not
branded 3G, and are ba
sed on completely different technologies.

A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth
year since
1G

systems were introduced in 1981/1982. Each generation is
characterized by ne
w frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards
compatible transmission technology. The first release of the
3GPP Long Term
Evolution

(LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the
ITU 4G requirements


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called IMT
-
Advanced. First release LTE is not backwards compatible with 3G, but
is a pre
-
4G or
3.9G

technology, however sometimes branded "4G" by the service
providers. Its evolution
LTE Advanced

is a
4G

technology.
WiMAX

is another
technology verging on or marketed as
4G
.


(2)4G:

I
n
telecommunications
, 4G is the fourth generation of
cellular

wireless

standards. It is a successor to the
3G

and
2G

families of standards. In 2009,
the
ITU
-
R

organizatio
n specified the
IMT
-
Advanced

(International Mobile
Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed
requirements for 4G service at 100
Mbit/s

for high mobility communication (such
as from trains and cars) and 1
Gbit/s

for low mobility communication (such as
pedestrians and stationary users).

A 4G sy
stem is expected to provide a comprehensive and secure all
-
IP

based
mobile broadband

solution to laptop computer
wireless modems
,
smartphones
, and
other mobile devices.
Facilities

such as
ultra
-
broadband

Internet access,
IP
telephony
, gaming services, and streamed multimedia may be provided to users.
4G technologies such as
mobile WiMAX
,
HSPA+
, and first
-
release
Long term evolution

(LTE) have been on the market since

2006, 2008, and 2009 respectively.

IMT
-
Advanced compliant versions of LTE and WiMAX are under development and
called "
LTE Advanced
" and "
WirelessMAN
-
Advanced
" respectively. ITU has decided
that LTE Advanced and WirelessMAN
-
Advanced should be accorded the official
designation of IMT
-
Advanced. On Decembe
r 6, 2010, ITU recognized that current
versions of LTE, WiMax and other evolved 3G technologies that do not fulfill
"IMT
-
Advanced" requirements could nevertheless be considered "4G", provided they
represent forerunners to IMT
-
Advanced and "a substantial le
vel of improvement
in performance and capabilities with respect to the initial third generation
systems now deployed."

As seen below, in all suggestions for 4G, the
CDMA

spread spectrum

radio
technology used in 3G systems and
IS
-
95

is abandoned and replaced by
OFDMA

and
other
frequency
-
domain equalization

schemes. This is combined with
MIMO

(Multiple
In Multiple Out), e.g., multiple antennas,
dynamic channel allocation

and
channel
-
dependent scheduling
.