General Psychology (PY110)

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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General Psychology (PY110)


Chapter 2

Neuroscience


Neuroscience and Behavior


All sensory organs



Receptors


Muscles and Glands



Effectors


Neurons



Communication channel

The Structure of a Neuron

How Neurons Communicate

Communication
within


a neuron is

electrical

Communication
between

neurons

is

chemical

Types of Neurons


Interneurons

exist only in the central
nervous system


Sensory neurons

carry information to the
central nervous system from sensory
receptors in the eyes, muscles, and glands


Motor neurons

carry movement commands
from the central nervous system to the rest of
the body

Neurotransmitters,

Drugs, and Poisons

Key terms:

Agonists

Antagonists

Drugs and poisons
that
increase

the
activity of one or more
neurotransmitters

Drugs and poisons
that
decrease

the
activity of one or more
neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters

1.

Acetylcholine (
ACh
)

is involved in both learning and
memory and muscle movement

2.

Dopmaine

impacts our arousal and mood states, thought
processes, and physical movement

3.

Serotonin

and
norepinephrine

are neurotransmitters
involved in levels of arousal and mood, and play a major role in
mood disorders such as depression

4.

GABA

is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous
system;
glutamate

is the main excitatory neurotransmitter

5.

Endorphins

are a group of neurotransmitters that are involved
in pain perception and relief

Dopamine


Low levels are associated

with
Parkinson’s disease
,

and excessively high levels

are associated with
schizophrenia


L
-
Dopa

is an agonist that increases production of dopamine


Anti
-
psychotic drugs

are antagonists that block the
receptor sites for dopamine so that this neurotransmitter
cannot send its messages


Amphetamine

acts as an agonist by stimulating the release
of dopamine from axon terminals


Cocaine

is an agonist that blocks the re
-
uptake of dopamine

Nervous System Subdivisions

The Central Nervous System

Consists of the spinal cord and the brain


The
spinal cord

has two functions


Conduit for incoming sensory data
and outgoing movement
commands


Provides for spinal reflexes, which
are simple automatic actions not
involving the brain


The
brain

is the control center for
the entire nervous system



The Peripheral Nervous System

Consists of two parts:


The
somatic (or skeletal) nervous system

carries
sensory input from receptors to the CNS and relays
commands from the CNS to the skeletal muscles to
control their movement


The
autonomic nervous system

regulates our internal
environment and consists of two parts


The
sympathetic nervous system

is in control when
we are very aroused and prepares us for defensive action
(such as running away or fighting)


The
parasympathetic nervous system

is in control
when the aroused state ends to return our body to its
normal resting state

Components of Emotion

An
emotion

is a complex psychological
state that involves three components:

Physical

Behavioral

Cognitive

A physiological
state of arousal
triggered by the
autonomic
nervous system

An outward
expression including
facial expressions,
movements and
gestures

An appraisal of the
situation to determine
which emotion we are
experiencing and how
intensely


James
-
Lange Theory





Cannon
-
Bard Theory






Schachter
-
Singer Theory

Emotion Theory Comparison

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Stimulus:

Sight of bear

Physiological
Arousal

Emotional
Response (Fear)

Emotional
Response (Fear)

Emotional
Response (Fear)

Cognitive
Appraisal

Physiological
Arousal

Physiological
Arousal

The Central
Core Brain
Structures

The Limbic System

The Four Lobes and the

Sensory
-
Motor Processing Areas

The Case of
Phineas

Gage


Phineas

Gage was railroad worker
who survived when a metal tamping
iron flew through his left cheek and
head, exiting through his frontal
lobes


He became irresponsible, impulsive,
disorderly, indecisive, and cursed,
leading neuroscientists to think the
frontal lobes are important in such
behaviors

Language

What we know…


Left hemisphere


Language


Math and logic skills


More analytical,

analyzing
wholes
into

pieces


Right hemisphere


Spatial perception


Solving
spatial

problems


Drawing


Face
recognition


A band of neurons called the Corpus
Callosum

joins the two hemispheres


Allows communication and coordinates functions

Five
Stages of
Sleep

Brain wave taken by
Electroencephalogram
(EEG)


Sleep

Cycles


Cycles last
about 90
minutes.


4
-
6 cycles each
night



Nature of Sleep & Dreams


2 Types of Sleep


REM and Non
-
REM


Non
-
REM = Quantity REM = Quality


REM Sleep reduced by alcohol and sleeping pills


Sleep Deprivation (or Dream Deprivation)


Moderate


Sleep rebound


Severe


depression, impaired memory, decreased immune response


Circadian cycles


Biological clock


Sleep (Hrs)

Awake (Hrs)

% REM

Adults

8

16

Babies

16

8

Stage

Wave

Form


Remarks




Non


剅o

1

䅬灨愠A 周T瑡

‘Falling’ asleep

2

周T瑡

i楧桴i獬s数

3

a敬瑡

a敥瀠卬敥e

-

乩杨琠瑥tr潲猬 卬p数e睡汫w湧n⁓汥数l
talking, Etc.

4

Delta

3

Delta

2

Theta

Light sleep

REM

Paradoxical Sleep
-

Dreaming occurs