Gender and Decision
Are there “real” differences
between men and women?
A friend asks you how to get from school to
Rider College without taking
Think about what directions you would give.
Men are more likely to use compass
headings like, “
Go east on
and then left on
Women are more likely to use landmarks;
Turn right at the 7
Males are more aggressive and more competitive.
Females are more emotional.
Females hear better & have better sense of smell and touch.
Females hear high pitched sounds better.
Men are more comfortable with sounds twice as loud.
Males have a better grasp of spatial relationships & perform better at
Women and men approach directions (and mazes) differently. Men
use spatial relationships while women use landmarks.
Women are far better at interpreting facial expression and non
Women smile far more than men.
Women are better communicators.
Men have a more vulnerable biology & succumb to all sorts of things
faster than females.
Males do better in math
Women do better in reading and writing skills.
On IQ tests, men tend to be the higher and lower score achievers
Women usually score in the middle range.
Men outperform women on tests measuring mathematical and
Women excel on tests of verbal abilities.
There are little differences between men and women in maze tests,
but, when the test involves 3
D space, men, on average, are better.
Men who have moderate levels of testosterone score higher in
spatial ability test than men of lower and higher levels.
Women’s spatial ability scores improve as their testosterone levels
higher when the estrogen levels are lower than
The theory states that
men evolved to deal with more situations
where they had to be assertive (Hunting/Fighting).
Since men were exposed to more situations that may have involved
anxiety and fear, their minds/bodies adapted to handle the stress.
Women are less equipped in this capacity because they were often
not in aggressive and stressful situations.
Instead, they were at home fulfilling domestic responsibilities.
Men needed navigational skills to hunt.
Women needed to remember where their belongings were located.
The ability to search successfully is classified as spatial memory…
Women are superior to men in this aptitude.
When it comes to this type of testing, women exceed men’s scores by
70% for both measures of recognition and recall.
Conclusion of gender
differences in specific skills
Gender differences exist in specific cognitive
Recent studies prove that these differences are
beneficial to both sexes, not just males.
These differences can only explain work
justify the fact that men hold the
majority of the higher positions in the workforce.
If we consider the full extent of sex differences
(including female superiority in short
term memory, verbal fluency, and non
skills such as judging emotional cues from
there is little fit between
these characteristics and the numbers of men
and women in particular occupations.
If there were, we should expect more women in
managerial positions that require considerable
ability in managing people.
A number of studies
of relationships among
gender, gender stereotypes, and managerial
were conducted over a 20
Men produced same responses, while women’s
responses changed over the two decades.
Both male managers and male students viewed
themselves to be more successful than female
However, when asked to describe “women
managers,” men’s descriptions of women and
successful managers were much more
than women’s descriptions.
female managers and female students no
longer stereotype managerial positions.
They see the same descriptions as fit for all managers
regardless of gender.
One study asked undergraduate students to select
whether they wanted a female or male manager,
given two different scenarios:
Which gender would
a company owner?
Which gender would
male and female students
masculine traits as beneficial characteristics
for the owner of a company.
Masculine traits may enhance the impression of
effectiveness and appeal more to a manager’s
work for a female manger
because they felt that a woman would be
most concerned with the work environment.
INNATE or LEARNED?
How much of these gender differences come
from social/cultural conditioning and how
much comes from genetic differences?
The answer, up front, is that the two can’t be
Current thinking is that many of these and
other differences are biologically based and
An NYU psychologist studied the emotional responses
old infants too young for cultural
let the babies listen to sounds of other babies crying, of
animal calls, and of computer
The babies responded most strongly to the sound of
another human in distress.
But it was the female babies who reacted most
intensely to the sound of another’s trouble.
From the first day, females are more tuned to an
Why are Men more
Men commit 10
15 robberies for every
one by a woman.
Females of most mammalian species
don’t have to fight to get pregnant, but
males often have to fight to become
Thus the aggression factor has evolved
biologically in men. (Hunter
Genetics At Work
Almost every behavioral gender
from emotion to
traced back to the different demands of being a
producer or an egg maker.
Women outlive men by an average of 7 years.
This is supported by evidence of hormonal
concentrations in women that promote better
health because of their role as mothers.
Genetics and Identical Twins
Two identical twin boys were each adopted as infants and raised by
separate parents. Each family was unaware their son had a twin.
At age 39, they each found out about the other and were reunited.
Each had coincidently been named Jim (Jim Springer & Jim Lewis).
Both men were 6’ tall and weight 180 lbs.
Each man had owned a dog he had named “Toy.”
Each had vacationed in St Pete Beach, Florida.
Each married a woman named “Linda” and then had divorced.
Each remarried a woman named “Betty.”
Each had a son who was named James (James Allan & James Alan)
Both men served as part
time sheriffs, enjoyed home carpentry, suffered
severe headaches, smoked Salem cigarettes and drank Miller Light beer.
They had identical smiles and their voices were indistinguishable.
Each admitted to leaving love notes around the house for his wife.
Why Two Sexes
The biological objective of the 2
sex system is
The less alike a couple’s genes are, the
greater the ability
their offspring to respond
to genetic injures, and the less likely defective
genes will be inherited.
Thus the 2
sex system is geared toward
Genetic Diversity happen?
Smell in most mammals plays a major
role in identifying mates who have
Most animals do this by smelling the
urine of potential mates. (Urine has
unique genetic identification.)
People don’t like to do this.
The Importance of Genetic
chromosome has somewhere
2,500 and 5,000
those for coding muscle development, color
vision, blood clotting, etc.
chromosome has only about
main purpose seems to be
Women have an
Say you inherit an X chromosome with a defective gene.
If you are female, you have another X chromosome so the
chances are you will have a healthy copy of that gene
will get used
If you are male, you are stuck
No backups for defective X
What do you think the chances are of having a few bad
genes when there are between 2,500 and 5,000 of them?
blindness, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy, and 200
other disorders all occur more often in men.
Hormones are chemical messengers released in our
brains, by glands, by fat tissues, by the testes and by
called sex hormones are called
of the hormones are gender exclusive.
(one of the androgens) is considered the
male hormone but women have about 1/10
of the amount
that men have
(Women make it in their adrenal
(one of the estrogens) is produced in the male
Testosterone is the hormone which, at least in
the beginning, separates the boys from the girls.
For the first six weeks, the human embryo is
In the embryo, if there is no introduction of
testosterone, you get a girl.
At approximately six weeks, if a Y
is present, testosterone is introduced and a male
starts to develop.
Without testosterone, the fetus begins to develop
ovaries at around 12 weeks.
The brain has approximately 12 billion
Each is connected to countless other cells.
The connections are estimated to number
Men’s brains are about 15% larger than
The male and female brains develop at
Different parts of the brain grow at different times
and rates depending on whether you are male or
The brain is never constant. It spends much of
its life improving itself, refining structures and
responding to internal and external changes.
Male and female brains different slightly in
their response to changes.
For instance, male brains shrink faster with age.
Males lose brain tissue at almost 3 times the
rate of women as they age from their late
teens to their mid 40’s.
male and female brains are the
You can produce new growth in a brain
simply by introducing new challenges into
However, as the brain ages, it
Overdriving can cause cell death.
When cells are working too hard, they
generate wastes that can actually injure
them and other nearby cells.
Brain Use & Testosterone
Men and women activate different parts of their
brains while doing word tasks or math/spatial
Men are better at spatial relationships.
Likewise with male rats.
If a female rat gets a solid dose of testosterone
at a very young age, she solves mazes like a
pro for the rest of her life.
Human males who are testosterone blocked
have much lower math and spatial scores.
During fetal development, you cannot
male and female brain for
the first three months.
About the 16th week there is a noticeable darkening
of the right hemisphere of the male brain.
The corpus callosum (the nerve bundle that connects
the two brain hemispheres) shrinks in size.
In some cases the right hemisphere
of the male brain
shrinks in size.
is caused by a
chemical bath produced in male fetuses.
It manifests itself in a reduced ability of males to
communicate between hemispheres.
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
1.) It means that Females tend to use both hemispheres
in situations where males rely heavily on one
hemisphere (usually the left hemisphere
.) Females tend to be more right brain (or whole
oriented in comparison to
tend to be
The Gender Bias Influence
Early life experiences leave footprints on the
structure of our brains.
have shown that adults perceive baby boys
and girls differently, seeing identical behavior
though a gender
Adults observing babies they think are girls, will
describe the baby’s behavior differently (more girl
like) than when they think the babies are boys.
Treat baby girls and boys differently and they
will develop brain differences!
Logic / Order
Right side of body
Facts and Details
Titles and Classifications
Awareness of body
Music / crafts / art ability
Left side of body
Insight and Inference
FIND THE MAN IN THE COFFEE BEANS
man in the coffee beans in 3 seconds, the right half of your
brain is better developed than most people. If you
3 seconds and
1 minute, the right half of the brain is developed normally. If you
1 minute and 3 minutes, then the right half of your brain is functioning
Men’s brain use tends to be asymmetrical in many
Women’s brain use tends to be more symmetrical.
Most of us rely more on the right ear
detection since the left hemisphere processes language.
Men rely more on
ear than do women.
Women show less discrepancy between ear usage.
Men and women process language slightly differently in
the way they listen and the way they talk.
Most people have a dominate hemisphere
The two hemispheres can operate
separately as two completely different
Look at each word below and say the
color of the font.
People who have either lost one
hemisphere, or their left and right
hemispheres are not connected.
Either side of the brain has the potential
to do the entire job. If one side of the
brain is not functioning, the other
hemisphere can assume some of those
A Typical Split
When a flash card with the word "
presented to a split
brained patient, he would
typically get up and walk out of the area.
If asked where he was going, a typical
response might be:
"I am going to get a coke.”
The left hemisphere has to explain such
behavior that was
initiated by the disconnected
is shown the word
" with his or her right eye covered.
The nonverbal right brain
(left eye) sees
The verbal left side
not see anything.
Patient says he/she saw nothing.
But the patient’s left hand is able to draw the
bike since the right brain
saw it and controls
the left hand.
Language and The Brain
You speak using your left hemisphere but
sing using the right
That is why people who stutter when they talk do not
stutter when they sing.
lost their ability to
speak due to brain
their ability to sing.
They cannot recite the words to a song but they can sing
They retain their ability to curse.
Women are better able to call upon both
hemispheres and assess a situation
correctly and quickly without knowing
how or why they arrived at their
Men can make the same assessments,
but it takes them longer.
However, their assessment is explainable,
logical, and can be traced step
step to its
Women are more verbal in their expression of
Their verbal hemisphere (left) communicates much better with
their emotional hemisphere (right).
Ninety percent of all children in speech therapy are right
Males have a much harder time
Males are more apt to respond physically while women fight
Women recover their emotional balance
…when losing a spouse
…when losing a parent
…after parents divorce
Women are less apt to fall into
antisocial or destructive behavior
Until boys and girls are 9, their suicide rates
14 male rates are twice as high.
19 male rates are four times as
24 male rates are six times higher
Overall the suicide rate is four times higher
The memory capacity of one human
brain is estimated to be somewhere
around 100 trillion bits of information.
This far exceeds the capacity of the
world's most sophisticated computers.
Some sections of the brain store facts
(names, images, events) while others store
procedures (recollections of how to do things).
memories are stored in the cortex
(the brain's covering)
and the cerebellum
(back of the skull)
New fact memories are processed by the
shaped structure deep
within both sides of the brain).
term Memory, once embedded in
the mind, stays forever, regardless of
whether we are able to reach it or not.
This is where intuition appears to
conscious recall is unable to penetrate.
Hypnosis is used to reach these areas of
term memory is closely associated
with our sense of smell.
Emotion and Memory
is thought to be the ink that
writes our long
Each emotion writes its own set of memories
Material learned while happy is more
easily recalled when happy.
has been shown to improve
memory, apparently because it releases
Getting it in there….
Once processed by the hippocampus, fact
memories probably travel to the cerebral
cortex. Here they are apparently
sites that correspond to the
Experiences > Hippocampus > Cortex
The hippocampus does not fully develop until
the age of one and a half or two. It is one of the
last structures in the brain to become fully
Children below the age of three cannot
permanently record fact memories. That is why
adults rarely remember (first hand) anything
about their first three years of life.
If you look at a scene and then close your
eyes quickly, you have an after image for a
couple of seconds. People with photographic
memory retain those images.
1 out of 10 children
memory, but somehow 90% of
lose that ability.
1% of adults have it.
The BAD News
Memory begins to deteriorate in
By one estimate 85% of the healthy elderly (over
65) suffer some memory impairment.
In general, what was difficult to remember in
youth becomes harder to remember in
Memory defects in the elderly may simply
reflect a decision, not necessarily conscious,
about what to sweep out of the mind.
Professor Timothy Salthouse of Virginia University, and Rebecca Wood of the Alzheimer’s Research
Good and Bad News
impairs the functioning of the
hippocampus which processes new memories.
also impedes the transfer from
may improve memory, especially in
can affect memory.
Rats fed soybean oil performed 15% better on
memory experiments than rats fed lard.
The Art of Remembering
The true art of memory is the art of
We remember what we concentrate on
and/or what impresses us.
Mnemonics, although defined as
methods that assist memory, are really
exercises in concentration.
Some Memory Aids
To remember names, link them to an
image or a familiar sound.
Try rhymes: "
increasingly wider time spans.
The increasing "wait" periods is more
effective than simple repetition.
More Memory Aids
To recall a list of related words, make up a
sentence of their initials.
duplicating the situation (emotion, location,
time, etc.) in order to improve memory.
To remember numbers, seek meaningful
patterns in them.
The Secret is in the
recall comes from storing information in
"a rich, elaborate form
it to something
The more "known things" you relate
the better your recall.
rather than trying
just to memorize it, means that you are relating
it to meaningful things already known.
Male and Female brains are basically
alike, even if we use them differently.
If we set the two brains side by side,
they look the same.
We have to work hard to find what’s different.
The contrasts are too tiny, and still far too
mysterious, to suggest that they are profoundly
There Clearly are Behavioral
Differences between Men & Women!
These behavioral differences affect…
Our perceptions of each other.
Our perceptions of the situations we
How we communicate with each other.
The decisions we make.