Gender and Decision-Making

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Gender and Decision
-
Making

Are there “real” differences
between men and women?


A friend asks you how to get from school to
Rider College without taking

I
-
95.



Think about what directions you would give.



Men are more likely to use compass
headings like, “
Go east on
Ewingville

Road
and then left on
Eggert

Crossing Road.





Women are more likely to use landmarks;

Turn right at the 7
-
11
.”

DIRECTIONS

SOME DIFFERENCES


Males are more aggressive and more competitive.


Females are more emotional.


Females hear better & have better sense of smell and touch.


Females hear high pitched sounds better.


Men are more comfortable with sounds twice as loud.


Males have a better grasp of spatial relationships & perform better at
math.


Women and men approach directions (and mazes) differently. Men
use spatial relationships while women use landmarks.


Women are far better at interpreting facial expression and non
-
verbal
body language.


Women smile far more than men.


Women are better communicators.


Men have a more vulnerable biology & succumb to all sorts of things
faster than females.


Males do better in math
-
based schoolwork.


Women do better in reading and writing skills.


On IQ tests, men tend to be the higher and lower score achievers


Women usually score in the middle range.


Men outperform women on tests measuring mathematical and
spatial abilities.


Women excel on tests of verbal abilities.


There are little differences between men and women in maze tests,
but, when the test involves 3
-
D space, men, on average, are better.


Men who have moderate levels of testosterone score higher in
spatial ability test than men of lower and higher levels.


Women’s spatial ability scores improve as their testosterone levels
increase.


Women score
higher when the estrogen levels are lower than
normal.

MORE DIFFERENCES

Hunter/Gatherer Theory


The theory states that
men evolved to deal with more situations
where they had to be assertive (Hunting/Fighting).


Since men were exposed to more situations that may have involved
anxiety and fear, their minds/bodies adapted to handle the stress.


Women are less equipped in this capacity because they were often
not in aggressive and stressful situations.


Instead, they were at home fulfilling domestic responsibilities.


Men needed navigational skills to hunt.


Women needed to remember where their belongings were located.


The ability to search successfully is classified as spatial memory…


Women are superior to men in this aptitude.


When it comes to this type of testing, women exceed men’s scores by
60
-
70% for both measures of recognition and recall.

Conclusion of gender
differences in specific skills


Gender differences exist in specific cognitive
skills.


Recent studies prove that these differences are
beneficial to both sexes, not just males.


These differences can only explain work
patterns.


They do
not

justify the fact that men hold the
majority of the higher positions in the workforce.

In fact…


If we consider the full extent of sex differences
in skills
(including female superiority in short
-
term memory, verbal fluency, and non
-
verbal
skills such as judging emotional cues from
facial expressions)

there is little fit between
these characteristics and the numbers of men
and women in particular occupations.



If there were, we should expect more women in
managerial positions that require considerable
ability in managing people.

Managerial Stereotypes


A number of studies
of relationships among
gender, gender stereotypes, and managerial
stereotypes

were conducted over a 20
-
year
period.


Men produced same responses, while women’s
responses changed over the two decades.



Both male managers and male students viewed
themselves to be more successful than female
managers
.



However, when asked to describe “women
managers,” men’s descriptions of women and
successful managers were much more
positive
than women’s descriptions.

Managerial Stereotypes


Today,
female managers and female students no
longer stereotype managerial positions.


They see the same descriptions as fit for all managers
regardless of gender.


One study asked undergraduate students to select
whether they wanted a female or male manager,
given two different scenarios:

1.

Which gender would

you prefer
as a
subordinate if

you were
a company owner?

2.

Which gender would

you prefer
as

your
supervisor
?

Results


Most
male and female students
selected
masculine traits as beneficial characteristics
to have
for the owner of a company.


Masculine traits may enhance the impression of
effectiveness and appeal more to a manager’s
superiors.


Most
preferred to
work for a female manger
because they felt that a woman would be
most concerned with the work environment.

INNATE or LEARNED?


How much of these gender differences come
from social/cultural conditioning and how
much comes from genetic differences?



The answer, up front, is that the two can’t be
separated.



Current thinking is that many of these and
other differences are biologically based and
culturally reinforced.

SOME INNATE
DIFFERENCES


An NYU psychologist studied the emotional responses
of day
-
old infants too young for cultural
influences. He
let the babies listen to sounds of other babies crying, of
animal calls, and of computer
-
generated noise.



The babies responded most strongly to the sound of
another human in distress.



But it was the female babies who reacted most
intensely to the sound of another’s trouble.



From the first day, females are more tuned to an
empathetic response
.

Why are Men more
Aggressive?


Men commit 10
-
15 robberies for every
one by a woman.



Females of most mammalian species
don’t have to fight to get pregnant, but
males often have to fight to become
fathers.



Thus the aggression factor has evolved
biologically in men. (Hunter
-
Gatherer
Theory)

Genetics At Work


Almost every behavioral gender
difference


from emotion to
competitiveness

can
be
traced back to the different demands of being a
sperm
-
producer or an egg maker.



Women outlive men by an average of 7 years.



This is supported by evidence of hormonal
concentrations in women that promote better
health because of their role as mothers.


Genetics and Identical Twins


Two identical twin boys were each adopted as infants and raised by
separate parents. Each family was unaware their son had a twin.


At age 39, they each found out about the other and were reunited.


Each had coincidently been named Jim (Jim Springer & Jim Lewis).


Both men were 6’ tall and weight 180 lbs.


Each man had owned a dog he had named “Toy.”


Each had vacationed in St Pete Beach, Florida.


Each married a woman named “Linda” and then had divorced.


Each remarried a woman named “Betty.”


Each had a son who was named James (James Allan & James Alan)


Both men served as part
-
time sheriffs, enjoyed home carpentry, suffered
severe headaches, smoked Salem cigarettes and drank Miller Light beer.


They had identical smiles and their voices were indistinguishable.


Each admitted to leaving love notes around the house for his wife.

Why Two Sexes


The biological objective of the 2
-
sex system is
genetic flexibility.


The less alike a couple’s genes are, the
greater the ability
of
their offspring to respond
to genetic injures, and the less likely defective
genes will be inherited.


Thus the 2
-
sex system is geared toward
genetic diversity.


How Does

Genetic Diversity happen?


Smell in most mammals plays a major
role in identifying mates who have
dissimilar genes.



Most animals do this by smelling the
urine of potential mates. (Urine has
unique genetic identification.)



People don’t like to do this.

The Importance of Genetic
Variability


Women
(
X

chromosomes)




(
Female child)
X
X


X
Y

(Male Child)



Men (
X
&
Y

chromosomes)

More Genetics


Each
X

chromosome has somewhere
between
2,500 and 5,000

genes, including
those for coding muscle development, color
vision, blood clotting, etc.



Each
Y

chromosome has only about
15

genes.

Its
main purpose seems to be
gender
determination
.


Women have an
Advantage


Say you inherit an X chromosome with a defective gene.


If you are female, you have another X chromosome so the
chances are you will have a healthy copy of that gene
which
will get used
.


If you are male, you are stuck
.
No backups for defective X
chromosome genes.


What do you think the chances are of having a few bad
genes when there are between 2,500 and 5,000 of them?


Color
-
blindness, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy, and 200
other disorders all occur more often in men.


Hormones


Hormones are chemical messengers released in our
brains, by glands, by fat tissues, by the testes and by
ovaries.


The so
-
called sex hormones are called
androgens

(for
male) and
estrogens

(female)


However
none

of the hormones are gender exclusive.


Testosterone

(one of the androgens) is considered the
male hormone but women have about 1/10
th

of the amount
that men have
.
(Women make it in their adrenal
gland.)


Estradiol

(one of the estrogens) is produced in the male
adrenal gland.


TESTOSTERONE


Testosterone is the hormone which, at least in
the beginning, separates the boys from the girls.


For the first six weeks, the human embryo is
gender
-
neutral.


In the embryo, if there is no introduction of
testosterone, you get a girl.


At approximately six weeks, if a Y
-
chromosome
is present, testosterone is introduced and a male
starts to develop.


Without testosterone, the fetus begins to develop
ovaries at around 12 weeks.

BRAIN CELLS


The brain has approximately 12 billion
nerve cells.



Each is connected to countless other cells.



The connections are estimated to number
10
23


1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000


Brain Differences


Men’s brains are about 15% larger than
women’s brains.


The male and female brains develop at
different rates.


Different parts of the brain grow at different times
and rates depending on whether you are male or
female.


The brain is never constant. It spends much of
its life improving itself, refining structures and
responding to internal and external changes.

CHANGE


Male and female brains different slightly in
their response to changes.


For instance, male brains shrink faster with age.


Males lose brain tissue at almost 3 times the
rate of women as they age from their late
teens to their mid 40’s.


By middle
age,
male and female brains are the
same size.

Brain Aging


You can produce new growth in a brain
simply by introducing new challenges into
the environment.


However, as the brain ages, it
acquires a
greater need
to conserve
energy.


Overdriving can cause cell death.


When cells are working too hard, they
generate wastes that can actually injure
them and other nearby cells.

Brain Use & Testosterone


Men and women activate different parts of their
brains while doing word tasks or math/spatial
tests.


Men are better at spatial relationships.
Likewise with male rats.


If a female rat gets a solid dose of testosterone
at a very young age, she solves mazes like a
pro for the rest of her life.


Human males who are testosterone blocked
have much lower math and spatial scores.

Brain Physiology

BRAIN DEVELOPMENT


During fetal development, you cannot
distinguish the
male and female brain for
the first three months.


About the 16th week there is a noticeable darkening
of the right hemisphere of the male brain.


The corpus callosum (the nerve bundle that connects
the two brain hemispheres) shrinks in size.


In some cases the right hemisphere
of the male brain
also
shrinks in size.


This "brain
damage,"
or
alteration,
is caused by a
chemical bath produced in male fetuses.


It manifests itself in a reduced ability of males to
communicate between hemispheres.


WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?

1.) It means that Females tend to use both hemispheres
in situations where males rely heavily on one
hemisphere (usually the left hemisphere
).



2
.) Females tend to be more right brain (or whole
-
brain)
oriented in comparison to
males

who
tend to be
more left
-
brain oriented.


The Gender Bias Influence


Early life experiences leave footprints on the
structure of our brains.


Numerous “gender

disguised” experiments
have shown that adults perceive baby boys
and girls differently, seeing identical behavior
though a gender
-
biased lens.


Adults observing babies they think are girls, will
describe the baby’s behavior differently (more girl
like) than when they think the babies are boys.


Treat baby girls and boys differently and they
will develop brain differences!

Brain Hemispheres


Left Right



Logic / Order


Linear thinking


Language (Speech)


Analytical thinking


History


Right side of body


Facts and Details


Processes


Procedures


Titles and Classifications



Intuition


Face recognition


Awareness of body


Dreams


Music / crafts / art ability


Left side of body


Insight and Inference


Spatial orientation


Global thinking


Risk taking

FIND THE MAN IN THE COFFEE BEANS

If you
found the
man in the coffee beans in 3 seconds, the right half of your
brain is better developed than most people. If you
took between
3 seconds and
1 minute, the right half of the brain is developed normally. If you
took between
1 minute and 3 minutes, then the right half of your brain is functioning
slowly.

Asymmetrical or
Symmetrical


Men’s brain use tends to be asymmetrical in many
areas.


Women’s brain use tends to be more symmetrical.


Most of us rely more on the right ear
(left
-
brain) for
word
detection since the left hemisphere processes language.


Men rely more on
their
right
ear than do women.


Women show less discrepancy between ear usage.


Men and women process language slightly differently in
the way they listen and the way they talk.

Dominate Hemispheres


Most people have a dominate hemisphere


Right
-
handed males


left hemisphere


Left
-
handed males


right hemisphere


Females


right hemisphere


The two hemispheres can operate
separately as two completely different
systems.

Look at each word below and say the
color of the font.

Split
-
Brained People


People who have either lost one
hemisphere, or their left and right
hemispheres are not connected.



Either side of the brain has the potential
to do the entire job. If one side of the
brain is not functioning, the other
hemisphere can assume some of those
functions.

A Typical Split
-
Brain
Response


When a flash card with the word "
Walk
" is
presented to a split
-
brained patient, he would
typically get up and walk out of the area.




If asked where he was going, a typical
response might be:


"I am going to get a coke.”



The left hemisphere has to explain such
behavior that was

initiated by the disconnected
right brain
.

Another Split
-
Brain
Example


A
split
-
brained patient
is shown the word
"
Bike
" with his or her right eye covered.


The nonverbal right brain
(left eye) sees
it.


The verbal left side
did
not see anything.


Patient says he/she saw nothing.


But the patient’s left hand is able to draw the
bike since the right brain
saw it and controls
the left hand.


Language and The Brain


You speak using your left hemisphere but
sing using the right
hemisphere.


That is why people who stutter when they talk do not
stutter when they sing.


Some people
who have
lost their ability to
speak due to brain
damage, have
retained
their ability to sing.


They cannot recite the words to a song but they can sing
them.


They retain their ability to curse.

Women’s Intuition


Women are better able to call upon both
hemispheres and assess a situation
correctly and quickly without knowing
how or why they arrived at their
assessment.



Men can make the same assessments,
but it takes them longer.


However, their assessment is explainable,
logical, and can be traced step
-
by
-
step to its
logical conclusion.

Expressing Feelings


Women are more verbal in their expression of
feelings!


Their verbal hemisphere (left) communicates much better with
their emotional hemisphere (right).


Ninety percent of all children in speech therapy are right
handed males.


Males have a much harder time
communicating feelings.


Males are more apt to respond physically while women fight
with words.

Emotional Balance


Women recover their emotional balance
faster…

…when losing a spouse

…when losing a parent

…after parents divorce


Women are less apt to fall into
antisocial or destructive behavior
.

Suicide Rates


Until boys and girls are 9, their suicide rates
are identical.


From 10
-

14 male rates are twice as high.


From 15
-

19 male rates are four times as
high.


From 20


24 male rates are six times higher


Overall the suicide rate is four times higher
in males.

MEMORY


The memory capacity of one human
brain is estimated to be somewhere
around 100 trillion bits of information.



This far exceeds the capacity of the
world's most sophisticated computers.

Storing Information


Some sections of the brain store facts
(names, images, events) while others store
procedures (recollections of how to do things).


Generally,
memories are stored in the cortex

(the brain's covering)
and the cerebellum

(back of the skull)


New fact memories are processed by the
hippocampus
(an
"S"
-

shaped structure deep
within both sides of the brain).

Long
-
Term Memory


Long
-
term Memory, once embedded in
the mind, stays forever, regardless of
whether we are able to reach it or not.


This is where intuition appears to
reach

where
conscious recall is unable to penetrate.


Hypnosis is used to reach these areas of
memory.


Long
-
term memory is closely associated
with our sense of smell.

Emotion and Memory


Emotion

is thought to be the ink that
writes our long
-
term memory.


Each emotion writes its own set of memories


Material learned while happy is more
easily recalled when happy.


Stress

has been shown to improve
memory, apparently because it releases
adrenaline.

Getting it in there….


Once processed by the hippocampus, fact
memories probably travel to the cerebral
cortex. Here they are apparently
stored at
sites that correspond to the
senses

(smell,
emotions, visual)


Experiences > Hippocampus > Cortex

The Hippocampus


The hippocampus does not fully develop until
the age of one and a half or two. It is one of the
last structures in the brain to become fully
functional.



Children below the age of three cannot
permanently record fact memories. That is why
adults rarely remember (first hand) anything
about their first three years of life.

Photographic Memories


If you look at a scene and then close your
eyes quickly, you have an after image for a
couple of seconds. People with photographic
memory retain those images.



1 out of 10 children
(10%) has
a photographic
memory, but somehow 90% of
us eventually
lose that ability.


1% of adults have it.

The BAD News


Memory begins to deteriorate in

the 30s.



By one estimate 85% of the healthy elderly (over
65) suffer some memory impairment.


In general, what was difficult to remember in
youth becomes harder to remember in
maturity.


Memory defects in the elderly may simply
reflect a decision, not necessarily conscious,
about what to sweep out of the mind.

Professor Timothy Salthouse of Virginia University, and Rebecca Wood of the Alzheimer’s Research
Trust.

Good and Bad News


Alcohol

impairs the functioning of the
hippocampus which processes new memories.


Marijuana

also impedes the transfer from
short
-

to long
-
term memory.


Stimulants
may improve memory, especially in
fatigued people.


Diet

can affect memory.


Rats fed soybean oil performed 15% better on
memory experiments than rats fed lard.

The Art of Remembering


The true art of memory is the art of
attention.


We remember what we concentrate on
and/or what impresses us.


Mnemonics, although defined as
methods that assist memory, are really
exercises in concentration.

Some Memory Aids


To remember names, link them to an
image or a familiar sound.


Try rhymes: "
I

before
E

except after
C
"


Rehearse a
name

repeating
it in
increasingly wider time spans.


The increasing "wait" periods is more
effective than simple repetition.

More Memory Aids


To recall a list of related words, make up a
sentence of their initials.



Exploit ”
State
-
dependent memory
." Try
duplicating the situation (emotion, location,
time, etc.) in order to improve memory.



To remember numbers, seek meaningful
patterns in them.

The Secret is in the
Storage


Sharp
recall comes from storing information in
"a rich, elaborate form
.” Relate
it to something
already known.


The more "known things" you relate
to a
new
fact,
the better your recall.


"Understanding
something,”
rather than trying
just to memorize it, means that you are relating
it to meaningful things already known.

CONCLUSIONS


Male and Female brains are basically
alike, even if we use them differently.


If we set the two brains side by side,
they look the same.


We have to work hard to find what’s different.


The contrasts are too tiny, and still far too
mysterious, to suggest that they are profoundly
different organs.

There Clearly are Behavioral
Differences between Men & Women!


These behavioral differences affect…


Our perceptions of each other.


Our perceptions of the situations we
encounter.


How we communicate with each other.


The decisions we make.