Ch 4: Perceiving Persons

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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Ch 4: Perceiving Persons

Part 1: Feb. 9, 2012

Social Perception


Get info from people, situations, & behavior


We make quick 1
st

impressions of people


Attempt to read traits from faces


Baby
-
faced vs. mature features



Is there an evolutionary need?



Situations




Scripts

Situations & Behavior


Use situational cues to interpret behavior



Behavior & social perception:


Derive meaning from physical behavior


Includes nonverbal behavior


6 primary universal emotions


what are they?



Facial expressions across cultures


results?



Matsumoto’s research


results?

Face Recognition & Emotion


Evoluationary

value to quick recognition


Angry faces?



Attentional

blink = how does it work?



What are exceptions?

Nonverbal Behavior


Importance of eye contact & touch


Interpretation of avoiding eye contact?




Differences in nonverbal cues across cultures


Examples?

Detecting Deception


Can we use this info to detect deception?


Facial versus body movements


What leads to better accuracy?



Not much better than 50/50 chance


see Table 4.2 in book



Microexpression

Research


Paul Ekman’s research:


What are
microexpressions
?



Examples of contempt, disgust…



Apply
to security screening situations
-

how do
these work?


High cognitive effort tasks



Attributions


Attribution = explanation about a behavior


Heider



personal vs. situational



Attribution theories:


1. Jones


Correspondent Inference theory:


Infer from action
-

what give the most info about the person?

1.
Did the person have a choice?


2.
Was the behavior expected?


3.
How many positive effects were there?

Attribution theories (cont.)


2) Kelly’s
Covariation

theory:


Attribute behavior to internal (person) or external
(situation) based on 3 questions



1. Consensus



2. Distinctiveness



3. Consistency



See fig 4.4



If low distinctiveness & low consensus, but
high consistency, which attribution?


Example?




If high distinctiveness & high consensus, but
low consistency, which attribution?


Example?