Study Guide for Unit I

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Study

Guide

for

Unit

I



ML
-
1

The Innateness Hypothesis


1)

Which of the following
correlations are correct
?

a)

Nurture

~

Innateness; Nature

~

Empiricism

b)

Nurture

~

Rationalism; Nature

~

Epistemology

c)

Nature

~

Innateness; Nurture

~

Empiricism

d)

None of the above


1a
)
What is meant by ‘non
-
zero’ human nature
?


a)

That our human nature provides us with innate capacities

b)

That our human nature is empty, like a blank slate


1b) True or False: This book tries to convince you that the Innateness Hypothesis is
correct.

a)

True, it

gives you all the reasons for why this is the correct view point

b)

False, it gives you the tools to make up your own mind


ML
-
2 Philosophy of Mind


2)

What is empiricism?

a)

A theory that states that human knowledge, behavior, and abilities are innate. This
means

that they are genetically determined or biologically inherited

b)

A theory that states that human knowledge, behavior, and abilities are due to
experience, environment, and learning

c)

None of the above

d)

All of the above


3)

Who is associated with empiricism?

a)

John
Locke

b)

David Hume

c)

George Berkeley

d)

Noam Chomsky

e)

All of the above

f)

A, B, and C


4)

What is nativism?

a)

A theory that states that knowledge is part of our innate endowment (already
“built in” at time of birth)

b)

A theory that states that knowledge comes from experienc
e

c)

None of the above

d)

All of the above


5)

Who is associated with nativism?


-

1
-

a)

Plato

b)

Rene Descartes

c)

Gotfriend Wilhelm Leibniz

d)

Noam Chomsky

e)

All of the above


6)

Important Vocabulary to know:

Nature/Innateness

* Humans have a “mind for language”

* Mental (or cognitive)

capacity for language

* Universal grammar

* Mental Grammar

* Language Acquisition Device (LAD) or Language Faculty

* Innate, a priori, or instinctual knowledge

* Tacit knowledge

* Genes, genetic, biological

* Epistomology


Nurture/Empiricism

* Blank slate

* Tabula rasa

* Learn through experience

* Sensory
-
based experience

* Associationism

* Behaviorism

*

7)

What do linguists believe is the correct argument?

a)

Nature/Innateness

b)

Nurture/Empiricism

c)

Neither

d)

There is no one correct answer. We believe that informati
on from the
environment interacts with one’s innate knowledge


8)

What is meant by the
Standard Social Science Model

(SSSM)

_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________
_________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
________________________


9)

TRUE/FALSE: The following statements represent the
proper definitions of dualism
and monism.



Dualism
-

the idea that humans consist of two fundamentally different things: minds and
bodies

Monism
-

rejects dualism and believes that the mind and body are not independent


-

2
-


10)

To see how empiricism, rationalism
, dualism, and monism interact see
the table in the
section ‘All the ism’ toward the end of the chapter


10b) What is the criticism of functionalism?



ML
-
3 Cognitive Science


11)

TRUE/FALSE: Cognitive Science (CS) is an interdisciplinary field and is usually
described as the study of mental processes underlying intelligent behavior (of
humans, animals, and even machines).


11a) Which fields contributed to the birth of Cognitive Science?


a)

Information theory

b)

Cybernetics

c)

Psychology

d)

Computer science

e)

Cryptology

f)

Ne
uroscience

g)

All the above


11b) What do visual illusions show us?


11c) What are the three levels in the Tri
-
level Hypothesis?


11d) What is the difference between the Classical and the Connectionist Architecture?



ML
-
4 Modularity


12)

Although flawed in his r
easoning, Joseph Gall’s idea of _____________________
was important because it lead to later theories, such as Jerry Fodor’s idea of
___________________.


13)

Jerry Fodor proposed that modules meet a number of criteria. Which of the following
choices are crit
eria that he listed?

a)

Domain
-
specificity

b)

Mandatory (obligatory firing)

c)

Informational encapsulation

d)

Subconscious

e)

Speed

f)

Innate

g)

Separate breakdown

h)

Fixed neural architecture/Localization


-

3
-

i)

The knowledge that modules have is implicit, tacit, or subconscious (they
are
computational reflexes)

j)

All of the above are true


13a) Which fields contributed to the birth of Cognitive Science?


h)

Information theory

i)

Cybernetics

j)

Psychology

k)

Computer science

l)

Cryptology

m)

Neuroscience

n)

Linguistics

o)

All the above

(and more…)


13b) What do
visual illusions show us?


13c) What are the three levels in the Tri
-
level Hypothesis
?


13d) What is the difference between the Classical and the Connectionist Architecture?



LS
-
1 Everything you always wanted to know…


14)

Describe prescriptive and descripti
ve grammar, which type of grammar does
linguistics address?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
___________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________


15)

Describe linguistic competence and linguistic performance.
________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________
______________________________
__
_____________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
____
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________


16)

What are the sources of information that a linguist uses to construct his theories?


a.

Spontaneous language data (collection of utterances)

b.

Guided producti
on of utterances

c.

Grammaticality judgments by native speakers (‘is this a good sentence?’)


-

4
-

d.

Psycholinguistics: e.g. reaction experiments, eye tracking experiments

e.

Neuroscience (brain mapping)

f.

All of the above


ML
-
5 Nature and Nurture at Large


17)

TRUE/FALSE: Ev
olutionary psychology adopts the idea that the mind is modular
and seeks evolutionary explanations for the emergence of each model.


18)

TRUE/FALSE:
Evolutionary Psychology claims that our mental capacities have
evolved over the last 15,000 years


ML
-
6
Organiz
ation of the Mental Grammar

LS
-
5 The Parts of Grammar

LS
-
6 The Organization of Grammar

LS
-
7 The Grammar as a Checking Device


19)


Words have

a)

A word category label (noun, verb, etc.)

b)

A Form

c)

A Meaning

d)

Words have all three of these dimensions, and in order to
understand words we
must learn and memorize them

e)

None of the above


20)


The smallest meaningful units that make up the words are called
________________
.



(it is a meaningful unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units).


21)

TRUE/FALSE:
Mos
t often, a

morpheme is simply an arbitrary combination of form
and meaning.


22)

TRUE/FALSE: The place where we store
morphemes

is called the (mental) lexicon.


23)

Which of these subsystems is contained within mental grammars

a)

Phonological constraints

b)

Semantic
constraints

c)

Categorical

constraints

d)

All of the above


24)

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a)

The mental grammar is a triple system that characterizes properties of words and
sentences

b)

Each subsystem contains a specification of primitives (basic build
ing blocks) and
constraints that govern the way the building blocks can be combined into larger
structures


-

5
-

c)

Constraints do not impact how we define the grammaticality of a linguistic
expression

d)

A linguistic expression (word or sentence) is called grammatica
l if it is in
accordance with the constraints that hold for each of its three dimensions


25)

Which of the following
may

be innate?

a)

The overall architecture of the grammar

b)

The fact that primitives can be combined into larger structures

c)

The mechanism of

repair
rules (although languages may differ in the kinds of
repairs they have)

d)

That structures as headed

e)

All of the above

f)

None of the above (all things are learned through experience)


LS
-
9 Hierarchical structure everywhere


26)

TRUE/FALSE: A common graphic way of re
presenting a structure that has
hierarchical grouping is in the form of a tree diagram. In linguistics, tree structures
show the grouping words into larger units, and then grouping these larger units into
even larger units, and so on.



27)

Using the diagram

above, label the parts.

a)

Each point in the diagram is called a ________.

b)

A
branch

is a line that connects any 2 nodes; an example of a branch is the line
that connects _____ and ______.

c)

The
root node

is the topmost node in a tree (undominated), in this tr
ee ____ is a
root node.

d)

Terminal nodes
do not dominate any other nodes; in this tree ______ is a
terminal node.

e)

Intermediate nodes

have a line above and a line below; in this tree ___and___
are examples of intermediate nodes.


28)

TRUE/FALSE: When doing scien
tific research, scientists hope to find the hidden
structure in the things/phenomena they are studying. Even when they discover these
“hidden structures,” we can never be sure how much of that structure is really there,
or how much is due to the scientist’
s perception and understanding of the topic.



-

6
-

LS
-
10 Phonological structures


Important terms


* phoneme

* allophone

* allomorph

* minimal pair

* complementary distribution (between allophones)

* syllable, onset, rhyme, coda

* constraint

* repair rule

* ph
onological wellformedness


29)

The primitives of phonology are:

a)

morphemes

b)

phonemes

c)

category labels


29a)

IPA stands for:



-------------------------------------------------------------------------



30)

TRUE/FALSE: The combination rules (also called phonta
ctic rules) specify which
combinations of phonemes are well formed.

a)

For example: Flib vs. bfli

i)

Although both of these words are fake, flib seems better because bfli violates
phonological rules in English.

ii)

A word like flib is called an accidental gap (a p
otential word that obeys all
phonotactic rules of a language that happens not to be used)

iii)

A word like bfli is called a systematic gap (words that violates the phonotactic
rules of a language)


31)

By using minimal pairs, we can find contrastive sounds or phone
mes. Phonemes are
sounds that make a difference in meaning.

a)

For example: Sip vs. Zip

i)

S and Z are contrastive sounds/phonemes, because they cause a difference in
meaning


32)

TRUE/FALSE: Phonemes/contrastive sounds are different between languages.

a)

For example
: pat (aspirated p, [p
h
]) vs. spat (unaspirated p, [p])

b)

In English, it doesn’t matter if it is aspirated or not, but in other languages it can
change the meaning of the word.



-

7
-

33)

TRUE/FALSE: Allophones are different sounds that are phonetically similar, but
don’t make a difference in meaning

a)

For example: keep vs. cool

b)

The k is pronounced differently in each word, but it you use the wrong k it
doesn’t affect the meaning


34)

TRUE/FALSE: Syllables can be divided into three parts: the onset, the nucleus, and
the cod
a.

a)

For example: dog


35)

TRUE/FALSE: Every syllable must have a nucleus (the vowel), but the other parts
are optional

a)

For example: a


36)

TRUE/FALSE: The nucleus and coda together are called the rhyme.

a)

For example: fright and might

b)

They rhyme because they have th
e same nucleus and coda.


37)

Try finding the onset, nucleus and coda for
sprint.



LS
-
11 Categorical Structures (Word Level)


Important terms




morpheme



open category/class, closed category/class



free, bound morpheme



root



affix, suffix, prefix, infix



insertio
n frame (= subcategorization frame)



insertion requirement



projection requirement



ambiguity



morphological triangle



Right
-
Hand Head Principle (or rule)



compounding



derivation



recursion


38)

Words that can be divided into meaningful chunks are called ____________
___ (for
example: words like armchair, warmly, and reread)


39)

Words than cannot be divided into meaningful chunks are called
_____________
(for
example: words like cat, soccer, friend)



-

8
-

40)

The smallest meaningful units that make up the words are called
_________
_______
.
(it is a meaningful unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful units).


41)

When we look at complex words, we see that some of the units can be themselves be
words; we call those units
__________________________.

Other units are word
“pieces”

(like re
-
,
-
ize,
-
ed,
-
ing) and we call them
_________________________
.
Affixes cannot occur independently as words, and they need to be attached to a base.
_________________________

are affixes that come before their base;
_________________________
are af
fixes that come after their base.


42)

Using the definitions from #34. Label the parts of the words.

a)

Dog______________________________________________________________

b)

Practiced__________________________________________________________

c)

Revitalize_____________
____________________________________________
_


43)

Each morpheme has a
word class label (or category)
,
a phonological structure
(form),
and
semantic structure (meaning)

a)

For example: CAT

i)

Category: Noun

ii)

Form: /kæt/

iii)

Meaning: animate, mammal, furry…


44)

TRUE/FALSE: A

morpheme is simply an arbitrary combination of form and
meaning.


45)

The Right
-
hand head principles (RHP) says that:

a)

In a word
-
level combination, the right
-
hand unit determines the category of the
combination; that is, the right
-
hand unit is the head.

b)

Langu
age is localized on the right side of the brain.

c)

All of the above

d)

None of the above


LS
-
12 Categorical St
r
uctures (Sentence Level)


Important terms




Phrase



Transformation



Inflection



Complement



Complementizer



Specifier



Two
-
level theory of phrase structure



WH
-
movement



Subject
-
Aux inversion


-

9
-



Auxiliary



Deep structure



Surface structure



46)

What does it mean if a sentence is grammatical?

a)

Word categories have been grouped and linearized in the right way (i.e. the
sequence is categorically well formed)

b)

We can make se
nse of it (i.e. it is semantically well formed)

c)

We can pronounce it (i.e. it is phonologically well formed

d)

All of the above

e)

None of the above


47)

TRUE/FALSE: Syntax and semantics are independent


48)

Syntax deals with

a)

Phonemes (sound units)

b)

Categorical side of s
entences (structure)

c)

Morphemes (words)

d)

Meaning

e)

All of the above


49)

In the case of syntactic
-
categorical system, we have the primitives (which are the
categories labels of words and phrases). Phrase (categorical) structure rules produce
tree structures. We t
hen have two types of adjustment rules: inflectional rules and
transformational rules.










50)

Which of the following statements are
true
?

a)

Lexical categories include N (noun), V (verb), A (adjective), P (preposition)

b)

Phrasal categories are determined by
their heads

c)

The head is the kind of element the phrase must include (ex. Noun phrases must
include a noun, so the head of a noun phrase is a noun. The head of a verb phrase
is a verb. The head of a prepositional phrase is a preposition.)

d)

All of the above

S
tructural Positions


(Specifier)

Head

(Complement)

Noun Phrase

Det
(determiner)

N

(noun)

Anything after the
noun

Adjective
Deg
A

Anything after the

-

10
-



SOME EXAMPLES:




















51)

Which of the following statements are true?

a)

Every phrase must con
tain a head (The Head Principle)

b)

Phrases may also contain a specifier (but it is not a necessary part of a phrase)

c)

In some cases the complement is obligatory

d)

All of the above


52)

What is a recursive rule?

a)

A rule that creates an environment for its own reappli
cation

b)

A linguistic expression that occurs inside a larger linguistic expression of the
same type (e.g. nominal compounding)

c)

A general property of language (sentences inside other sentences)

d)

None of the above

e)

All of the above


53)

TRUE/FALSE: An infinite numb
er of sentences can be created from a finite set of
“building blocks.”


54)

TRUE/FALSE: There is no longest sentence in English.


Word order across languages:


55)

Principles

are defined as:

Phrase

(degree)

(adjective)

adjective

Prepositional
Phrase

Deg
(degree)


P

(preposition)

Anything af
ter the
preposition

Verb Phrase

Adv
(adverb)

V

(verb)

(transitive verbs need
complement; instransitive don’t
need complement)

Anything after the
verb


-

11
-

a)

Aspects of language that are universal to all human languages, and whic
h are
potentially present (in some form) at birth

b)

Points of permitted variation across languages; limited number of switches or
options

c)

All of the above

d)

None of the above


56)

Parameters

are defined as:

a)

Aspects of language that are universal to all human langu
ages, and which are
potentially present (in some form) at birth

b)

Points of permitted variation across languages; limited number of switches or
options

c)

All of the above

d)

None of the above


For example: ENGLISH: Mary bought shoes

JAPANESE: Mary shoes bought


57)

What is the function of inflectional rules?


58)

Draw the phrase structure tree for the
surface structure of the
declarative sentence
John will win

which shows the transformations by using arrows.


59)

Draw the phrase structure tree for the
embedded

sentence

That

John will buy flowers


60)

The relationship between each declarative sentence and the corresponding yes/no
question is that the relative order of the subject and the auxiliary has been switched.
What
is the name of the transformation that does this switching?

a)

Transformations (transformational rules)

b)

Subject
-
Auxiliary inversion

c)

All of the above

d)

None of the above


61)

Which of the following are correct statements?

a)

The deep structure (D
-
structure) is the first structure,
which is

built according to
the phrase structu
re rules

b)

The surface structure (S
-
structure) is the second structure, it is the result of
applying any necessary transformations to the Deep structure

c)

The deep structure and the surface structure are the same

d)

All of the above

e)

A and B only

f)

None of the above


62)

What is the basic general template for sentences in English?




-

12
-

LS
-
14 The Lexicon

Important terms



Iconicity



Arbitrariness



Sign, symbol, icon



Idiom



Borrowing



Blend


63)


What is listed in the lexicon?



a)

All morphemes

b)

Every expression that has an irregular prop
erty







-

13
-

Answers

to

Study

Guide

I


ML
-
1

The Innateness Hypothesis



1)

c

1a) a

1b) b


ML
-
2 Philosophy of Mind


2)

b

3)

f

4)

a

5)

e

6)



7)

d

8)

The mind at birth does not come with pre
-
wired cognitive abilities (but see below)
and is thus a “blank sheet”

9)

True

10)



10b) What the em
phasis on brain processes overlooks, the critics say, is the
functionality of brain processes


ML
-
3 Cognitive Science


11)

True


11a) g

11b) They show us that the mind creates what we see

11c) Functional, algorithmic, implementational

11d) Serialism versus par
allellism


ML
-
4 Modularity


12)

Phrenology


Modularity

13)

j

13a) g

13b) They show us that the mind creates what we see

13c) Functional, algorithmic, implementational


LS
-
1 Everything you always wanted to know…


14)

Prescriptivism: rules how you ought to speak accord
ing to some norm

Descriptivism: study of how people actually speak (this is what linguists do)

15)

Competence: the knowledge of language, i.e. mental grammar

Performance: the production/perception of actual utterances


-

14
-


16)

f


ML
-
5 Nature and Nurture at Large


17)

True

18)

False


ML
-
6
The Organization of the Mental Grammar

LS
-
5 The Parts of Grammar

LS
-
6 The Organization of Grammar

LS
-
7 The Grammar as a Checking Device


19)

d

20)

morphemes

21)

true

22)

true

23)

d

24)

c

25)

e



LS
-
9 Hierarchical structure everywhere


26)

True

27)

a) node; b) b and c; c) a; d) d
; e) b and c

28)

True


LS
-
10 Phonological structures


29)

b

30)



31)



32)

True

33)

True

34)

True

35)

True

36)

True

37)

Onset: spr; nucleus: i; coda: nt


LS
-
11 Categorical Structures (Word Level)


38)

Complex words

39)

Simplex words

40)

Morphemes

41)

Free morphemes; bound morphemes; prefixes; suffixes


-

15
-

42)

a) is on
e free morpheme; b) free morpheme practice + bound morpheme ed; c)
prefix re + adjective vital + suffix ize

43)



44)

True

45)

A


LS
-
12 Categorical St
r
u
c
tures (Sentence Level)


46)

d

47)

True

48)

b

49)



50)

d

51)

d

52)

e

53)

True

54)

True

55)

a

56)

b

57)


Inflectional rules make words suitable for use in the sente
nces by adding affixes

58)

See textbook

59)


See textbook

60)

b

61)

e

62)

See textbook


LS
-
14 The lexicon


63)

b