2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7-11, Atlanta - The VLSI ...

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2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

TUTORIAL

RF and Digital Components for Highly
-
Integrated
Low
-
Power RADAR


Sergio Saponara & Maria S. Greco

Department of Information Engineering

University of Pisa

.

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Speakers

Sergio Saponara is Associate Professor of Electronics

Maria S. Greco is Associate Professor of Telecomunications

both at the

Department of Information Engineering

University of Pisa, via G. Caruso 16, 56122, Pisa, Italy

sergio.saponara@iet.unipi.it
,
maria.greco@iet.unipi.it


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Outline of the tutorial

Scenarios and applications for highly
-
integrated
low
-
power RADAR

RADAR architecture and analog
-
digital
partitioning

RF/mm
-
Wave RADAR transceivers and ADC

Ubiquitous low
-
power RADAR case studies:
vital sign detection, automotive driver assistance

Digital signal processing for RADAR

HW
-
SW implementing platforms for RADAR
digital signal processing

Conclusions

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Outline of the tutorial

Scenarios and applications for highly
-
integrated
low
-
power RADAR

RADAR architecture and analog
-
digital
partitioning

RF/mm
-
Wave RADAR transceivers and ADC

Ubiquitous low
-
power RADAR case studies:
vital sign detection, automotive driver assistance

Digital signal processing for RADAR

HW
-
SW implementing platforms for RADAR
digital signal processing

Conclusions

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

The semiconductor components market is growing..

…driven by highly integrated digital
-
based
ubiquitous systems realized in standard

Silicon (Si)
-
based technologies..

Source:
iSuppli

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Technology evolution driven by large volume

HW
-
SW systems addressing societal needs

(health care, energy, security, safety, intelligent
transport..)

Source: World Semiconductor Trade Statistics

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Electronics evolution

Not only nanoscale CMOS but also System
-
in
-
Package
integration of passives, RF & mm
-
Wave, high voltage,
sensors/actuators (MEMS) ..

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Ubiquitous RADAR applications

Although

RADAR

development

was

pushed

by

military

applications

in

II


world

war

with

high
-
power,

large

size

and

long
-
distance

systems,

today

the

RADAR

is

becoming

an

ubiquitous

technology

adopted

for
:


Safer

transport

systems

in

automotive

(automatic

cruise

control,

urban

traffic

warning,

parking

aid,

obstacle

detection),

railway

(crossing

monitoring,

obstacle

detection),

ships


Info
-
mobility

in

urban,

airport

or

port

scenarios

Civil

engineering,

(static

and

dynamic

structural

health

monitoring,

landslide

monitoring,

ground

penetration

for

detecting

pipes,

electric

lines,

.
)


Distributed

surveillance

systems

(smart

cities,

airports,

banks,

schools)

mm
-
wave

body

scanner

for

security

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Ubiquitous RADAR applications

Remote

bio
-
signal

detection

for

health

care

(heart

rate,

breath

rate)

Elderly/infant

assistance

(fall

detection,

sudden

infant

death

syndrome,
..
)

Civil

protection

(e
.
g
.

detection

of

buried

people

in

case

of

earthquakes,

or

under

the

snow

after

an

avalanche

or

other

natural

disasters,

or

even

in

war

scenarios)

Contactless

industrial

measurements

and

in

harsh

environments


Through
-
wall

target

detection


RADAR sensing is suited to address societal needs of

safety, security, health
-
care, intelligent transport

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Ubiquitous highly
-
integrated low
-
power
RADAR

RADAR can become ubiquitous adopted as sensing system for large
volume applications?

RADAR

as

EM

sensor

can

offer

big

advantages

for

large

volume

highly

integrated

applications

w
.
r
.
t
.

other

technologies
:



operations

in

all

weather

and

bad

light

conditions


contactless

sensing

and

no

line

of

sight

sensing


non

ionizing

radiations


ground

penetrating

capabilities


multi

parameter

sensing

(target

detection,

distance,

speed,

angles)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

With

respect

to

conventional

RADARs

for

defense

and

civil

applications,

with

large

transmitted
-
power

x

antenna

aperture

product,

the

realization

of

highly
-
integrated

RADARs

with

low

power

consumption,

size,

weight

and

cost

is

needed

to

enable

its

ubiquitous

adoption

in

large

volume

markets


Transmitted

Power

<

10
-
15

dBm

Short

wavelength

for

miniaturization

(
3
.
9

mm@
77

GHz)

Range

from

<

1
m

to

<

100
-
200

m

Detection

also

with

low

SNR

of

10
-
20

dB


Cross

section

from

tens

of

cm
2

to

m
2

DSP

techniques

to

improve

performance

and

solve

range
-
speed

ambiguities

Receiver

sensitivity

down

to

-
100

dBm


Multiple

channels

may

be

used

for

channel

diversity

gain

Ubiquitous RADAR design needs

4
3
2
)
4
(
R
G
G
P
P
r
t
t
r




2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Key

enabling

factor

for

the

success

of

this

scenario

is

the

realization,

in

Si
-
based

standard

technologies,

rather

than

using

niche

market

dedicated

technologies,

of

integrated

transceivers

for

the

RF

radar

front
-
end

and

the

implementation

of

computing

intensive

RADAR

signal

processing

algorithms

in

cost
-
effective

and

power
-
efficient

embedded

platforms


Advanced

concepts

for

System
-
in
-
Package

integration

have

to

be

explored

Ubiquitous RADAR design needs

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

At high frequencies (short wavelengths
of few mm) there is potential for high
miniaturization, even the antenna
integration


thanks to technology scaling Si
-
based
technologies are offering good
characteristics at microwaves and mm
-
Waves

Frequency bands for highly integrated
ubiquitous RADAR

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Opportunities at mm
-
Waves

Compared

with

visible

light

and

infrared,

a

RADAR

offers

lower

attenuation

in

bad

weather

and

bad

light

conditions

Due

to

high

attenuation

60

GHz

band

(V

Band)

reserved

for

short

communication

s

At

77
-
81

GHz

(W

band)

good

opportunities

for

both

LRR

and

SRR

in

mm
-
Wave

domain


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Outline of the tutorial

Scenarios and applications for highly
-
integrated
low
-
power RADAR

RADAR architecture and analog
-
digital
partitioning

RF/mm
-
Wave RADAR transceivers and ADC

Ubiquitous low
-
power RADAR case studies:
vital sign detection, automotive driver assistance

Digital signal processing for RADAR

HW
-
SW implementing platforms for RADAR
digital signal processing

Conclusions

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Example architectures for integrated
RADAR systems

RADAR

as

a

mixed

analog
-
digital

system


Pulsed

RADAR

with

homodyne

receiver

Pulsed

RADAR

with

super
-
heterodyne

receiver

Pulsed

RADAR

with

correlator
-
type

receiver

From

analog

to

digital

down
-
conversion

FMCW

RADAR

with

digital

down
-
conversion

Direct

digital

receiver


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR as a mixed analog
-
digital signal
system

DIGITAL
DOMAIN

(
RX signal
processing, TX
waveform gener, LO
synthesis, user
interface, antenna
switch control)

To the vehicle network

ADC

DAC

ANALOG
DOMAIN

(PA, LNA, AGC,
FILT, T/R
SWITCH,
MIXER)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Pulsed RADAR architecture

with homodyne type receiver

Periodic

transmission

of

a

train

of

pulses

of

peak

power

Pt

with

fpr

(frequency

pulse

repetition),

transmitted

Pavg

depends

on

duty

cycle

In

integrated

systems

high

peak

power

can

be

problematic



limit

on

duty

cycling

to

achieve

acceptable

range

performance


ToF

analysis

of

the

received

echo

pulses

for

target

detection


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Pulsed RADAR architecture

Easier

on
-
chip

integration

of

homodyne

vs
.

a

heterodyne

architecture

avoiding

selective

passive

filters

at

high

frequencies


Antenna

array

used

in

timed
-
division

for

TX

and

RX

(T/R

antenna

switch

needed,

also

for

LNA

protection

from

PA

out)


A/D

and

D/A

converters

(ADC,

DAC)

To

reduce

distortions

DAC

has

to

be

of

PAM

type

rather

than

PWM

(used

in

MCU)


ADC

can

operate

at

baseband

(LO

for

I

and

Q

down
-
conversion

has

the

same

RADAR

central

frequency)

or

at

IF


Signal

processing

(waveform

generation,

pulse

compression,

filtering,

range
-
speed

ambiguities

resolutions,

CFAR

detection,

tracking)

done

in

the

digital

domain

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Heterodyne
-
receiver alternative

By

sharing

the

conversion

requirements

among

different

blocks

operating

at

different

frequencies,

RF,

IF,

baseband

better

performance

can

be

achieved

Selective

passive

filters

at

high

frequencies

(e
.
g
.

for

image

frequency

rejection)
.

On
-
chip

or

in
-
package

integrated

selective

filters

today

possible

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Trend from analog down
-
conversion …

IF

or

RF

input

at

the

quadrature

down
-
conversion

system

depending

if

homodyne

or

heterodyne

receiver

is

used

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

.. to digital down
-
conversion

ADC

operating

at

IF

with

digital

based

down
-
conversion

(Numeric

Controller

Oscillator


NCO
-

needed

plus

digital

decimation)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

FM
-
CW RADAR

Quartz
Osc
Phase
det
.
f
ref
Loop
filter
VCO
PA
77
GHz
Freq
.
divider
X
LO
LNA
RF

amp
ADC
FFT
&
logic
Modulation
control
(
B
,
T
m
)
Interface
User I
/
O
fbeat
f
t
fbeat

TOF
f
t
R
TOF
=
2
R
/
c
f
t
TX
RX
DSP
Target
Received signal at the ADC







2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

FM
-
CW RADAR

Separate

antenna

used

for

TX

and

RX

due

to

continuous

wave

Range

and

relative

speed

detection

from

batiment

frequency

analysis

(with

FFT

in

digital

domain)


The

FMCW

sweep

frequency

B

and

the

time

sweep

Tm

determine

the

achievable

range

and

speed

resolution

Stable

frequency

synthesis

based

on

PLL+VCO

in

analog

domain

used

in

TX


ADC

can

operate

at

baseband

or

at

IF


Signal

processing

and

control

(FMCW

modulation

control,

filtering,

FFT,

range
-
speed

ambiguities

resolutions,

CFAR

detection,

tracking)

done

in

the

digital

domain


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

UWB
Pulsed RADAR with correlator
-
type receiver

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Receiver
-
type correlation

The

received

pulse

echo

signal,

amplified

by

the

LNA

is

multiplied

with

a

delayed

replica

of

the

transmitted

pulses

generated

on
-
chip

by

a

Shaper

circuit

and

integrated

in

the

analog

domain

(low
-
rate

ADC

needed)

or

in

the

digital

one

(high
-
rate

ADC

needed)

The

amplitude

of

the

signal

at

the

output

of

the

multiplier

is

related

to

the

target

position

Averaging

a

large

number

of

pulses

allows

us

to

increase

the

SNR,

depending

on

integrator

bandwidth

and

pulse

repetition

frequency


)
log(
10
int
B
f
SNR
PR
imp















(
6
)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR with direct digital receiver

Aiming

at

a

Software

Defined

Radio,

in

wireless

communication

industry

there

is

lot

of

interest

on

direct

digital

receiver

where

the

ADC

is

moving

towards

the

antenna
.


The

dream

is

that

all

signal

processing

(apart

antenna

impedance

matching

and

first

amplification)

is

done

in

the

digital

domain

and

is

fully

programmable/configurable


What’s

for

RADAR?


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR with direct digital receiver

At

least

the

LNA

+

RF

Filter

before

the

ADC

is

needed

for

optimal

impedance

antenna

matching,

receiver

Noise

Figure,

out
-
of
-
band

interference

reduction,

and

to

adapt

the

weak

receiver

signals

to

the

dynamic

range

of

the

high
-
speed

ADC

The

mixer

could

be

removed

at

UHF,

L

or

S

RADAR

bands

since

Nyquist
-
rate

ADCs

exist

capable

of

several

GS/s

The

limit

is

that

high
-
speed

low
-
power

ADC

have

low

dynamic

range

(typ

5
-
6

ENOB)

posing

a

limit

to

RADAR

needing

wider

bit

range

to

face

clutter

High

speed

DSP

needs

high

data

transfer

and

storage

(large

memory

size)

and

high

clock

frequency

thus

increasing

power

consumption


High

speed

medium/high

dynamic

range

ADC

needs

high

power

consumption

and

hence

a

mixer

should

be

reintroduced


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Main HW RADAR sub
-
blocks in analog
domain

Low

Noise

Amplifier

Antenna

switch

Power

Amplifier

Mixer

Adaptive

Gain

Control

(AGC)

amplifier

Phase

Locked

Loop

(PLL),

Voltage

Controlled

Oscillator,

Quartz

Oscillator,

phase

detectors,

phase

shifter,

frequency

dividers

Baseband

amplifiers

and

filters


Integrators




2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Main HW RADAR sub
-
blocks in digital
domain

ADC

DAC

Numerical

Controller

Oscillator

(NCO)

Digital

Delay

Locked

Loop

(DLL),

Digital

Clock

Manager

(DCM)


Fast

Fourier

Transformer


Digital

filters


Direct

Digital

Synthesis

(DDS)

for

waveform

generation

Other

DSP

blocks


User

interface


Networking

interface



2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR Architectures

Bibliography

M
.

Skolnik,

Radar

Handbook,

3
d

Ed,

McGraw

Hill

2008

M
.

Skolnik,

Introduction

to

radar

systems,

McGraw

Hill

J
.

Hasch

et

al
.
,

Millimeter
-
Wave

Technology

for

Automotive

Radar

Sensors

in

the

77

GHz

Frequency

Band,

IEEE

Tran
.

Micr

Theory

and

Tech,

2012

Y
.
-
A
.

Li

et

al
.
,

A

fully

integrated

77

GHz

FMCW

radar

transciever

in

65

nm

CMOS,

technology

IEEE

J
.

Solid
-
State

Circuits

2010

C
.

Li

et

al
.
,

High
-
Sensitivity

Software
-
Configurable

5
.
8
-
GHz

Radar

Sensor

Receiver

Chip

in

0
.
13
um

CMOS

for

Noncontact

Vital

Sign

Detection,

IEEE

Tran
.

Micr
.

Theory

Tech

2010

D
.

Zito

et

al
.
,

SoC

CMOS

UWB

pulse

radar

sensor

for

contactless

respiratory

rate

monitoring,

IEEE

Tran
.

Biomedical

Circuits

and

Systems

2011

S
.

Saponara,

B
.

Neri

et

al,

Integrated

60

GHz

Antenna,

LNA

and

Fast

ADC

Architecture

for

Embedded

Systems

with

Wireless

Gbit

Connectivity
,

Journal

Circuit

Systems

Computers

2012

B
.

Neri,

S
.

Saponara,

Advances

in

Technologies,

Architectures

and

Applications

of

Highly
-
Integrated

Low
-
power

Radars,

IEEE

Aerospace

Electr
.

Syt
.

Mag
.

2012

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Outline of the tutorial

Scenarios and applications for highly
-
integrated
low
-
power RADAR

RADAR architecture and analog
-
digital
partitioning

RF/mm
-
Wave RADAR transceivers and ADC

Ubiquitous low
-
power RADAR case studies:
vital sign detection, automotive driver assistance

Digital signal processing for RADAR

HW
-
SW implementing platforms for RADAR
digital signal processing

Conclusions

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Integration levels and technologies for
RADAR transceiver and ADC

Radar

integration

levels


System
-
on
-
board,

-
in
-
package,

-
on
-
chip

Integrated

antenna


Technologies

for

integrated

RADAR

III
-
V

Transceiver

SiGe

Transceiver


CMOS

Transceiver


ADC


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR integration levels

Different

levels

of

integration

are

possible

for

low
-
power

RADARs

from

single
-
board

to

single
-
chip

systems

with

increasing


miniaturization

but

also

increased

technology

complexity


System
-
on
-
a
-
single
-
Chip

(SoC)

where

the

RADAR

is

completely

contained

in

a

single

chip

System
-
in
-
a
-
Package

(SiP)

where

the

RADAR

is

realized

using

multiple

chips

but

embedded

in

a

single

package

Single
-
board

RADAR

where

the

system

is

realized

using

multiple

integrated

circuits

mounted

on

a

single

board

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Pro/Con of RADAR integration

Pro

of

Highly

Integrated

RADAR


Component

assembly

is

minimized

thus

reducing

cost

and

increasing

reliability

and

operating

lifetime


Small

size,

small

weight,

low

power

consumption


Increased

reproducibility

and

lower

cost

for

large

volume

production

Con

of

Highly

Integrated

RADAR



IC

design

has

high

Non

Recurring

Costs

(CAD

tools

and

foundry

cost,

design

time

and

team

design

cost)



cost

is

minimized

only

for

large

volume

production


A

single

technology

can

not

offer

optimal

performance

for

all

RADAR

subsystems

(CMOS

optimal

for

baseband

DSP,

not

for

antenna

design

or

RF

power

amplifiers

or

for

mm
-
Wave

analog

design)



Low

transmit

power

limits

possible

applications

to

short

range

ones

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR

with

high

transmit

power

and

large

aperture

antenna

are

realized

by

assembling

multiple

electronic

boards,

each

optimized

for

a

RADAR

subsystem
:

antenna

subsystem

with

feed,

reflectors,

and

scanning

modules,

TWT

or

Klystron

as

Power

Amplifier

modules,

MMIC

for

TX/RX

module,

multiple

boards

for

digitization

and

RADAR

signal

processing,

User

Interface

and

networking


The next step, for low
-
power ubiquitous RADAR, is assembling

all sub
-
systems on the same single printed circuit board (PCB)

RADAR
-
System
-
on
-
a
-
Board

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR
-
System
-
on
-
a
-
Board

will

assembly

on

the

same

board

-
a

single

chip

of

a

few

mm
2

integrating

the

whole

TX

and

RX

chains

operating

in

the

RF

or

mm
-
Wave

domain

(CMOS

or

SiGe

or

MMIC

in

III
-
V

technologies)

-
Solid
-
state

power

amplifier

(depending

on

the

transmit

power

needed)


-
a

single

chip

for

baseband

digital

signal

processing

(DSP,

FPGA

or

custom

IC

in

CMOS

tech
.
)
:

waveform

generation,

matched
-
filtered,

pulse

compression,

range/speed

ambiguities

resolution,

CFAR


-
Memory

modules

(RAM

and

NV)


-
ADC/DAC

module

(if

not

integrated

in

the

custom

IC,

CMOS

tech
.
)

-
antenna

(printed

on

the

PCB

board

if

gain,

beam
-
width

are

enough
..
)


RADAR
-
System
-
on
-
a
-
Board

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Thanks

to

submicron

technology

scaling

CMOS

is

providing

good

performance

also

for

RF

and

mm
-
Wave

low
-
power

transceivers


The

trend

for

the

future

is

further

increasing

the

miniaturization

level

by

integrating

single
-
chip

the

RADAR

transceiver

plus

the

A/D

and

D/A

converters

and

part

of

the

DSP

chain,

such

as

an

FFT

processor

CMOS

SOI

offers

further

improved

performance

at

high

frequencies

and

for

the

realization

also

of

passive

components

(inductors,

capacitors,

even

V/W

bands

antennas

if

few

dB

gain

are

enough)


Only

the

power

amplifier

and

the

antenna

will

be

off
-
chip



RADAR
-
System
-
on
-
Chip or in
-
Package

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR
-
System
-
on
-
a
-
Chip or in
-
Package

Unless

very

low

power

and

low

antenna

gain

are

required

SiP

is

a

more


viable

solution

for

RADAR

than

fully

SoC




2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

System
-
in
-
Package Technology Options

-
Different

System
-
in
-
Package

technology

options

available

or

under

research

for

mm
-
wave

low
-
power

RADAR

or

radio

applications
:

-
Integrated

substrate

and/or

Multi

Chip

Module

(MCM),

even

3
D


Huei Wang , IEEE SIRF 2010

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Integrated antennas

Towards

high

miniaturized

systems

the

trend

is

integrating

the

antenna


-

at

board

level

(printed

antenna

on

PCB

boards)


-

at

package

level

(e
.
g
.

using

Low

Temperature

Co
-
fired

Ceramic

LTCC

technology

to

realize

multi
-
layer

circuits

with

integrated

passive

components

including

the

antenna)


-

at

chip

level

using

MMIC

or

Silicon

on

Insulator

technologies


The

higher

the

frequency,

the

lower

the

wavelength

(e
.
g
.

for

77

GHz

RADAR

or

60

GHz

radio

λ

is

few

mm)

and

hence

realizing

an

integrated

antenna

becomes

feasible

However

lot

of

works

still

to

do

to

achieve

the

high

antenna

gain

required

by

RADAR

systems


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Example of a single
-
package chip and
integrated antenna

mm
-
Wave

transceiver

chip


with

double
-
slot

antenna

Lots of on
-
chip antenna designs at 60 GHz for short
-
range consumer radio (the
antenna performance are less stringent than for typical RADAR systems)

Huei Wang , IEEE SIRF 2010

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

V
-
band transmitter and receiver with on
-
chip
(MMIC) integrated antennas

Huei Wang , IEEE Microwave Mag. 2009

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR

antennas

are

typically

realized

off
-
chip
.

Long
-
range

Radar

automotive

applications

(
100
m
-
200
m)

require

antennas

with

high

gain

and

high

directivity

which

can

not

be

realized

on
-
chip

(e
.
g
.

up

to

20
-
25

dB

in

literature

with

a

patch

or

horn

or

dish

antenna)


For

RADARs

operating

at

frequencies

below

10

GHz,

the

wavelength

amounts

to

several

cm

and

hence

it

is

not

convenient

to

integrate

the

antenna

due

to

the

high

silicon

area

occupied

Single
-
chip

antennas

integrated

on

MMIC

or

SOI

technology

recently

proposed

in

literature

for

60

GHz

and

77

GHz

(few

dB

gain)





useful

only

for

short
-
range

applications

and/or

using

special

dielectric

lens

antenna

or

smart

resonator

to

improve

the

characteristics

Integrated antenna for RADAR systems

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Integrated antenna for RADAR systems

FMCW

RADARs

use

separate

TX

and

RX

antennas


Pulsed

RADARs

can

use

the

same

antenna

in

time
-
division

for

TX/RX


By

using

an

antenna

array,

a

RADAR

scanning

effect

can

be

obtained,

by

realizing

beam
-
forming

in

the

analog

domain

(phase

shifters)

or

in

the

digital

domain

(digital

beam
-
forming)


Unlike

beam
-
forming,

which

presumes

a

high

correlation

between

signals

either

transmitted

or

received

by

an

array,

the

Multiple
-
Input

Multiple
-
Output

(MIMO)

concept

exploits

the

independence

between

signals

at

the

array

elements

to

improve

detection

performance


In

conventional

single
-
antenna

RADAR

target

scattering

is

regarded

as

a

parameter

that

degrades

performance

while

MIMO

RADAR

takes

the

opposite

view

capitalizing

target

scattering

to

improve

performance

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

LTCC
-
integrated antenna example

LTCC
-
integrated example of CW
-
radar antenna +transceiver for near
-
field high
accuracy measures in industrial scenarios
(C.
Rusch

et al., IEEE EuCAP’11)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Example of PCB
-
integrated antenna for

77 GHz automotive RADAR

Based

on

the

FMCW

principle,

4

77

GHz

single

microstrip

patch

antennas

combined

with

parasitic

elements

to

adjust

bandwidth

and

beam
-
width

Antenna

elements

tilted

by

45
deg

to

reduce

interference

from

coming

cars


The

antenna

elements

serve

as

feeds

for

a

further

dielectric

lens

resulting

in

four

narrow

beams

RADAR

sensor

size

of

7
.
4

x

7

x

5
.
8

cm
3

(J. Hasch et al., IEEE Tran. Micr Theory Tech, 2012)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Example on
-
chip integrated antenna for

77 GHz automotive RADAR

On
-
chip

antenna

elements

based

on

shorted

λ
/
4

microstrip

lines,

formed

by

the

top

and

bottom

metal

layers

of

the

chip

backend

Most

of

the

radiation

dissipated

due

to

conductor

and

dielectric

losses,

resulting

in

a

low

antenna

efficiency

(<
10
%
)


Quartz

glass

resonators

are

positioned

above

the

on
-
chip

patch

antenna

elements

to

improve

efficiency

and

bandwidth
.

The

antennas

are

spaced

at

a

distance

to

allow

direction

of

arrival

(DOA)

estimation

of

a

target

or

provide

separate

beams

illuminating

a

dielectric

lens

(J. Hasch et al., IEEE

Tran. Micr Theory Tech, 2012)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Performance of mm
-
Wave on
-
chip

integrated antenna

C. Person,

IEEE BCTM 2010

Antenna type

F

(GHz)

Tech

Gain

BW

(GHz)

Feeder

Imped.

4 array Dipole

77

SiGe

2

2

Differential

45Ω

Slot Dipole

24

GaAs

2

1.4

CPW

50 Ω

Zig zag

24

CMOS

1.5

N/A

N/A

30 Ω

Aperture
Coupled Patch

60

CMOS

7

7.8

Balanced

100 Ω

Dipole

60

SiGe

2.35

7

CPS

30 Ω

Slot Antenna

60

CMOS

10

5

N/A

N/A

Cavity backed
folded dipole

60

SiGe

7

18

CPS

50 Ω

Folded Dipole

60

SiGe

8

8

CPW

100 Ω

Yagi

60

SiGe

7

9.4

N/A

50 Ω

Spiral

60

CMOS
SOI

4.2

15

CPW

50 Ω

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Semiconductor material properties

III
-
V

high

mobility

devices

(GaAs,

InP,


)

suited

for

high

performance

at

high

frequencies

(electrons

rather

hole

carrier
-
based

devices)

Devices

(es
.

GaN)

with

wide

energy
-
bandgap

and

breakdown

voltage

suited

for

high

voltage

high

power

(e
.
g
.

vacuum

tube

replacement

in

high

transmitter

power

RADAR)

Si

devices

suited

for

large

volume

low
-
cost

since

dominate

baseband

analog&digital

processing

for

TLC,

Computers,

Consumer

Electronics



2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

FET vs. HBT basics

FET

(Field

Effect

transistors)

as

MOS

(Metal

Oxide

Semiconductor)

or

HEMT

(High

Electron

Mobility

transistor)

are

unipolar

devices

(single
-
carrier
:

electrons

in

HEMT

and

NMOS,

holes

in

PMOS)

while

HBT

is

bipolar

(holes

and

electrons)

HBT

and

FET

can

act

as

digital

(on/ff)

or

analog

devices

(current

generator

controlled

by

an

input

current

HBT

or

an

input

voltage

FET)

HBT

has

an

exponential

drive

characteristics

while

for

FET

is

quadratic

HBT

has

higher

transconductance

(gain)

HBT

has

a

resistive

input

impedance

while

for

FET

is

capacitive



FET

has

lower

power

consumption

in

standby

mode

FET

has

lower

noise

at

high

freq

(but

it

suffers

of

1
/f

noise

at

low

freq)

HBT

are

vertical

integrated

devices

(high

current

density)

while

low
-
power

FET

are

planar

devices

(higher

integration

density

and

easier

scaling)






2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Semiconductor technologies for RADAR
transceivers and ADC

In

highly

integrated

low
-
power

RADAR

the

vacuum
-
tube

technologies


(Traveling

Wave

Tube,

klystron,

or

magnetron,
..
)

adopted

for

high

power


high

performance

RADAR

transmitter

are

completely

avoided


Competing

technologies

are

solid

state

ones
:

-
Monolithic

microwave

integrated

circuits

(MMIC)

in

compound

III
-
V

semiconductors

such

as

GaAs,

In
-
P

using

High

Electron

Mobility

FET

Transistors

(HEMT)

-
For

power

amplifier

interest

on

GaN

and

SiC

is

increasing

-
SiGe

HBT

(hetero
-
junction

bipolar

transistor)

or

BiCMOS

(bipolar
-
MOS)

IC

-
Si

CMOS

(N
-

and

P
-

MOS)

technologies

IC

-
CMOS

SOI

(Silicon

on

Insulator)

IC



2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Competing technologies

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

F
T

Gain/NF
ratio

Cost

Power

Consumption

Suited for

BJT

High

High

Medium

High

Analog, RF

CMOS

Medium

Medium

Low

Low

Digital

BiCMOS

High

High

Medium

Medium

Analog, RF,

mixed
-
signal

HEMT

Very High

High

High

Medium

mm
-
wave

Competing technologies

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

State of the art and trends in RADAR design


III
-
V

MMIC

(Monolithic

Microwave

Integrated

Circuit)

for

radio/RADAR

at

high

frequencies

developed

since

70
’s
-
80
’s

(dedicated

US

funding

programs

for

MMIC

tech)

MMIC

are

now

a

mature

technology,

offering

for

analog

circuitry

(active

and

passive

components)

at

microwaves

and

mm
-
Waves

best

in

class

performances

(max

Ft,

NF

and

gain

of

LNA,

gain

and

Psat

of

the

PA)

MMIC

dominates

high
-
end

transceivers

from

tens

of

GHz

to

THz

Most

of

MMIC

are

in

GaAs

technology

(automotive

RADAR

front
-
end

at

77
/
79

GHz,

60

GHz

applications,

94

GHz

imaging,

Ka
-
,

V
-
,

W
-
Radar)

100
-
nm

HEMT

GaAs

and

500
-
nm

InP

HBT

tech
.

available


III
-
V MMIC

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

State of the art and trends in RADAR design


Limits

of

poor

digital

and

mixed
-
signal

integration

capability



not

suited

for

low
-
cost,

large

volume,

digital
-
based

applications



Since

2005

III
-
V

HEMT

devices

with

Ft

(the

frequency

at

which

the

short
-
circuit

current

gain

is

1
)

of

700

GHz

are

available

Today

we

are

going

in

the

THz

domain

However

due

to

niche

market

applications,

and

higher

device

size,

the

cost

of

ICs

with

III
-
V

technologies

is

higher

than

that

of

silicon

technologies
.

While

such

cost

is

affordable

in

military

or

space

applications,

for

low
-
cost

low
-
power

civil

RADAR

applications

silicon

technologies

must

be

used




III
-
V MMIC

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

State of the art and trends in RADAR design

Si
-
based

technology

dominates

electronic

industry

for

baseband

signal

processing

and

IF

(BB

and

IF

circuitry

integrated

in

the

same

SoC)

Since

2000

Si
-
based

technologies

(SiGe

bipolar

or

CMOS)

used

for

telecom

RF

IC

(cellular

phone

transceivers,

WLAN,

Bluetooth,

UHF

wireless

sensors)

Recent

technology

scaling

proves

the

potential

of

CMOS,

CMOS

SOI

or

BICMOS

also

for

mm
-
Waves
.

Si
-
based

mm
-
wave

SoC

developed

in

recent

years

with

commercial

technologies

for

automotive

RADAR

(
24

GHz

and

now

77
/
79

GHz)

or

TLC

radio

(
60
-
GHz

short
-
range)


Technologies
:

SiGe

BiCMOS

130

nm,

180

nm
;

CMOS/CMOS

SOI

130

nm,

90

nm,

65

nm,

45

nm,

32

nm,

28

nm
;

FDSOI

at

28

nm

and

smaller


SiGe

BiCMOS

130

nm,

180

nm

or

CMOS

90

nm,

65

nm

used

for

RADAR


Si
-
based IC

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

In

RADAR

design

HBT

are

more

suited

for

high
-
frequency

analog

circuitry

ensuring

higher

gain

and

cut
-
off

frequency,

lower

Noise

Figure

(NF)

MOSFET

are

more

suited

for

the

base
-
band

DSP

due

to

lower

power

consumption,

easier

device

scaling,

higher

integration

levels,

lower

cost


SiGe

BiCMOS

(Bipolar

Complementary

MOS)

allows

the

co
-
integration

of

BJT

for

high
-
frequency

applications

and

MOS

devices

for

digital

circuits

although

at

higher

cost

At

the

state

of

the

art

the

SiGe

BiCMOS

technology,

with

130

nm

transistors

channel

length

and

an

Ft

of

230

GHz,

offers

a

good

trade
-
off

between

cost

and

performance

for

single
-
chip

mm
-
wave

RADAR

transceivers
.

Several

transceivers

at

24
,

77
,

90
,

120

GHz

have

been

proposed

in

literature

using

SiGe

BiCMOS

technology

MOSFET, HBT and BiCMOS for RADAR design

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

MOS technology dominates DSP logic

M. Bhor, IEEE
ISSCC0’9

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

MOS technology dominates memory

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Thanks to technology scaling

CMOS becomes suitable also for mm
-
waves

For

future,

for

large

volume

applications

(
60

GHz

radio,

RADAR?)

the

trend

will

be

using

CMOS

also

for

mm
-
wave

circuits
.

As

an

effect

of

device

scaling

a

Ft

higher

than

150

GHz

can

be

obtained

Realizing

a

mm
-
wave

transceiver

in

scaled

CMOS

technology,

as

baseband

DSP,

entails

a

lower

area,

higher

integration

and

lower

cost

for

large

volume

markets

but

also

lower

performance

vs
.

130
nm

BiCMOS

SiGe

tech

Huei Wang , IEEE SIRF 2010

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Technology benchmark
-

oscillator

Oscillator

phase

noise

(at

1

MHz

from

the

carrier)

vs
.

operating

frequency


in

mm
-
wave

bands

in

various

technologies










CMOS has comparable performance up to 70 GHz


A. Scavennec et al.,

IEEE Microwave Mag. 2009

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Technology benchmark
-

oscillator

Oscillator

output

power

(
0

dBm=
1

mW)

vs
.

operating

frequency

in

mm
-

wave

bands

in

various

technologies









III
-
V

devices

have

best

in

class

performance,

up

to

several

hundreds

of


GHz,

CMOS

realizable

within

100

GHz

but

at

lower

performance





A. Scavennec et al.,

IEEE Microwave Mag. 2009

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Technology benchmark


Power amplifier

On
-
chip

mm
-
wave

Power

Amplifier

is

a

big

issue

in

CMOS

technology

considering

that

from

RADAR

equation

the

range

capability

heavily

depends

on

transmitted

power

levels


A. Scavennec et al.,

IEEE Microwave Mag. 2009

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Summary of GaAs vs. Si
-
based transceivers

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

SiGe


processes from different vendors

Most offers bipolars and FET and passive components

(J. Hasch et al., IEEE

Tran. Micr Theory Tech, 2012)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

SiGe


Ft vs.
Ic

Technology

evolution

allows

for

higher

ft

at

a

given

current

or

the

same

ft

for

lower

current
:

this

reduces

power

consumption,

power

supply

and

thermal

issues

reducing

size

and

cost

and

increasing

reliability

in

harsh

environments

(J. Hasch et al., IEEE

Tran. Micr Theory Tech, 2012)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

SiGe


Power Amplifier capability

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

SiGe vs. CMOS vs. III
-
V technologies

For applications at mm
-
Wave bands lower NF expected for SiGe and CMOS
hence the same performance available with lower transmit power and hence
small size and lower costs


Source: International technology Roadmap for semiconductors (ITRS)

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

CMOS capability
-

LNA (Gain)

State
-
of
-
art

designs

up

to

10
-
20

GHz

in

CMOS

technology

have

good

performances
:

gain

higher

than

20

dB

At

higher

frequencies

the

performances

start

decreasing
.


Around

77

GHz

(W
-
band)

acceptable

but

non

optimal

performance

are

achieved

today

(gain

lower

than

20

dB)

10

15

20

25

1

10

100

F (GHz)

Gain, dB
-

CMOS LNA

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

CMOS capability
-

LNA (NF)

State
-
of
-
art

designs

up

to

10
-
20

GHz

in

CMOS

technology

have

optimal

performances
:

NF

lower

than

4

dB


At

higher

frequencies

the

performances

start

decreasing

Around

77

GHz

(W

band)

acceptable

but

non

optimal

performance

are

achieved

today

(NF

higher

than

4

dB)

0

2

4

6

8

10

1

10

100

F (GHz)

NF, dB
-

CMOS LNA

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

CMOS capability
-

PA

At

frequencies

of

few

GHz

an

integrated

PA

up

to

1

W

peak

power

is

possible

The

peak

power

of

integrated

PA

decreases

with

frequency

At

high

frequency

(
77

GHz

or

higher,

W

band

)

the

peak

power

is

<

10

dBm

(
10

mW)

Only

short

range

applications

are

possible

with

high

duty

cycle

or

external

off
-
chip

PA

are

needed


0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

1

10

100

1000

F (GHz)

Pout TX, dBm
-

CMOS PA

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Issues in Si
-
based transceivers

Another

issue

in

Si
-
based

transceivers

is

the

design

of

low
-
losses

passive


components

such

as

CoPlanar

Stripline

or

Waveguides

(CPS/CPW)


At

mm
-
Wave

frequencies,

due

to

very

short

wavelength,

the

antenna

integration

is

possible

but

low

efficiency

and

low

gain

are

main

concerns



Solution


浩杲慴楯n



协S

t散e湯汯杩敳

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

CPW, CPS and Antenna In CMOS SOI



In

SOI

technology

the

high

resistivity

of

the

substrate

on

which

n
-

and

p
-
MOSFET

are

created

allows

dielectric

isolation

of

circuit

elements


Junction

capacitances

are

reduced

increasing

maximum

operating

freq

Reduced

noise

coupling

between

digital
-
analog

parts

integrated

in

the

same

chip

The

performances

of

CPS,

CPW

or

antennas

in

SOI

CMOS

are

improved

due

to

a

reduced

amount

of

energy

loss

in

the

supporting

substrate

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Incidence of substrate resistivity on achievable radiation efficiency and gain

(bulk 20
Ω
/
cm, SOI > 1000
Ω
/
cm)

Integrated antenna in CMOS SOI

F. Gianesello,

IEEE SOI 2010

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Quality factors of inductance in CMOS SOI

F. Gianesello, IEEE SOI 2010

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

CMOS SOI useful also for high speed digital
applications vs. bulk CMOS

P. Simonen, IEEE IMC 2001

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Single
-
chip

integrated

antennas

on

65

nm

CMOS

SOI

recently

proposed

in

literature
:

a

double
-
slot

antenna

with

CPW

feed,

tunable

to

operate

in

different

mm
-
wave

frequencies

has

been

proposed

with

a

gain

of

4
.
4

dB

(at

60

GHz)

and

an

area

occupation

of

1

mm
2


Antenna in CMOS SOI

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Antenna in CMOS SOI

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

ADC


main cost figures

The

ADC

is

gaining

a

key

role

in

RADAR

systems

due

to

trend

of

digitization


of

the

signal

processing

functionalities


Main

cost

figures

of

interest

are
:

Bits

(Effective

number

of

bits


ENOB
-

rather

than

nominal

bits)

Sampling

frequency,

Number

of

channels


Integral

and

Differential

Non

Linearity

(INL,

DNL)

Signal
-
to
-
Noise

and

Distortion

Ratio

(SNDR)

Spurious

Free

Dynamic

Range

(SFDR)

Aperture

uncertainty


Area,

power

consumption






2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

ADC


RADAR requirements

RADAR

architectures

may

require

ADC

operating

at

intermediate

frequency

and

not

only

at

base

band

frequency
:

sampling

rates

up

to

tens,

or

even

hundreds,

of

MS/s

can

be

required

in

highly

digitized

RADAR

The

number

of

ADC

channels

depends

on

the

system

architecture

(
1

or

2

for

I
-
Q

for

each

of

the

K

RADAR

channels,

e
.
g
.

4

in

last

LRR

automotive

Bosch

RADAR)


The

bit

resolution

is

typically

higher

than

10

b,

e
.
g
.

a

nominal

14
b

-
16

b

required

for

12

b
-
14

b

ENOB

(at

least

70

dB

dynamic

range)

Specs

on

non

linearity

and

aperture

uncertainty

ta

depends,

together

with

ENOB

bits

N,

also

on

the

required

SNR

level






2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

Comparing performance of different
architecture types

L . Bin et al.,
IEEE Signal Proc. Mag., 2005

Absolute

data

not

updated

(see

next

slide)

but

useful

relative

architecture

comparison


2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

ADC


Performance available (2011)

M. Mishali et al. IEEE Signal Proc. Mag. 2011

2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

ADC


Conclusions

ADC

sampling

at

several

GS/s

available

but

too
-
high

power

consumption

per

channel

and

too

low

bit

resolution

for

typical

RADAR

dynamic

range

and

SNR

requirements



Mixer

is

needed,

full
-
digital

RADAR

is

not

convenient

IF

ADC

can

reach

the

required

bit

resolution

and

sampling

rate

with

good

power

performance

(e
.
g
.

100

MS/s,

16
-
b

nominal

at

least

14

ENOB)

with

power

consumption

within

hundreds

of

mW


Pipelines

or

time
-
interleaved

SAR

can

be

suited

architectures



Figure

of

Merit

(FoM)

in

scaled

CMOS

technologies

can

be

in

the

range

fJ

to

pJ

per

conversion
-
step











2012 IEEE Radar Conference, May 7
-
11, Atlanta

RADAR Technologies


Recent Bibliography

J. Hasch et al., Millimeter
-
Wave Technology for Automotive Radar Sensors in the 77 GHz
Frequency Band, IEEE Tran. Micr. Theory and Tech, 2012

T
.

Mitomo

et

al
.
,

A

77

GHz

90

nm

CMOS

transceiver

for

FMCW

radar

applications,

IEEE

J
.

Solid
-
State

Circuits

2010

Y
.
-
A
.

Li

et

al
.
,

A

fully

integrated

77

GHz

FMCW

radar

transciever

in

65

nm

CMOS,

technology,

IEEE

J
.

Solid
-
State

Circuits

2010

W
.

Menxel

et

al
.
,

Antenna

Concepts

for

Millimeter
-
Wave

Automotive

Radar

Sensors,

Proceedings

of

the

IEEE,

2012

V
.

Giammello

et

al
.
,

A

Transformer
-
Coupling

Current
-
Reuse

SiGe

HBT

Power

Amplifier

for

77
-
GHz

Automotive

Radar,

accepted

on

IEEE

Tran
.

Micr
.

Theory

and

Tech
.

B
.

Neri,

S
.

Saponara,

Advances

in

Technologies,

Architectures

and

Applications

of

Highly
-
Integrated

Low
-
power

Radars,

IEEE

Aerospace

Electr
.

Syt
.

Mag
.

2012

B
.

Brannon

et

al
.
,

Analog

devices

AN
-
501
,Aperture

Uncertainty

and

ADC

System

Performance


M
.

Mishali

et

al
.
,

Sub
-
nyquist

sampling,

IEEE

Signal

Proc
.

Mag
.

2011

L

.

Bin,

et

al
.
,

Analog
-
to
-
digital

converters,

IEEE

Signal

Proc
.

Mag
.
,

2005

P
.

Harpe

et

al
.
,

A

7
-
to
-
10
b

0
-
to
-
4
MS/s

Flexible

SAR

ADC

with