Search Engine Optimization

pancakeimpossibleInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

18 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Software Engineering


October 5, 2011

Frank Takes (ftakes@liacs.nl)

LIACS, Leiden University

Search Engine Optimization

Overview


Search Engines


Search Engine Optimization


Google PageRank


Social Media


Search Engine Marketing


Tools


Take
-
Aways

Search Engines


Content (
text
, images, video, locations, ...)


Biggest referrer on the internet


Organic and paid results


Browser integration


Desktop & Mobile


Spiders


Google, Yahoo, Bing




Search Engines

July 2011
-

http://www.clickymedia.co.uk/2011/07/search
-
engine
-
market
-
share/


Ranking


Higher is better


Ranking is roughly based on:

A.
Content

B.
Incoming links

C.
User/Local preferences

D.
Rewards

E.
Punishments


Exact formula unknown

seomoz.org/beginners
-
guide
-
to
-
seo


Eye tracking studies performed at Cornell
University by Laura A. Granka, Thorsten
Joachims and Geri Cay.

Online Marketing


E
-
mail marketing


Paid advertisement


Social media marketing


Viral marketing


Search Engine Marketing (SEM)


Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search Engine Optimization


"
Search engine optimization (SEO)

is the
process of improving the visibility of a website
or a web page in search engines via the
"natural" or un
-
paid ("organic" or
"algorithmic") search results."


Wikipedia


White hat

vs. Black hat


On
-
page

vs.
Off
-
page


SEO is an investment


Search Engine Optimization


SEO Cycle:

1.
Measure

(access logs, error logs, Analytics,
keywords, queries, indexes, competitors, ...)

2.
Analyze & Evaluate

3.
Set goals
(higher ranking, be found on certain
keywords, increase Google PageRank, ...)

4.
Improve & Maintain

5.
Submission & Recrawl

6.
Goto
1.

Search Engine Optimization


Technical Optimization


HTTP/File level


HTML


Content Optimization


HTML


Textual


Link Optimization


Google PageRank


Internal & External links


Technical Optimization


Catchy domain name:

www.cheap
-
productX.com


Simple URL:


www.domain.com/simple
-
page
-
name


HTTP (error) codes

200

= OK,
301

= moved permanently,

404

= not found


Separate
content

(HTML, XML, RSS, ...) from
layout/code

(CSS, Javascript, ...)


Remove stylesheet and see how the page looks


Write
valid

(X)HTML



HTML
<head>

tags


Meta
-
information about your page for browsers and
crawlers


<html
lang
="en"> ... </html>


<
title
>Contact


MyCompany</
title
>

Should be unique, short and with the site name last


Provide alternate versions of your document:

<
link

rel="alternate" hreflang="en"
href="/english" />


Various
<meta>
tags:
<meta name="
tag
-
name
"
content="
tag
-
content
" />


HTML
<meta>

tags


charset
:
ä

or
&auml;

or
&#228;


UTF
-
8
,
ISO
-
8891
,
Unicode
, etc.


keywords
:


generic or niche?


relevant to business


relevant to searchers


description
: ~160 characters for exact
display in search engines


robots
: page crawling and link following (also:
robots.txt

file)



HTML
<head>

tags

HTML
<head>

tags

<
title
>Leiden University</
title
>

<meta http
-
equiv="content
-
type" content="text/html;
charset
=utf
-
8"/>

<meta name="
Keywords
" content= "leiden, masters,
university, study, studeren, studie, student,
studenten, ......" />

<meta name="
Description
" content="Leiden University
offers outstanding international students an
intellectually exciting learning environment with
high academic standards. Rather than concentrating
on knowledge transfer, the focus is on debate and
critical thinking whereby students' abilities to
think independently is greatly stimulated." />


Keywords


Top 10 keywords in 2010 in the Netherlands

HTML
<body>

optimizations


No inline style
-
tags or style
-
attributes!


Use
id

and
class

attributes & CSS


Make use of
<h1>
,
<h2>
, ...
<h6>

and
<p>


Use
<strong>
and
<em>
(preferably over
<b>

and
<i>
, and avoid
<u>

completely)


Use alternate texts for images


<img src="us.jpg"
alt
="Group photo" />


Rich links


<a href="/edu"
hreflang
="nl">...</a>


<a href="page2"
rel
="next">...</a>




rel

attribute


alternate
: designates substitute


With
lang

attribute: a translated version


stylesheet
: external style sheet


start
: refers to the first document in a collection


next
: refers to the next document in an ordered
sequence of documents


prev
: refers to the previous document in an ordered
sequence of documents


contents/
toc
:

refers to a document serving as a
table of contents.

HTML 5


SEO
-
friendly tags


<nav>


<header>


<footer>


<section>


<article>


<figcaption>


Better semantics

<audio
> and <
video>

instead of <
object>



Content


Good content

is...


Relevant


Original


Fresh


Structured


Keyword
-
rich




Correct


Sharable


Local


Endorsed



Don'ts


Hidden text or tiny text


Keyword stacking or stuffing


Overuse non
-
related keywords


Duplicate pages


Duplicate content


"Click here" links


Content in Flash


Website with Frames


Search Engine Optimization


Technical
Optimization


HTTP/File level


HTML


Content Optimization


HTML


Textual


Link Optimization


Internal / External


Inbound / Outbound


Link Optimization


More incoming links = higher ranking


Internal & External links


Ignoring certain links:

<a
href
="http://www.fb.com"
rel
="
nofollow
"
>


Ranking algorithms:


Hyperlink
-
Induced Topic Search


HITS


(Kleinberg, 1999)


PageRank

(Page, 1999)


Google PageRank

Google PageRank


4 webpages
A
,
B
,
C

and
D
(
N = 4
)


Initially:
PR(A) = PR(B) = PR(C) = PR(D) = 1/N


L(A)
is the outdegree of page A


Now if
B
,
C

and
D

each link to
A
, the simple
PageRank
PR(A)

of a page
A

is equal to:

Google PageRank

A

A

B

B

C

C

D

D

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

B

B

C

C

D

D

0.458

0.083

0.208


0

A

A

Google PageRank


PageRank

as suggested by Larry Page in 1999


N
= number of pages,
p
i

and
p
j

are pages


M(p
i
)
is the set of pages linking to
p
i


L(p
j
)
is the
outdegree of
p
j


d
=
0.85,

85% chance to follow a
link, 15
% chance
to jump to a
random
page
(
random surfer)


t = 0



t = t + 1



External Link Optimization


Gain incoming links from high
-
ranked and
relevant websites:


Regular websites


Portals, indexes


Social media


Have relevant text in and around the links to
your website


Track your backlinks: www.backlinkwatch.com


PageRank Hunters


I received the following e
-
mail regarding one
of my PageRank 4 websites:

PageRank Hunters

Internal Link Optimization


Main navigation on landing page


Keep old pages alive (age counts!)


Use redirects with proper HTML response codes


Use
ref="nofollow"

where needed


Cross
-
linking within your website


No splash page(s)


(XML) Sitemap


seomoz.org/beginners
-
guide
-
to
-
seo

Hier gebleven


Social Media


"Social Media

is

use of web
-
based (and mobile)
technologies to turn communication into an
interactive dialogue."


Wikipedia


Facebook
, Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn, blogs, …


Relevant for SEO:


Gain
links

from social media platforms


Make it easy to
share

content


Make it easy to have users
contribute

content


Manage and measure your online
reputation


Viral Marketing

Social Media

Search Engine Marketing


Search Engine Marketing
(SEM)


Paid results


Target specific devices, languages, countries,
regions, or even cities.


Google Adwords


Extensive measurement options


Advertise on search engine and on websites


"Bidding" to get your ad shown



SEO vs. SEM

Search Engine Optimization


More permanent


Long
-
term investment that
with long
-
term benefits


Initial setup investment is
higher.


Requires more patience


Requires more “know
-
how”


Creates an online presence


Makes you the authority on
a topic



Search Engine Marketing


No permanence


A cost rather than an
investment


Lower initial cost threshold


Fast Results


Requires very little
background knowledge


Does nothing to brand you
as the authority


Highly Targeted Traffic



Billy Howard
-

DeepSci.com/
RENPrez

Google Tools


Analytics
: extensive website statistics


Trends
: what are people searching for?


Insights for Search
: helps find keywords


Webmaster Tools
: track your website's keywords,
sitemap, links, errors, crawling statistics, etc.


Page Speed
: how quickly does your page load?


Places
: add your business to Google Maps etc.


Adwords
: search engine marketing


Conclusions


SEO = Technique + Content + Links.


Technical optimization is more than defining
keywords in a meta
-
tag.


Content has to be relevant, fresh, original,
structured and keyword
-
rich.


SEO is a sustainable way of doing online
marketing.


Keep Google happy.


The End

References


A. Langville and C. Meyer,
PageRank and Beyond
,
Princeton University Press, 2006.


L. Page, S.
Brin
, R.
Motwani
, and T.
Winograd
,
The
PageRank

Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the
Web
, Technical Report, Stanford Digital Library
Technologies Project, 1999.


J.M. Kleinberg,
Authoritative Sources in a
Hyperlinked Environment
, Journal of the ACM
46(5):604

632, 1999.


http://www.liacs.nl/~ftakes/pdf/seo.pdf
(this file)