Medical Informatics Basics

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Medical Informatics
Basics

Lection 1

Basic Questions

Medical Informatics Definition

Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area

Medical Informatics Areas

Aspects of the
Medical Informatics

field
s

Clinical informatics

Biomedical informatics

Bioinformatics

Public health informatics

Nursing informatics

Dental informatics

Medical Cybernetics

Information Systems examples

1. Medical Informatics (A)


Medical information science is the science
of using system
-
analytic tools . . . to
develop procedures (algorithms) for
management, process control, decision
making and scientific analysis of medical
knowledge.


(E.H. Shortliffe, The science of biomedical computing.
Medical Informatics

1984;9:185
-
93.)

1. Medical Informatics (B)


Medical Informatics comprises the
theoretical and practical aspects of
information processing and
communication, based on knowledge and
experience derived from processes in
medicine and health care.



(J.H. van Bemmel, The structure of medical informatics.
Medical Informatics

1984;9:175
-
80.)

1. Medical Informatics (C)


In medical informatics we develop and
assess methods and systems for the
acquisition, processing, and interpretation
of patient data with the help of knowledge
that is obtained in scientific research.


(J.H. van Bemmel and M.A. Musen,
Handbook of Medical
Informatics
, Springer Verlag, 1997.)

1. Medical Informatics (D)


It i
s the intersection of
information
science
,
computer science

and
health
care
. It deals with the resources, devices
and methods required to optimize the
acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of
information in health and biomedicine
.


(Wikipedia, 2008.)

1. The Informatics


Informatics (academic field),

a broad
academic field encompassing human
-
computer
interaction, information science, information
technology, algorithms, and social science


Computer science,

the study of complex systems,
information and computation using applied
mathematics, electrical engineering and software
engineering techniques.


Information science,

the study of the processing,
management, and retrieval of information

Information technology,

the study, design,
development, implementation, support, or
management of computer
-
based information
systems

1. Medical Informatics is
Multidisciplinary

It is applies methodologies developed in
multiple areas of scientific endeavor to
many different tasks

In turn, it often gives rise to new, more
general methodologies that enrich these
scientific disciplines

1. Medical Informatics is
Multidisciplinary

2. Example of Scientific Areas
Relevant to Medical Informatics

Medicine/ Biology

Mathematics

Information Systems

Computer Science

Statistics

Decision Analysis

Economics/Health Care Policy

Psychology

2. Example of Scientific Areas
Relevant to Medical Informatics

2. The Diagnostic
-
Therapeutic
Cycle, Simplified View

Patient

1.Data collection
:

-
History

-
Physical examinations

-
Laboratory and other tests

2.Decision

making

3.Planning

Information

Diagnosis/assessment

Therapy plan

Data

2. Levels of Automated Support

3. Examples of Medical Informatics Areas

Hospital information systems


Electronic medical records & medical vocabularies


Laboratory information systems


Pharmaceutical information systems


Radiological (imaging) information systems


Patient monitoring systems

Clinical decision
-
support systems


Diagnosis/interpretation


Therapy/management

Bioinformatics
: Closely related tasks/methods

3. Examples of Medical Informatics Areas

4.
Aspects of the
Medical Informatics

field
s

A
rchitectures for
electronic medical records

and
other health information systems

Decision support systems

in healthcare,
including
clinical decision support systems


S
tandards (e.g.
DICOM
,
HL7
) and
integration

profiles to facilitate the exchange of information
between
healthcare information systems

Controlled

medical vocabularies (
CMV
s) such as
the
Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine,
Clinical Terms (
SNOMED CT
)
,

used to allow a
standard, accurate
exchange

of data content
between systems

4.
Aspects of the
Medical Informatics

field
s

5. Clinical informatics

It
is a sub
-
field of
medical informatics
.

It
is a combination of
information
science
,
computer science
, and
clinical
science

designed to assist in the
management and processing of data,
information and knowledge to support the
practice and delivery of clinical care
.


(
Shortliffe and Perreault, Medical Informatics: Computing
applications in health care and biomedicine
)

6. Biomedical informatics


It

is concerned with the study and
application of
information technology

and
computer science

as well as
decision making, human problem solving,
cognitive science, standards, policies, and
human factors in the practice of
biomedical science
,
medicine

and
healthcare

and is most commonly used in
this way in the USA
.

7. Bioinformatics


Bioinformatics

and
computational
biology

involve the use of techniques
including
applied mathematics
,
informatics
,
statistics
,
computer science
,
artificial intelligence
,
chemistry
, and
biochemistry

to solve
biological

problems
usually on the
molecular

level
.

8. Public Health Informatics

Public Health Informatics

has been

defined as the systematic application of
information and
computer science

and
technology to
public health

practice,
research, and learning
.

Major tasks:

Collection of public health data
.

Storage of public health data
.

Analysis of public health data
.

9. Nursing informatics (A)


It is
a specialty of
Health care
informatics

which deals with the support
of
nursing

by
information systems

in
delivery, documentation, administration
and evaluation of patient care and
prevention of diseases.



(Wikipedia, 2008)

9. Nursing informatics (B)


It
is a specialty that integrates
nursing
science, computer science
, and
information science

to manage and
communicate data, information, and
knowledge in nursing practice.



(
American Nurses Association's Scope and Standards
for Nursing Informatics Practice
,

2006
)

10. Dental informatics


Dental informatics

is the application of computer
and information science to improve dental
practice, research, education and management.

It can be considered a subset of
medical
informatics

and
biomedical informatics
.

It improves patient care by improving efficiency
and effectiveness in different areas of a common
dental practice:

administration;

clinical care;

charting records;

patient education.

11. Medical Cybernetics

Cybernetics

is the interdisciplinary study of the
structure of
complex systems
, especially
communication processes
,
control mechanisms

and
feedback principles
. Cybernetics is closely
related to
control theory

and
systems theory
.

Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not
limited to:
learning, cognition, adaption, social
control, emergence, communication, efficiency,
efficacy

and
interconnectivity
. These concepts are
studied by other subjects such as engineering and
biology, but in cybernetics these are removed from
the context of the individual organism or device.

11. Medical Cybernetics

Pure cybernetics

studies systems of control as a concept,
attempting to discover the basic principles underlying
such things as:

Artificial intelligence

Robotics

Computer Vision

Control systems

Emergence

Learning organization

Computer science

directly applies the concepts of
cybernetics to the control of devices and the analysis of
information.

Decision support system

Cellular automaton

Simulation

11. Medical Cybernetics

Cybernetics in biology is the study of cybernetic
systems present in biological organisms,
primarily focusing on how animals adapt to their
environment, and how information in the form of
genes is passed from generation to generation:

Bioengineering

Biocybernetics

Bionics

Homeostasis

Medical cybernetics

Synthetic Biology

11. Medical Cybernetics

Medical Cybernetics

is a field of applied cybernetics
which utilizes the concepts of cybernetics to medical
research and practice. It covers an emerging working
program for the application of systems
-

and
communications
-
theory, connectionism and decision
theory on biomedical research and health related
questions.

Topics
:

Systems Theory

in medical sciences

(searching for
and modelling of physiological dynamics).

Medical information and Communication Theory

(mathematically describe signalling processes and
information storage in different physiological layers)



Connectionism

(
describe information processing in
neural networks
)

Medical Decision Theory

(gather evidence based
foundations for decision making in the clinical setting

)

12. Information systems


example

Electronic health record (EHR) with image and document links.


12. Information systems


example

Sample patient record view from an image
-
based electronic health record
(VistA).

12. Information systems


example

12. Information systems


example

A PACS allows to store volumic exams and to reconstruct 3D
images

Conclusion

Medical Informatics Definition

Medical Informatics as the Scientific Area

Medical Informatics Areas

Aspects of the
Medical Informatics

field
s

Clinical informatics

Biomedical informatics

Bioinformatics

Public health informatics

Nursing informatics

Dental informatics

Medical Cybernetics

Information Systems examples