Final Technical Report

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Final Technical Report

IV Latin American Course on Bioinformatics for Tropical Disease
Research

January 16
th
-
28
th
, 2006


http://tdr.icb.usp.br/tdr/2005/


COURSE OBJECTIVES


The main objective of this course w
as to teach the participants how to effectively use
bioinformatics tools to exploit genome sequences of pathogens and to accelerate research in
Tropical Diseases. The workshops presented, in addition to the available Internet tools, the
Linux operating sys
tem, Linux command line tools, some computer science theoretical
background, and notions of
P
erl programming, in order to prepare the participants to manage
also high
-
throughput analysis. Another important goal of the course was to promote the
interaction
of researchers within Latin America for information exchange and long
-
term
development projects.


TRAINEES


The course had 20 participants from Latin America, of which
18

had expertise in
Tropical Diseases and 2 had a strong background on computer science.

In addition, we had 2
extra trainees at no expense to the budget assigned by TDR. A complete list of selected
participants is attached at the end of this document.


SELECTION CRITERIA




Participants were selected with a policy of creating a group with th
e highest research
impact as possible. In this direction, utmost importance was given to a research curriculum
related to tropical diseases, seniority in the research institution, experience with
bioinformatics and letters of recommendation. An additional
concern was to distribute
geographically the participants, provided the previous criteria of academic and research
excellence were not denied. Eight participants were selected from Brazil and twelve from
other countries of Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia
, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico,
Peru and Venezuela) in accordance with what was originally stated in the course proposal.


The selection committee was composed by Dr. Dinesh Gupta (ICGEB), Dr. Worachart
Sirawaraporn (Mahidol University), Mr. Chuong Hy
unh (NCBI), Dr. Alan Durham and Dr.
Arthur Gruber (Course Coordinators). Unfortunately, the evaluation of Dr. Dinesh Gupta did
not arrive on time and was not used. The forms used by the committee were based on the
forms we used to evaluate candidate in the

previous years. A copy of the evaluation sheet is
available on the CD
-
ROM annexed in this report. Each candidate was awarded a point for
each time he/she appeared on each evaluator' s top 24 scores. After this, an extra point was
awarded for each candidat
e that appeared on each evaluator's “must be” list (each evaluator
indicated the candidates which, irrespective of his/her score, would be a good addition for the
course on an overall evaluation).

The acceptance of an unusually high number of candidates
from Argentina and
Colombia was supported by their curricula and by the fact that they were chosen from distinct
research institutions, improving geographical coverage. The low acceptance of candidates
from Peru can be attributed to candidates with much le
ss research experience than the ones
from other countries.

The selection of the Brazilian participants followed the same criteria of curriculum and
geographical distribution. There were 7 candidates selected from 4 different states of Brazil.

A detailed

table summarizing the geographical distribution of all applicants and
selected participants is attached to this report.


COURSE PROGRAM


The course comprised 106 hours distributed as follows. (A) Computer science
fundamentals (23%); (B) Conferences (4%);

(C) Data mining
-
lectures and practical
workshops (51%); (D) Free lab time for projects and study (16%), (E) Project presentations,
student introduction, closing ceremony (6%). The complete schedule of the course as well as
other information is available

at:

http://tdr.icb.usp.br/tdr/2005


The conferences were open and freely attended by non
-
participants, whereas
workshops were restricted to participants of the course.

This year the total number of hours of t
he course was increased by one day (9 hours).
The goal was to give the students more time to work on their final project, and also to give
them the opportunity to visit local research laboratories in case they were interested in future
cooperation. At this

time, it is too early to evaluate the impact of the visits, but the quality of
the projects was noticeably higher than last year.



Module 1: Computer Science Fundamentals



The Computer Science Fundamentals module aimed to provide essential concepts of
Computer Science. The final goal was twofold:


1.

To provide the participants with basic skills to improve their productivity into day
-
to
-
day
small tasks such as converting files, assembling scripts for implementing small genome
analysis pipelines using avai
lable software, understanding a database schema and building
simple queries.

2.

To give the participants a basic understanding on Computer Science research.


In this spirit, it was important to present lectures with structured information and to provide
work
shops with hands
-
on experience. As a consequence, lectures in this module were taught
at a special classroom that provided one computer for each student.


The module was divided in 3 sub
-
modules, each taught by a member of the faculty of the
Computer Scie
nce Department:


1.

Unix fundamentals and tools (Dr. Marco Dimas Gubitoso, Dr. Alan Durham): the
Linux/Unix operating systems, the Unix shell, the Emacs configurable editor, security in
Unix (user accounts, file permissions), basic Unix utilities (find, grep,

diff), redirecting
input and output, using pipes, using the command line efficiently. Duration: 12 hours.

2.

Basic Perl programming (Dr. Alan Durham): introduction to the programming paradigm,
notions of algorithm complexity, basic Perl commands (reading, pr
inting, arithmetic
expressions), conditional commands, loop commands, regular expressions (with emphasis
on their use also to describe protein motifs), searching for a pattern, substituting patterns
in text, loops, using files. Duration: 12 hours.

3. Int
roduction to databases, their design and query (Dr. João Eduardo Ferreira): what is a
Database and why is it necessary, the basics of database structure and design,
understanding a database design description, querying a database with the SQL la
nguage.
Duration: 4 hours.



In this module classes were mostly interactive, and the students worked individually in
their assignments, each one in his/her own computer, assisted by the instructors. The slow and
introductory approach proved to be a correct

one. From the evaluations handed out in class it
was clear that the students found the module important and helpful.


This year we increased the course load of Linux fundamentals, as it was our
perception that in previous years, lack of practice with th
e system was impairing the students'
performance on the other workshops. In our perception this was a very successful
modification, as the students seemed much more at ease in the use of the computer systems
throughout the course.
However it was also noted

that the duration of the
P
erl module would
ideally be longer. Considering the time limitations of the course, this was not possible.


Module 2: Datamining and Genome Annotation



The goal of this module was to provide an extensive overview of the tools f
reely
available for supporting genome sequence analyses. The module followed the same scheme as
last year, and included one new workshop:
EST

Clustering. Last year's “3D modeling and
epitope mapping” workshop was replaced by the workshops entitled “Protein

Architecture”
and “Comparative Modelling for Proteins”. The workshops were organized to sequentially
cover the path from sequencing to genome annotation, in order to facilitate the understanding
of each step.



Workshop contents


Phred/Phrap/Consed (Arth
ur Gruber)


The first part of this sub
-
module comprised a lecture on the package
Phred/Phrap/Consed, used for sequence assembly and finishing. In the second part, the
students followed a hands
-
on tutorial on how to run the package using a provided Perl scr
ipt,
and utilize Consed to inspect and edit the results.



Local and Global Alignment


A theoretical View (Alan Durham)


In this lecture students were presented to the concept of sequence alignment. The basic
local, semi
-
global and global alignment algor
ithms were explained, as well as the scope of
application of each algorithm. The need of heuristics to search large databases was explained
and the Basics of the Blast algorithm presented. Finally the importance of scoring matrices
was stressed.


Blast fr
om a biological standpoint (Arthur Gruber)


Students were introduced to the concepts of identity, similarity and homology of
biological sequences, and the relationship among these terms. The need for rapid algorithms
to perform similarity searches in large

sequence databases and the motivation for these
searches were discussed. Exact and heuristic algorithms for sequence similarity searching in
large databases were presented, including some detail on specific software packages (BLAST,
PSI
-
BLAST) and the par
ameters used in the searches. Students were introduced to scoring
matrices and their importance in similarity searching. Issues concerning statistical
significance, scores, taxonomy and common caveats were discussed.

In the practical part of this module st
udents followed a hands on tutorial and was
taught how to use NCBI’s BLAST server though the internet. Also, the students were trained
how to download data from public resources, construct local searchable databases and run
BLAST on their own computers usi
ng local command line BLAST. Students then evaluated
the results and computed time of searches with each of the 5 BLAST programs (blastn, blastx,
blastp, tblastx, tblastn). Following the exercises, a series of questions regarding theoretical
aspects of BL
AST and its parameters was discussed.


NCBI Resources (Chuong Huynh)


Chuong Huynh lecture described what is the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology
Information and the educational resources available at NCBI. The lecture also included how
to use the N
CBI Entrez databases that are all freely available to the public beginning with the
various NCBI sequence databases for primary data and derivative data, the various NCBI
genomic resources, the literature databases. The lecture concluded with a walk throug
h of the
latest genome analysis tool, i.e. NCBI Genome Workbench. The practical consisted of a self
-
study exercise on the material covered in the lecture. This included an Entrez exercises on the
global query using controlled vocabulary and limits in PubMe
d, Nucleotide (example: looking
for the zebrafish prolactin), Taxonomy, Protein (MLH1 example); developing gene models
from a genomic
-
mRNA alignment using Splign or Spidey; finding related sequences and
structures using precomputed links e.g. through BLINK

(nonredundant protein neighbouFrs);
using the NCBI Genome Resources including UniGene and Entrez Gene, MapViewer (using
genome maps); using genomic BLAST (e.g. the difference between using Megablast and
regular blastn); identifying sequences by optimizing

various parameters and matrices (e.g.
looking for short sequences such as primers or motifs versus long sequences such as
genomes); PSI
-
BLAST analysis (looking for distantly related proteins); and translating
BLAST searches and mining polymorphisms.




Protein Databases and conserved domains (Chuong Hunh)


Chuong Huynh began the session reviewing various concepts which were determined
as being confusing by the participants. This was followed by a lec
ture on the various protein
databases and how to use conserved domains and protein families in determing protein
function/categorization. During the practical session, the participants identified and
characterized sequences data from a multi
-
drug resistanc
e tuberculosis, and determined
whether sequenced bacteria was drug resistant or not and how. This provided a real world
example that many molecular diagnostics labs would find useful in their day to day practice.



EST

Clustering (Arthur Gruber)


Students
were taught a lecture on EST clustering covering cDNA library construction,
representational biases, possible contaminants, specific pipelines for processing ESTs. Also,
the differences between clustering and assembly were discussed and the several availab
le
approaches for EST clustering, including UNIGENE, StackPack and TIGR Gene Indices. The
pros and cons of each method were presented and discussed.

In the practical part of this module, students followed a hands on tutorial using TGICL
(the TIGR Gene Ind
ices Clustering Tools), one of the freely available and easy
-
to
-
use
packages for EST clustering. An example dataset was provided and the students were able to
run the program and visualize the results using TIGR’s CLVIEW program.


Multiple Alignment of Ma
cromolecular Sequences (Sérgio Matiolli)



The problem of multiple alignment of macromolecular sequences was presented as a
non trivial extension of the pairwise alignment problem. Some strategies of constructing
multiple alignment were presented, with an
emphasis on the hierarchical approach, which use
is widespread. In the practical part of the workshops students learned the use of the software
CLUSTALX.


Phylogenetic Analisis with Macromolecular Data (Sérgio Matiolli)



The problem of phylogenetic recon
struction based on macromolecular sequences was
presented in the light of the general properties of molecular evolution. Three main approaches
of phylogenetic reconstruction were addressed. The geometric basis of distance
-
based
methods was discussed. The m
aximum parsimony and maximum likelihood principles were
explained together with their phylosophical and statistical principles.
Resampling methods for
branching support were also presented. In the practical part the students learned the use of the
software

Phylip for the phylogenetic reconstruction and the use of Treeview for viewing the
trees generated by Phylip.



Comparative Proetin Modelling (Paula Kuser Falcão).



With comparative or homology protein structure modeling it is possible to build a
three
-
dimensional model for a protein of unknown structure based on one or more related
proteins of known structure. The necessary conditions for getting a useful model (similarity
between the target sequence and the template structures and availability of

a correct alignment
between them), and all the steps in protein modeling were explained and demonstrated in the
Protein Modeling workshop. For the practical part, the MODELLER program (Comparative
protein structure modeling of genes and genomes. Annu. Rev
. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 29,
291
-
325, 2000) for comparative approach to protein structure prediction was used. The
students were able to perform a search for a template using the
BLAST

program against the
PDB
, the alignment of the target and the template

protein, the modeling of the target sequence
and the visualization of the protein modeled.



Visualization and Analysis of a Protein Strutcure



Diamond STING (The Diamond STING server. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jul
1;33,Web Server issue,:W29
-
35) is a new

version of the STING suite of programs for
comprehensive analysis of a relationship between protein sequence, structure, function and
stability. The program STING provides visualization and analysis of a molecular sequence
and structure for
PDB

files. SMS

operates with a collection of both publicly available data
(PDB, HSSP, Prosite) and its own data (contacts, interfaces, surface accessibility). The
workshop was intended to show how to visualize and analyze a protein structure with the
tools available in
the program
STING
, for example, checking the contacts, looking at its
Ramachandran Plot, conservation of the amino acids in the sequence, comparison with other
PDB

files, etc.


Introduction to Artemis (Arthur Gruber)


This workshop was intended to familiar
ize the students with the basic functions of
Artemis. A short mitochondrial sequence of an apicomplexan parasite was used as a dataset
for illustrating the most important Artemis commands. The various graphical plots within
Artemis were demonstrated inclu
ding, using GC skew, GC frameplot, GC content and Karlin
signature, amongst others.

The practical session consisted in the full annotation using several types of evidence,
including ORF finding, similarity searches with Blastn and Blastx, compositional bia
ses,
codon usage biases, etc. Differences in DNA base content was explained using percentage GC
content plots. Codon usage was explained and students were shown how to make their own
codon usage tables from selected genes and use them to improve subsequent

gene predictions
within Artemis. The different aspects of annotation were presented, discussed and applied for
this small genome, including the description of different features, gene names, ontology
terms, terms, etc.


Comparative Genomics using ACT (Art
hur Gruber)


Genomic synteny was explained and demonstrated using small mitochondrial genomes
of three different apicomplexan parasites, illustrating differences of gene order and
orientation, levels of similarity across the genomes, inversions, etc.

The
students were shown how to set up an ACT session, by running Blastn and
TBlastx to compare two sequences and formatting the output using MSPcrunch. The students
learnt how synteny can be used to improve gene predictions and study chromosome biology.






I
mage Analysis from Microarray Data (Roberto Cesar Marcondes).



The workshop was composed of theoretical and practical aspects on microarray
technology and statistical analysis of data. The theoretical part discussed: technology,
applications, image analy
sis, normalization, time signal formation, clustering of time signals,
gene signature identification of biological states, dynamical system modeling. In the
following, the participants applied some of the main techniques in the Image Processing lab
using M
atlab scripts and C programs. These computational experiments have been divided in
three parts: (1) Image analysis, where each participant used the Microarray image
segmentation toolbox (Matlab) in order to analyze microarray images and to save the
corresp
onding gene expression ratios; (2) Dimensionality reduction, where the participants
applied gene selection procedures to identify discriminative genes with respect to two given
biological states; (3) Gene clustering, where the participants applied clusteri
ng algorithms to
(artificial) gene expression data and had the chance to learn how to interpret the clustering
results. In all experiments the participants had the chance to try variations on the basic scripts
and to interact with the software by changing
the setup parameters in order to interpret their
importance for the final results.


Software to run this workshop could not be included in the Linux CD given to the
students, however a local server was available for 2 months to those interested in re
-
doin
g the
workshop at their home institution. Students still interested in using the software can contact
the instructor directly by email to have their server access extended.


Annotation Project (Alan Durham, Arthur Gruber, Chuong Huynh )


Students were gi
ven the following course project:


1.Identify the contig in either the P. berghei or P. chabaudi genomes that contains the
ortologous gene of the P. vivax mdr1 gene given to you as a fasta file. You will find the fasta
in the file



/home/bioinfo/final
Project/mdr1.fasta


2. Model and predict any biological interest domains, etc, of this malarial
mdr

gene
using the tools learned on Saturday.


3. Annotate this full contig using the P. falciparum annotated genome and the tools
ART and ACT.


-

You have

to find at least 5 genes


-

No upper limit on the number of annotated genes, the group that annotates more
genes will win a prize.


4. The final report should consist of a slide presentation describing the procedures
adopted by the group and of an Ar
temis presentation of the resulting annotations


A copy of all the slide presentations is included in the CD.



EVALUATION OF THE COURSE BY THE PARTICIPANTS


Four different evaluations were made by the participants: 1) “one
-
minute evaluations”, a daily
eva
luation of each workshop; 2) final evaluations on the workshops; 3) final course overall
evaluation. All evaluations from the participants are available in the CD
-
ROM enclosed with
this report.


FUTURE NETWORKING



It is imperative that after the course, t
he software, databases, and systems necessary to
continue further bioinformatics activities are made available to the course participants. After
the course, continued access to the server purchased last year will be made available to all
interested partici
pants that completed the online course evaluation. The server can be used
either by remote connection to the computer tdr.icb.usp.br or by using the services available
at the page
http://tdr.icb.usp.br/tdr/
. The i
nternet services include a remove shell service that
allows user with slow connection to work using linux command line. The Training Center
Staff developed this shell service.


MATERIALS



This year a new system was developed to offer to students, at their

home institution,
the same environment they had during the course. We have created a DVD with a new
version of the Ubuntu Linux system that includes the vast majority of the software used
during the course. The exceptions were the software used by the Mi
croarray workshop and
the software used at the Comparative Protein Modeling workshop. A copy of this DVD, along
with a USB Memorykey was shipped to each student. When the students plug in their USB
memorykey and boot their computer directly from the DVD, t
heir local machine will have the
same look and feel as the machine their used at USP's laboratory. Even the data they left in
their personal account in our lab is there. This DVD was an innovative idea that, to the extend
of our knowledge, has not been don
e before. The novelty here is the use of the memorykey to
store their personal account data. This means not only the data they produced at the lab will
be available, but also that, when using the DVD, any new data they generate will also be
saved. With th
is approach now, which we will make available to the other centers, students
can go back home and practice as if they had access to the Training Center's laboratory.


Also, this year six Bioinformatics books by Baxevanis
(Bioinformatics: A Practical
Gui
de to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins,
Andreas D. Baxevanis and B.F. Franceis
Ouellette)
,

were distributed to the participants of the two groups that developed the best
annotation projects.







SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL OF THE REPORT




With this report
we are sending a CD
-
ROM with 4 directories



candidates


including a file with all candidate applications and a spreadsheet with the
committee's evaluations



course Site


with the complete course interenet site. This can also be viewed at
http://tdr.icb.usp
.br/tdr2005



evaluations: containing 5 files



oneMinutes.pdf


containing all one
-
minute reports, a dayly reports for each
workshopt



workshops
-
complete.pdf


with the full workshop evaluations for each student



workshops
-
summary.pdf


with a summary of each w
orkshop's evaluations by
students



final.pdf


with each student's evaluation of the course as a whole



workshopEvalSummary.xls
-

with a spreadsheet containing the tabulation of the
file workshops
-
summary.pdf



evaluationSummaryCourse.xls


with a spreadsheet

containing the tabulation of
the file final.pdf.



presentations
-

containing the slide presentations of the student projects. The names of
the memers of each group are in the titles.



reports


containing a copy of this report and of the financial report.



This report also include 3 appendices: complete list of applicants, country distribution
of applicants and of participants and summary of course and workshop evaluations.

APPENDIX 1


COMPLETE LIST OF APPLICANTS




Adilson Santos Martins

Brazilian


Al
an Michael Torres Calderon

Peruvian


Alejandro Reyes Muñoz

Colombian


Alicia Aguilar Barroso

cuban


Ana Kelly Pitlovanciv

Brasileira


Angélica Karina Minaya Galarreta

Peruana


Anna Rosanas Urgell

Spain


Anyangwe Irene

Cameroon

Armando Acosta Domingu
ez

Cuban


Artiva Maria Goudel

brazilian


Caio Mauricio Mendes de Cordova

Brazil


Carlos Enrique Muskus

Colombian


Carlos Gustavo Nunes da Silva

Brazilian


Carolina Julie Ramirez Higuera

Colombian


Cristina Toscano Fonseca

Brasileira


Éderson Dorileo

Brasileiro


Felipe Liberman

Brazilian


Fernando Berton Zanchi

Brazilian


Giselle Maria Rachid Viana

Brazilian


Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo

Colombian


Henry John Vela Huanilo

Peruvian


Holger Mayta

Peruvian


Jaeson Santos Calla Choque

Peruvian


Javier M
ota Sánchez

Mexican


José Luciano Nepomuceno da Silva

Brazil


Karin Kirchgatter

Brazil


Karina Tripodi

Argentina


Liane Casagrande

brazilian


Lopez Beatriz Graciela

Argentina


Marco Tulio Antonio Garcia Zapata

Brazilian


Maria Claudia Cavalcanti

bra
zilian


Maria do Carmo Catanho Pereira de Lyra

Brasileira


Maria Elana Sarmiento Garcia San Miguel

Cuban


Marikena Risso

Argentinian


Melissa Mendez

peruvian


Miriam Silva Rafael

Brazilian


Mónica Jehnny Pajuelo Travezaño

Peruvian


Natalia Bercovich

argentina


Nathaly Ospina Aguirre

Colombian


Nevis Amin Blanco

cuban


Priscila Camillo Teixeira

Brazilian


Rafael Dias Mesquita

Brasileiro


Rafael V. C. Guido

Brazilian


Raul J. Ursic

Bolivian


Renata de Meirelles Santos Pereira

Brazilian


René Ga
to Armas

Cuban


Ricardo Alfredo Chaurio Gonzalez

Venezuelan


Rivas
-
Santiago Bruno

Mexican


Román Jun Sotelo Romero

Peruvian


Ronnie Gavilan
-
Chavez

Peru


Rubén Ramírez Padrón

Cuban


Sergio Manuel Serra da Cruz

Brazilian


Simone Cristina Borges Bandei
ra

Brazilian


Teresa Lopez Ordoñez

Mexican


Thaís Cristine Marques Sincero

Brazilian


Victor Manuel, Neyra Chagua

PERUVIAN


Zaida Araujo

Venezuelan





APPENDI X
-
2 COUNTRY PROFI LE OF APPLI CANTS AND
PARTI PANTS


Argen
t i na
Bol i vi
a
Brazi l
Came
roon
Col om
bi a
Cuba
Guat e
mal a
Mexi c
o
Peru
Venez
uel a
0
2,5
5
7,5
10
12,5
15
17,5
20
22,5
25
Applicat ions
Count ry
Number of Applicants
Argenti
na
Bolivia
Brazil
Colomb
ia
Cuba
Guate
mala
Mexico
Peru
Venezu
ela
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Course Part icipant s
Count ry
Number of Participants
A
PPENDIX 3


Summary of course eval ua
t i on by st udent s


3.1.

Workshop evaluation summary
















3.2 Course eval uat i on summary.

Workshop Name
Instructor
Very Good(4)
Good(3)
Regular(2)
Bad(1)
GPA (min=1, max=4)
ACT
Arthur Gruber
12
5
3,71
Agorithms and Complexity
Alan Durham
8
7
1
1
3,29
Annotating Sequences
Arthur Gruber
10
5
1
1
3,41
Artemis
Arhtur Gruber
9
8
3,53
Blast From a Biological Perspecitve
Arthur Gruber
13
4
3,76
Blast Practical Workshop
Arthur Gruber
12
5
3,71
Comparative Protein Modelling
Paula Falcao
4
7
5
1
2,82
EST Clustering
Arthur Gruber
12
5
3,71
Est Clustering Tutorial
Arthur Gruber
9
6
2
3,41
Global and Local Alignment Concepts
Sergio Matiolli
8
8
1
3,35
Introduction do Databases
João Ferreira
5
9
2
1
3,06
Introduction to Linux
Marco Gubitoso
11
5
1
3,59
Microarray Analysis
Roberto Marcondes
2
4
9
2
2,35
Multiple Alignment
Sergio Matiolli
3
5
5
4
2,41
NCBI Resources
Chuong Huynh
5
11
1
3,24
Perl Programming
Alan Durham
11
6
3,65
Pipeline Construction
Arthur Gruber
10
5
2
3,47
Prhed/Phrap/Consed
Arthur Gruber
13
4
3,76
Protein Architecture
Paula Falcão
3
12
2
3,06
Protein Databases
Chuong Huynh
2
11
3
1
2,82
Review
Alan Durham
11
5
1
3,53
Tuberculosis Case Study
Chuong Huynh
11
6
3,65

QUESTION
YES
NO
Time_adequate_(1st_week)
13
4
Time_adequate_(2nd_week)
9
8
Time_adequate_(overall)
12
5
Too_much_material_(1st_week)
4
13
Too_much_material_(2nd_week)
4
13
Too_much_material_(overall)
5
12
Review_time_adequate_(1st_week)
7
10
Review_time_adequate_(2nd_week)
5
12
Review_time_adequate_(overall)
7
10
More_lecture_time?
5
12
More_practice_time?
14
3
Will_you_apply_what_you_have_learned?
16
1
Will_you_recommend_this_course?
17
0