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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Cars, train, and planes…..hot air balloons


Mara Bancroft

Mr.
Cosentino



There are various
types of trains.
Some are for
transporting goods
and resources from
place to place. And
people.


Long distance trains


High speed rails


Mono rails


Subways


Tram


two steel rails on which the vehicle wheels
run,


a series of lateral timber or concrete
sleepers (US

: ties)


a crushed stone ballast bed


modern technical developments, the
overwhelmingly dominant track form
worldwide consists of flat
-
bottom steel rails
supported on timber or pre
-
stressed concrete
sleepers (ties), which are themselves laid on
crushed stone ballast.




C
onsists of a continuous slab of concrete (like a
highway structure) with the rails supported directly
on its upper surface (using a resilient pad).There are
a number of proprietary systems, and variations
include continuous in situ placing of a reinforced
concrete slab, or alternatively the use of pre
-
cast
pre
-
stressed concrete units laid on a


Ladder track
utilises

longitudinal sleepers with gauge
restraining cross members, it can be considered a
development of Baulk road

base layer.


Both are expected to cost a lot for repairs and have
to close down the sections that are being work on for
a while before fully repaired.


Bullhead rail
-
Bullhead rail is similar to double
-
headed rail but with a heavier
profile to the top edge. It became the standard for the British railway system until
the mid
-
20th century but has now been largely replaced by flat
-
bottom rail


Grooved rail
-
A
grooved rail
,
groove rail
, or
girder rail

is a special rail
designed for tramway or railway track in pavement or grassed surfaces
(grassed track or track in a lawn). This was invented in 1852 by Alphonse
Loubat
, a French inventor


Vignoles

rail
(flat
-
bottomed rail)
-
Vignoles

rail

is the popular name of
the flat
-
bottomed rail used internationally for railway track,
recognising

engineer Charles
Vignoles

who introduced it to Britain


Flanged T rail
-
strapped wooden rails were used on all American
railways until 1831


Bridge rail

(inverted U)
-

is the name given to a type of railway track or
'rail road' that is formed using rails carried on continuous timber bearings, as
opposed to the more familiar 'cross
-
sleeper' track that uses closely spaced
sleepers or ties to give intermittent support to taller rails


Barlow rail (inverted V)
-
Barlow rail

was invented by William
Henry Barlow in 1849. It was designed to be laid straight onto the
ballast, but the lack of sleepers meant that it was difficult to
keep it in gauge
.


Fixed wheels on carts are invented in 3500 BC
-

the first wheeled vehicles in
history. Other early wheeled vehicles include the chariot.

Then they put motors in cars and it is now the most used mode of transportation by
the average person.

The highways were invented to make the access to many places much shorter.

Highways are made of concrete and there are millions of thousands of paved
roadways created since the cobble
stanes

were replaced.




Multiude

of planes include…


Airplane 1903


Jet/ jumbo jets 1970


Supersonic jet 1947


Space shuttle 1981


And the occasional kite

The Montgolfier brothers invent the first
hot air balloons in 1783.

And a more improved hot air balloon is the
blimp.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tramway_track#Groove
d_rail


http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/bl_hist
ory_of_transportation.htm


http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.
duckol.com/uploadFiles/upimg00/Wheelbarrow.jpg&i
mgrefurl=http://www.duckol.com/Wholesale_w/whe
elbarrow
-
handcart
-
and
-
trolley
-
1

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