INSULATION FOR COMMERCIAL

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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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POLYISOCYANURATE

(
POLYISO
)
INSULATION FOR COMMERCIAL
EXTERIOR WALL ASSEMBLIES

Date & Place

Carlisle, Inc.

is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of
this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates
of Completion for non
-
AIA members available on request.


This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional
education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or
construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of
construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing
in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and
services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.



Thank you!

Energy Use in the Built Environment

U.S. ENERGY USE BY SECTOR


The commercial real estate
industry spends
approximately $24 billion
annually on
energy.


Energy represents the single
largest controllable
operating expense for office
buildings
-

typically a third of
variable
expenses


Source:
www.boma.org

BEEP
(BOMA Energy Efficiency
Program)

The Importance of Good Insulation


Government and private
initiatives call for aggressive
reduction of energy
consumption


High
-
performance insulation
is crucial for achievement of
these objectives!


Today we will learn about
polyiso

insulation


a commercially
-
available, cost
-
effective material that easily enables construction of
more energy
-
efficient buildings.

Learning Objectives


List the basic characteristics and important physical
properties of
polyiso

foam board insulation.



Describe the track record and market adoption of
polyiso

insulation in building construction applications.



Explain the benefits afforded by
polyiso

insulation when
used in exterior wall assemblies.



List the important elements of successful installation of
polyiso

insulation in exterior wall assemblies.

Learning Objective 1:

List the basic characteristics and
important physical properties of
polyiso

insulation.


Chemistry.


How it’s made.


Properties


Polyiso

Spec ASTM C 1289


R
-
Value

Polyiso

Foam


Similar to polyurethane


Starts as pourable resin. 2
-
component rapid reaction causes expansion and
cure


Forms a rigid plastic, closed
-
cell foam


In production, reaction occurs in
-
line, while facers are laminated on both sides
to form boards.

Beads of mixed 2
-
part
resin extruded onto
facer

Resin expands and cures, filing
space between facers

Boards are cut to size,
packaged, cured and shipped

Polyiso



Green Features


No CFCs, zero ozone depletion
potential (ODP)


EPA
compliant blowing
agents


Recyclable through re
-
use or
down
-
cycling


FSC
-
Certified wood used on wood
-
faced products


Durable, long service life material


National manufacturing network
-

available
regionally


Polyiso

Insulation Properties


ASTM C 1289 “Standard Specification
for Faced Rigid Cellular
Polyisocyanurate

Thermal Insulation
Board”


Classification: Facer composition, foam
core compressive strength


Physical Properties: Dimensional stability,
flexural strength, water absorption, water
vapor transmission


R
-
Value


Measure of heat flow through specimen


T
est methods dictated in ASTM C 1289

Polyiso

Insulation Facers


Most roofing applications use glass
-
reinforced organic felt facers


Polyiso

for wall assemblies has coated
-
glass or foil facer


Coated
-
glass facers improved fire resistance, moisture resistance and
dimensional stability


Foil facers improve fire resistance, UV resistance, moisture resistance
and R
-
Value


Polyiso

can be easily laminated to plywood or OSB to form an insulating nail
base

facer

p
olyiso

foam core

facer

Many Facer Options for
Different
Polyiso

Applications

R
-
Value



The Key Property of Insulation

Material

R

Value

8” concrete

㈮2

3.5” brick

〮M

5/8” plywood

〮M

5/8” gypsum board

〮M



条畧攠獴u敬 獴畤

〮M

2” thick pine timber

ㄮN

0.040” bitumen
浥浢m慮a

〮M

1” of air

R⸵

1” of water

〮M

o
-
癡l略u潦⁩n獵s慴i潮o
comes primarily from
air or some other gas

R Value of common
building materials

R value is a material property indicating resistance to heat flow
though the material. Insulating materials have higher R
-
Value.

How Insulation Provides R
-
Value


Foam: Cells are filled with air or other gas


Fiber: Air is trapped among the fibers

FOAM

FIBER

Foam vs. Fiber Insulation


Plastic Based (combustible)


Board foam or spray foam


Closed Cell or Open Cell


Closed cell type is an air barrier


Closed cell type resists water
absorption

FIBER


Mineral Based (non
-
combustible)


Semi
-
rigid boards,
batts

or
loose (blown
-
in)


Permeable to air and
moisture

FOAM

R
-
Value of Common Types of Insulation

Insulation

R/ inch (@75
°
F)

20 psi
Polyiso

Board

5.6 to 6.7

2# CC Spray Polyurethane

Foam

6.0 to 6.7

25 psi Extruded Polystyrene (XPS)

5.0 to 5.5

25 psi Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)

3.9 to 4.4

Mineral Wool

4.2

Fiber Glass

3.7

How do Foam Insulations Provide Such
High R
-
value?

Gas

R/ inch (@75
°
F)

Air

5.5

Argon

8.1

Pentane

10.0

Dichlorodifluoromethane

15.1


Foam insulation consist of plastic resin and gas


Cells in
polyiso

insulation are filled with a higher
-
R
-
value gas than air

CFC, banned for use in
insulation production

Most common blowing agent
used in
polyiso

and
polystyrene foam insulation

How does
Polyiso

Compare with other
Foam Board Insulations?

Polyiso

XPS

EPS

R/ inch

$/in

$/R*

Moisture

High temp

Vertical burn

Solvent resist

Sizes/ shapes

* Based on 2” thick board, R
-
14.4 foil
-
faced
polyiso

Note: all 3 insulation types are suitable for exterior wall applications. The check mark
indicates the insulation that is best in that characteristic.

Learning Objective 2:

Describe the track record and market
adoption of
polyiso

insulation in building
construction applications
.

Polyiso

History


Derived from polyurethane chemistry,
which first appeared in the 1950s


Polyiso

foam insulation for
construction first appeared on the US
market in the late 1970s


Polyisocyanurate

Manufacturers
Association (PIMA) established in
1988


More than 70% of all roof insulation
used in the USA is
polyiso


Growing use in exterior wall
assemblies

Polyiso

in a wall assembly

Polyiso

directly over steel
roof deck

Polyiso

Use
-

Construction


Polyiso

has high service temp


up to 250
°
F


Unaffected by most solvent
-
based adhesives and coatings


Thermoset plastic


performs well in roof and wall assembly fire
testing


High R
-
value per inch allows thinner board

Roof

Wall

Polyiso

Heat Resistance
and Dimensional Stability


Heat Resistance


Polyiso

service temp up to 250
°
F


Can be installed directly under metal and
under roofing membrane


Dimensional Stability


Won’t shrink or warp with heat and
humidity.

Polyiso

boards directly under black
roof membrane

Polyiso

Moisture Resistance


ASTM C 209, 2h room
-
temp water
immersion, <0.1% volume


Closed cell
polyiso

foam resists
moisture absorption from ambient
humidity


Moisture
-
resistant facers, such as foil
and coated glass greatly enhance
performance


Polyiso

is suitable for use in above
-
grade exterior wall assemblies and in
covered roof assemblies.

Behind wall cladding

Under roof membrane

Polyiso

R
-
Value Measurements


Felt
-
Faced Roofing Insulation


CAN
-
ULC S770 Long
-
Term Thermal
Resistance (LTTR)


R
-
5.6 to 6.0 per inch


Wall Insulation ASTM C 518


75
°
F mean temp


ASTM C 1289 requires 180 day aging at
room temp and minimum 40
°
F temp
difference


R
-
6.0 to 6.7 per inch

Coated
-
glass
-
faced

F
oil
-
faced

Learning Objective 3:

Explain the benefits
polyiso

insulation
affords
when used
in exterior wall assemblies
.


“Continuous insulation” in building
c
ode


High R
-
value per Inch


Heat & moisture management


Air & vapor barrier


Fire performance

The Colder the Climate, the more
Insulation is Required


USDOE Heating Zones


8 in the USA


1 is warmest, 8 is coldest

Component R
-
Value vs. Assembly U
-
Value


Building Code Gives 2 Compliance Options:


Meet a
minimum R value of insulation
prescribed for that type of assembly


Meet a
maximum assembly U Value
designated for that type of assembly

Material 1

R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

R
Assembly

=

R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+R
4

Material 2

Material 3

Material 4

U
Assembly

R
1
+R
2
+R
3
+R
4

1

=

Requirements for “ci”


Example: IECC 2012 Steel
Stud Wall Requirements


R
-
13 + 7.5 ci

Stud Cavity
Insulation

Continuous Insulation

R
-
13 in the stud cavity

R
-
7.5 minimum
“continuous insulation”

“ci” is insulation installed continuously
across studs.

Energy Loss Through Insulation Discontinuity

IR camera image showing thermal bridging

Batt

insulation installed
between steel studs

Continuous Insulation Requirement

Nominal
Stud Size (a)

Space of
Framing (in)

Cavity Insulation
R
-
Value

Correctio
n Factor

Effective Framing/
Cavity R
-
Values

2 X 4

16 o.c.

R
-
11

R
-
13

R
-
15

0.50

0.46

0.43

R
-
5.5

R
-
6.0

R
-
6.4

2 X 4

24 o.c.

R
-
11

R
-
13

R
-
15

0.60

0.55

0.52

R
-
6.6

R
-
7.2

R
-
7.8

2 X 6

16 o.c.

R
-
19

R
-
21

0.37

0.35

R
-
7.1

R
-
7.4

2 X 6

24 o.c.

R
-
19

R
-
21

0.45

0.43

R
-
8.6

R
-
9.0

2 X 8

16 o.c.

R
-
25

0.31

R
-
7.8

2 X 8

24 o.c.

R
-
25

0.38

R
-
9.6

Insulation placed
b
etween
s
tuds loses much of its nominal R
-
Value

Source: ASHRAE 90.1, 90.2

Zone 5 & Marine 4

3.8

‘06

‘09

‘12

7.5

7.5

Zone 6

‘06

‘09

‘12

3.8

7.5

7.5

Zone 7

‘06

‘09

‘12

7.5

7.5

7.5

Zone 8

7.5

7.5

7.5

‘06

‘09

‘12

Zone 1

‘06

‘09

‘12

5

NR

NR

Zone 2

‘06

‘09

‘12

5

NR

NR

Zone 3

7.5

‘06

‘09

‘12

3.8

NR

Zone 4 (Exc. Marine)

7.5

‘06

‘09

‘12

7.5

NR

Example


IECC Requirements for “ci”, Non
-
Residential Steel Stud walls

IECC
version

Min R
-
value of ci required

Common Types of “ci”


Polyiso


XPS


EPS


SPF


Rockwool

R
-
Value of Common Types of Insulation


Polyiso

has the
H
ighest R
-
Value per Inch


Use thinner board to comply with minimum code requirements


Use same size board and put more R
-
value into limited wall space

0
5
10
15
20
25
1'
2'
2.5"
3"
POLYISO
XPS
EPS
ROCKWOOL
Benefits of
T
hinner Insulation


Reduced cost of insulation


Simplify and reduce cost of cladding attachment


Shorter fasteners


Larger spacing


More cladding options

Example:
Polyiso

vs. XPS


On 10,000 SQ FT of wall, what is the difference in heat loss through the wall,
given a
Δ
T
of 30
°
F?


XPS Wall: 16,216 BTU/h; POLYISO Wall: 12,300 BTU/h


POLYISO wall presents a 24% improvement

1

3

5

4

2

1

3

5

4

6

2

2” XPS

R
-
10

2” Foil
-
Faced POLYISO

R
-
14.4

Component R
-
Value

XPS Wall

POLYISO
Wall

1

5/8” Interior Gyp

0.5

0.5

2

R
-
13 w/4”SS 16”
OC

6.0

6.0

3

5/8” Exterior Gyp

0.5

0.5

4

40 mil membrane

0.0

0.0

5

2” foam

10.0

14.4

6

1.5” air space

0.9

2.3

7

3.5” brick

0.6

0.6

Assembly U Val.

U
-
0.054

U
-
0.041

6

6

7

7

“ci” on the Exterior Keeps walls
Drier during Winter

Wall is dry where insulation
is installed on the exterior

Indoor moisture condenses on cold
steel studs and gypsum sheathing.
Vapor retarder traps this moisture.

Condensation of interior
moisture on cold block

“ci” and Air/Vapor Barrier
Membrane work Together

Gypsum sheathing

Steel studs and
insulation

Continuous insulation (ci)
installed over air/vapor barrier

Exterior cladding
fastened to structure


Air/vapor barrier
prevents air
and moisture transmission
through wall, even seals
around fasteners


“ci”
keeps steel studs,
gypsum sheathing and stud
cavity above dew point,
preventing condensation

Fully
-
adhered
air/vapor barrier
membrane on
gypsum
sheathing

Polyiso

Board Can be
Installed as an Air and
Vapor Barrier


Vapor Barrier (ASTM E 96):


1” board has < 1 Perm w/ coated glass facer,
<0.1 Perm with foil facer


Air Barrier (ASTM E 2178):


2010 ASHRAE 90.1 and 2012 IECC qualify
minimum ½” thickness foil
-
faced as an “air
barrier


FOIL
-
FACED POLYISO, FOAM SEALANT
BETWEEN BOARDS

POLYISO INSULATION AIR/VAPOR BARRIER


BRICK CAVITY WALL

Reduced cost assembly, but less redundancy than wall with membrane + “ci”

NFPA 285


2
-
story wall assembly burn test



Applicable to Type I
-
IV Construction



Simulates an interior fire, with flashover
effect through window opening.




Vertical and lateral fire propagation is
evaluated.



Insulation, cladding and wall membranes
can trigger Code Requirement!

NFPA 285 Test Set
-
Up

Burn room burner

7


6


min.

7


6


min.

10


Window
burner

Test Wall

18


Section View


not drawn to scale

1
st
: burn room burner is ignited

2
nd

after 5 min, window burner is ignited

3
rd

after 30 minutes, both burners are shut off.

4
th

residual burning
is allowed to progress for at least
10 minutes

Thermocouples here cannot
reach 1,000
deg

F

NFPA 285 Acceptance Criteria


Measures lateral and vertical propagation of fire


Pass/fail determined by amount and layering of combustible components.


Mineral wool fire stopping required in stud cavity between floors

cladding

insulation

Air barrier

Sheathing

stud

interior finish

EXTERIOR: Fire propagation not to
occur beyond area of flame plume
impingment

CORE: Fire propagation within the
wall is allowed only a certain
distance above window opening,
indicated by thermocouples

Air space

INTERIOR: Temp not to exceed 750 F
in 1
st

story stud cavity and flames
shall not reach second story.

Assembly test includes…



Base Wall System


Approved Exterior Finish


Insulation Material Options


Floor line Fire
-
stopping


Stud Cavity


Exterior Sheathing


WRB Membrane

NFPA 285 Pass


what does it mean?

Polyiso

Performs well in Vertical Burn!!

NFPA 285 test, in progress and inspection after burn


Inspection


Polyiso

stays
in place


No formation
of burning
drips


Protects
underlying
rubberized
asphalt
membrane

Polyiso

Passes the NFPA 285 Test
with Many Types of Claddings

Projects showing
polyiso

insulation and aluminum
compsite

(ACM) rain screen cladding

Class A
Polyiso

Passes NFPA 285 Even
When Applied Over Open Studs


Install air, water, vapor and thermal barrier in one layer


Build a high
-
performance wall at a reduced cost!

Polyiso

Allows Simple Window
Details in the NFPA 285 Test

XPS NFPA 285 Window Detail: Specifies Mineral
Wool Pinned
across Window Head


Polyiso

passes NFPA 285
without any fire blocking
in window opening!

Other Fire Tests


ASTM E 84


“Tunnel Test”: horizontal burn of material


Limited applicability to vertical wall
performance.


Standard
Polyiso
:
flame spread 75 or less,
smoke 450 or less


“Class A”
Polyiso
:
flame spread 25 or less
and smoke 450 or less


NFPA 286


Corner burn test


Some
polyiso

foam/facer configurations
can pass this test


Required if insulation will be left exposed in
interior wall and ceiling applications

ASTM E 84

NFPA 286

Learning Objective 4:

List the important elements of successful
installation of
polyiso

insulation in
exterior wall assemblies
.


D
etails and Instructions


Qualified installer


Field quality control


Reliable supplier

Insulation Manufacturer shall Provide
Standard Details


Windows


Foundation


Penetrations


Wall
-
to
-
Roof


Inter
-
Story


Corners


Expansion joints


Termination at existing

Barriers Shown in Details Shall Align

Thermal image showing alignment of wall
insulation with window’s thermal break


Thermal barrier


Air barrier


Water resistive barrier

Installation Instructions


Board pattern


Joint treatment


Fastening


Bonding


Exposure and Protection


Installer shall be trained and
approved by Insulation
manufacturer


Insulation manufacturer
training can be executed
through partnership with
professional organizations


Trades


Air Barrier Association of
America ABAA

Installer Training

Training Mockup


Coordination of work


Mockups


Air Leakage Test (ASTM E 1105)


Water Leak Teat (ASTM E 783)


Visual inspection of
Polyiso

Insulation (not limited to these things…)


T
ight at joints OR joints are sealed


T
ightly secured to wall


W
eeps and drainage in place


Insulation aligned with window thermal break


Penetrations detailed properly


Termination at grade and at existing construction

Field Quality Control


Multiple plants for nationwide service (typically within 500 miles
of project)


Financially secure and established in the business


Dedicated sales and support personnel for WALL APPLICATIONS


Ready to assist with order fulfillment, instructions, product knowledge
training and field technical issues


Select a Reliable
Polyiso

Supplier


Specify
polyiso
, with coated glass or foil facer, for use in the
exterior wall assemblies.


Polyiso

is a conventional, commercially
-
available material with
a long, successful track record in construction


Polyiso

provides solutions for modern commercial wall
construction


delivers high R
-
value per inch and passes the
NFPA 285 fire test in many wall assemblies


Several large, reputable manufacturers offer
polyiso

insulation,
produced locally and available at a competitive price.


P
artner with a
polyiso

insulation manufacturer who is reliable
and will provide support throughout the Project for a successful
installation.


Recap

QUESTIONS?

THANK YOU