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25 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the
Federal Reserve 1987
-

2006

Alan Greenspan


Ayn

Rand became a stabilizing force in my life. It
hadn't taken long for us to have a meeting of the
minds
--

mostly my mind meeting hers
--

and in the
fifties and early sixties I became a regular at the
weekly gatherings at her apartment. She was a
wholly original thinker, sharply analytical, strong
-
willed, highly principled, and very insistent on
rationality as the highest value. In that regard, our
values were congruent
--

we agreed on the
importance of mathematics and intellectual rigor
.”

Alan Greenspan


Ayn

Rand became a stabilizing force in my life. It
hadn't taken long for us to have a meeting of the
minds
--

mostly my mind meeting hers
--

and in the
fifties and early sixties I became a regular at the
weekly gatherings at her apartment. She was a
wholly original thinker, sharply analytical, strong
-
willed, highly principled, and very insistent on
rationality as the highest value
. In that regard, our
values were congruent
--

we agreed on the
importance of mathematics and intellectual rigor
.”

Ayn

Rand and I remained close until she died in 1982, and I'm
grateful for the influence she had on my life. I was intellectually
limited until I met her. All of my work had been empirical and
numbers
-
based, never values
-
oriented. I was a talented
technician, but that was all. My logical positivism had
discounted history and literature
--

if you'd asked me whether
Chaucer was worth reading, I'd have said, "Don't bother." Rand
persuaded me to look at human beings, their values, how they
work, what they do and why they do it, and how they think and
why they think. This broadened my horizons far beyond the
models of economics I'd learned. I began to study how
societies form and how cultures behave, and to realize that
economics and forecasting depend on such knowledge
--

different cultures grow and create material wealth in
profoundly different ways.

Ayn

Rand and I remained close until she died in 1982,
and I'm grateful for the influence she had on my life. I
was intellectually limited until I met her. All of my work
had been empirical and numbers
-
based, never values
-
oriented. I was a talented technician, but that was all. My
logical positivism had
discounted history and
literature
--

if you'd asked me whether Chaucer was worth reading,
I'd have said, "Don't bother."
Rand persuaded me to look
at human beings, their values, how they work, what they
do and why they do it, and how they think and why they
think
. This broadened my horizons far
beyond the models
of economics

I'd learned. I began to study how societies
form and how cultures behave, and to realize that
economics and forecasting depend on such knowledge
--

different cultures
grow and create material wealth in
profoundly different ways.

Paul Ryan, Congressman and former
vice presidential candidate

Paul Ryan on
Ayn

Rand in 2005 to the
Atlas Society

“the lifeline feeding any social system is a
culture’s dominant philosophy and . . .
Capitalism never had a philosophical base”
(24).

The Fountainhead

How do her heroes act?


How do her heroes act?

They don’t maximize their economic position


How do her heroes act?

They don’t maximize their economic position

They are loners, exceptional men and women
who are misunderstood by most, and who
exercise the “right to disagree”


How do her heroes act?

They don’t maximize their economic position

They are loners, exceptional men and women
who are misunderstood by most, and who
exercise the “right to disagree”

They don’t work well in corporations; they don’t
fit in; they only follow their ideals


Rand portrays not the rational, calculating
economic actor

Rand portrays not the rational, calculating
economic actor

but exemplifies in her characters and the world
she constructs around them the
“philosophical base” of capitalism, a world
that is meant to reveal the values of capitalism

Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

“It is from the work and the inviolate integrity of
. . . intransigent innovators that all of
mankind’s knowledge and achievements have
come. (See
The Fountainhead
.)” (9)


Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

“It is from the work and the
inviolate integrity
of
. . .
intransigent innovators
that all of
mankind’s knowledge and achievements have
come. (See
The Fountainhead
.)” (9)


Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

“It is from the work and the
inviolate integrity
of . . .
intransigent innovators
that all of mankind’s
knowledge and achievements have come. (See
The
Fountainhead
.)” (9)

“Now observe that a free market does not level men
down to come common denominator

that the
intellectual criteria of the majority do not rule a free
market or a free society

and that the exceptional
men, the innovators, the intellectual giants, are not
held down by the majority. In fact, it is the members of
this exceptional minority who lift the whole of a free
society to the level of their own achievements, while
rising further and ever further” (18).


Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal

“It is from the work and the
inviolate integrity
of . . .
intransigent innovators
that all of mankind’s
knowledge and achievements have come. (See
The
Fountainhead
.)” (9)

“Now observe that a free market does not level men
down to come common denominator

that the
intellectual criteria of
the majority do not rule
a free
market or a free society

and that the
exceptional
men, the innovators, the intellectual giants
, are not
held down by the majority. In fact, it is the members of
this exceptional minority who lift the whole of a free
society to the level of their own achievements, while
rising further and ever further” (18).


Rand’s novel of ideas

Roark’s testimony and summation (pp. 677


685)

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roark’s testimony and summation (pp. 677


685)

Manifesto on great creators

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roark’s testimony and summation (pp. 677


685)

Manifesto on great creators

“The creators were not selfless. It is the whole
secret of their power

that it was self
-
sufficient,
self
-
motivated, self
-
generated. A first cause, a
fount of energy, a life force, a Prime Mover. The
creator served nothing and no one. He had lived
for himself."

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roark’s testimony and summation (pp. 677


685)

Manifesto on great creators

“The creators were not selfless. It is the whole
secret of their power

that it was
self
-
sufficient,
self
-
motivated,
self
-
generated. A first cause, a
fount of energy, a life force, a
Prime Mover
. The
creator served nothing and no one. He had lived
for himself."

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roark’s testimony and summation (pp. 677


685)

Manifesto on great creators

“The creators were not selfless. It is the whole secret
of their power

that it was self
-
sufficient, self
-
motivated, self
-
generated. A first cause, a fount of
energy, a life force, a Prime Mover. The creator
served nothing and no one. He had lived for
himself.”

Dictators and rulers are falsely considered egoists.
They are not. They are second
-
handers.

“Rulers of men are not egotists”.

Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Born
Alissa

Rosenbaum, in Soviet Russia

Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Born
Alissa

Rosenbaum, in Soviet Russia

Studies at Petrograd State University but is
prevented from graduating


Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Born
Alissa

Rosenbaum, in Soviet Russia

Studies at Petrograd State University but is
prevented from graduating

moves
to United States in 1926


Encounters free
-
market economics in US


Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Born
Alissa

Rosenbaum, in Soviet Russia

Studies at Petrograd State University but is
prevented from graduating

moves
to United States in
1926, where she
encounters free
-
market economics in US


Ayn

Rand (1905


1982)

Born
Alissa

Rosenbaum, in Soviet Russia

Studies at Petrograd State University but is
prevented from graduating

moves
to United States in
1926, where she
encounters free
-
market economics in US

Objectivism as inverted
Martxism


Rand’s novel of ideas

Roak’s

testimony (creators vs. second
-
handers
)

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roak’s

testimony (creators vs. second
-
handers
)

Rand’s construction of character

The Romantic Manifesto

The source of art lies in the fact that man’s
cognitive faculty is conceptual

i.e., that man
acquires knowledge and guides his actions,
not by means of single, isolated precepts, but
by means of abstractions”

The Romantic Manifesto

Many readers of The Fountainhead had told me
that the character of Howard Roark helped them
to make a decision when they faced a moral
dilemma. They asked themselves: “What would
Roark do in this situation?”

and, faster than
their mind could identify the proper application
of all the complex principles involved, the image
of Roark gave them the answer. . . . Such is the
psycho
-
epistemological function of a personified
(concretized) human ideal” (10).

The Romantic Manifesto

“Art is concretization of metaphysics” (8)





The Romantic Manifesto

“Art is concretization of metaphysics” (8)


“art is a philosophical composite” (33)




The Romantic Manifesto

“Art is concretization of metaphysics” (8)


“art is a philosophical composite” (33)


Romanticism defined as based on volition. “Man’s
new enemy, in art, was Naturalism. Naturalism
rejected the concept of volition and went back to
a view of man as a helpless creature determined
by forces beyond his control” (117).




Rand on manifesto form:

“The dictionary definition of “manifesto” is: “a public
declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives or
motives, as one issued by a government, sovereign, or
organization.” (
The Random House Dictionary of the
English Language
, College Edition, 1968.)

I must state, therefore, that this manifesto is not issued in
the name of an organization or a movement. I speak
only for myself. There is no Romantic movement today.
If there is to be one in the art of the future, this book
will have helped it to come into being.”

Rand’s novel of ideas

Roak’s

testimony (creators vs. second
-
handers
)

Rand’s construction of character:

character
types that exemplify different positions of her
theoretical system, especially her distinction
between creators and second
-
handers

Creators

Second
-
handers

Howard Roark

Creators

Second
-
handers

Howard Roark

Peter Keating

Creators

Second
-
handers

Howard Roark

Peter Keating

Ellsworth
Toohey

Creators

Second
-
handers

Howard Roark

Peter Keating

Ellsworth
Toohey

Gail
Wynand

Creators

Second
-
handers

Howard Roark

Peter Keating

Steven Mallory

Ellsworth
Toohey

Gail
Wynand

Howard Roark

No board has ever hired me

and I don't think
one ever will" (311).



Howard Roark

No board has ever hired me

and I don't think
one ever will" (311).


Declines being called a "victim of capitalism" by
New League of Proletarian Art (347)


Howard Roark

No board has ever hired me

and I don't think
one ever will" (311).


Declines being called a "victim of capitalism" by
New League of Proletarian Art (347)

Roark like "one of his pet pieces of reinforced
concrete" (351)


Howard Roark

No board has ever hired me

and I don't think
one ever will" (311).


Declines being called a "victim of capitalism" by
New League of Proletarian Art, (347)

Roark like "one of his pet pieces of reinforced
concrete" (351)

"We are dealing, gentlemen of the jury, with the
most vicious explosive on earth

the egoist!"
(674)


Roark about Mallory

"you have a magnificent respect for the
human being. Because your figures are the
heroic in man. And so I didn't come here to
do you a favor or because I felt sorry for you
or because you need a job pretty badly. I
cam for a simple, selfish reason

the same
reason that makes a man choose the
cleanest food he can find. It's a law of
survival, isn’t it?

to seek the best. I didn't
come for your sake. I came for mine." 328


Roark about Mallory

"you have a magnificent respect for the
human being. Because your figures are
the
heroic in man
. And so I didn't come here to
do you a favor or because I felt sorry for you
or because you need a job pretty badly. I
cam for a simple,
selfish reason

the same
reason that makes a man choose the
cleanest food he can find. It's a law of
survival, isn’t it?

to seek the best
. I didn't
come for your sake. I came for mine." 328