CLADIRI I -CURS – sem I BUILDING DESIGN 1 – 1 st semester

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CLADIRI I
-
CURS


sem

I


BUILDING DESIGN 1



1
st

semester


s.l.univ
.
Ruxandra

ERBASU

CAPITOLUL1/CHAPTER 1

Notiuni

introductive/Introductive notions

1.
Particularitati

ale
produselor


constructii

si

ale
activitatilor

legate

de
acestea

2.
Clasificari

functionale

ale

constructiilor

3.
Categorii

si

clase

de
importanta

4.
Elemente

de
legiferare

tehnica

a

activitatilor

de
constructii

5.
Conceptul

de
sistem

in c
-
tii

6.
Conceptul

de
performanta
,

principalele

elemente

de
continut

7
.Directiva
Europeana

89/106

CEE

si

Legea

10/1995
referitoare

la

calitatea

in
constructii


1.
Peculiarities of constructions as

p
roducts and of activities related to

t
hem

2. Functional classification of

c
onstructions

3. Importance categories and
classes

4. Technical regulations in

constructions

5. System concept in buildings

6. Performance concept in buildings

7. European directive 89/106/1991

and Romanian Law 10/1995

concerning quality in construction


1.
Particularitati

ale
produselor

constructii

si

ale
activitatilor

de c
-
tii



Produsele

constructii

au

un

specific

aparte
,

se

individualizeaza

prin

particularitati

ce

tin de
procesul

de
conceptie

proiectare

,
executie

si

intretinere



exploatare
:


d
urata

de
viata

deosebit

de mare
:

nici

un
produs

al
activitatii

umane


nu
este

proiectat

cu o
durata

de
viata

in
functionare

atat

de mare ca in

cadrul

constructiilor
(70
-
100)
ani
.
Conceptia
,
proiectarea

,
executia

si

intretinerea

unui

obiect

de
constructie

trebuie

sa
-
i

asigure

durabilitate

fizica

si

functionala
.
Produsele

constructii

vor

fi

utilizate

de
mai

multe

generatii
,

deci

performantele

lor

concepute

la un moment
istoric
,
trebuie

sa

poate

fi


adaptate

la
cele

ale
generatiilor

viitoare
.


l
ipsa

seriei

zero
:

pentru

orice

produs

industrial
este

obligatorie


verificarea

solutiei

de
proiect

rezultand

prototipul

pe

care se
fac

incercari
.

In c
-
tii

nu se pot
testa

prototipuri

la
scara

naturala
, in
regim

real de

exploatare

si

cu
introducerea

factorului

timp
.
Proiectul

unei

c
-
tii

nu
poate

fi

imbunatatit

continuu

inainte

de
realizarea

acesteia
,
iar

fiabilitatea

depinde

de o
multitudine

de
factori

unii

corespunzatori

momentului

constructiei
,
altii


necunoscuti

in
timp
.





1
.

Peculiarities

of

constructions

as

products

and

of

activities

related

to

them



Constructions

as

products

are

special,

and

are

individualized

through

w
hat

peculiarities

hold

on

to

the

process

of

conception,

design,execution


and

exploitation
:


considerable

increased

life

time
:

no

other

product

of

human


activity

is

designed

with

a

duration

of

life

in

operation

so

great

as

buildings(

70
-
100
)

years
.

The

conception,

the

design,

the

execution

and


maintenance

of

a

construction

must

assure

its

physical

and

functional

durability
.

Constructions

seen

as

products

will

be

used
-
up

of

many

generations,

therefore

their

performances

conceived

to

a

historic

moment,

must

be

able

to

adjust

to

those

of

future

generations
.



the absence of the zero series:

for any industrial product the

verification of the design solution is compulsory thus resulting the prototype

on which tests are performed.In constructions, there is no posibility to test

prototypes to the natural scale, in the real regime ofexploitation and with the

introduction of the factor of time. The design of a construction cannot be

continuously improved prior to its execution and its reliableness depends on

an innumerability of factors, some corresponding to the moment of the

construction, others unknown in time.





dependenta

performantelor

de

amplasament
:

performantele

constructiilor

sunt

in

stransa

legatura

cu

caracteristicile

amplasamentului
.

In


primul

rand,

siguranta

mecanica

si

stabilitatea

depind

de

caracteristicile

terenului
,

interactiunea

sol

structura

fiind

de

importanta

primara

in

procesul


de

proiectare
,

de

asemenea
,

amplasamentul

influenteaza

prin


particularitatile

lui

climatice
:

vant
,

zapada
,

componenta

fizico
-
chimica

a

aerului
,

etc
..


impactul

asupra

mediului

natural
:

constructiile

sunt

produse

artificiale


imobile

si

de

mare

durata

a

caror

prezenta

modifica

esential

mediul

natural,


stricandu
-
i

echilibrul

si

armonia
.

S
-
a

introdus

conceptul

de

dezvoltare

durabila

a

societatii

care

urmareste

satisfacerea

nevoilor

generatiei

actuale

fara

a

compromite

sansa

generatiilor

viitoare

de

a

satisface

propriile


cerinte

prezervand

resursele

si

echilibrul

mediului

natural


procesul

de

realizare

are

loc

in

mare

parte

in

aer

liber
:

executia

de


calitate

devine

foarte

dificila

cand

aceasta

are

loc

in

aer

liber

sub

actiunea


directa

a

factorilor

climatici

exteriori
.

Resursele

tehnico
-
materiale

ocupa

un

volum

mare,

necesita

spatiu

de

depozitare
,

deci

operatiile

de

aprovizionare


si

productie

sunt

mai

complexe

decat

in

cazul

altor

produse
.


dependency

of

their

performances

on

the

location
:

the


performances

of

the

constructions

are

related

to

the

features

of

its

location
.

Mechanical

safety

and

stability

depend
s

on

the

ground

caracteristics
,

the


s
oil

structure

interaction

being

of

primary

importance

in

the

process

of

design
.

In

the

same

time,

the

location

influences

through

its

climatic

peculiarities
:

win
d

pressure,

snow

quantity,

physico
-
chemical

component

of

the

air,

etc
..



the

impact

upon

the

surroundings
:

the

constructions

are

artificial

products,motionless

and

of

considerable

life

time,

whose

presence

esentially


modifiy

the

surroundings,damaging

their

equilibrium

and

harmony
.

The

durable

development

concept

of

the

society

was

introduced

in

the

attempt

of

satisfying

the

needs

of

the

current

generation

without

compromising

the

chance

of

the

future

generations

to

satisfy

their

own

requirements

preserving

the

resources

and

the

equilibrium

of

the

surroundings



the

execution

process

is

in

progress

mainly

outdoor
:
keeping

the


h
igh

standards

of

the

execution

quality

becomes

very

difficult

when

this

is

in

p
rogress

in

the

open

space,

influenced

directly

by

the

climatic

exterior

factors
.
The

tehnical

and

mechanical

resources

require

space

of

storage,

therefore

the

operations

of

supply

and

production

becomes

more

complex


2.
Clasificari

functionale

ale
constructiilor



Fiecare constructie are o destinatie functionala precisa, ştiută de
proiectanţi, constructori şi utilizatori. Criteriul de funcţionalitate este cel
mai important, in funcţie de acesta constructiile sunt împărţite în:






cladir
i


civile






industriale




Constructii


agrozootehnice










constructii ingineresti




Construcţiile civile
mai pot fi clasificate in:




clădiri rezidentiale


cladiri social culturale


cladiri administrative


cladiri comerciale si de administratie publica


cladiri pentru transporturi


cladiri pentru culte


2.Functional classification of constructions

Each construction must have a well specified functional destination,

known by the designers, constructors and users. The functionality

criteria is the most important , function of which constructions are

divided in:






civil




buildings industrial





(def) agro
-
zootehnical

Constructions




engineering constructions


Civil buildings may be:

-

residential

-
social
-
cultural

-
administrative. commercial and for public alimentation

-
buildings used for transport purposes

-
religious buildings

3.Categories and classes of building importance

Specific regulations issued in Romania a few years ago stipulate

designer’s obligations to establish the
category of importance


assigned to any building as a prerequisite of the design process.

Accordingly, the following categories are defined:

category A
: buildings of

exceptional
importance;

category B
: buildings of
special

importance;

category C
: buildings of
normal
importance;

category D
: buildings of
minor

importance.

The practical procedure to assign a certain
category of importance
to

a building is based upon a number of factors ,namely:


qualification for vital importance;


social
-
economical or cultural importance;


environmental implications;


period of utilisation;


adaptability to site and environmental conditions;


amount of required resources (materials, energy, labour).







category A

(exceptional importance):buildings whose damage could
bring about catastrophic consequences, as well as buildings whose
uninterrupted function is considered vital to society;


category B

(special importance): buildings whose survival in case of
disastrous events is necessary in order to remove the consequences of
these events. Here should be also included buildings having special
cultural and historical value;



category C
(normal importance): the majority of buildings, which do not
belong to other categories of importance;



category D

(minor importance): building whose damage entails minor
consequences to people’s life and health.



The category classification is a global one, regarding the construction as
a whole, without referring precisely to certain exigencies.


more specific, and referring to the
seismic behavior exigency
, the

Constructions are
devided

in classes of importance as follows:


Class I

includes buildings of
vital importance

to society, whose function

during and immediately after an earthquake must be guaranteed.


Examples:


hospitals, emergency (ambulance) stations, fire stations;


building for national and regional authorities with assigned duties in
organising post
-
earthquake emergency activities;


buildings for national and regional communication systems;



electrical power plants with essential role for the national system;


museums of national importance.


Class II
includes buildings of
special importance
, whose damage

must be

restricted, accounting for their potential consequences.



Examples:


other buildings (than those specified for Class I) concerning health
protection;


schools, nurseries, kinder
-
gardens, hostels for children, disabled
and old people; buildings with people agglomeration, churches,
auditoriums, show halls, sports halls, large stores and supermarkets;


buildings that shelter special artistic, historical and scientific valuable
assets;


industrial building and facilities with high risk of fire or emanation of
toxic matters;


industrial buildings that shelter special machinery and/or equipment,
economically very valuable;


buildings that store products of strict necessity for people in case of
emergencies.





Class III
includes buildings of
normal risk

(others than those
belonging to classes I, II, IV), such as:


residential buildings, hotels, hostels (except those included in Class
II);


current
-
type industrial and agro
-
zootechnical

buildings.




Class IV
includes building of

minor importance
, such as:


low importance agro
-
zootechnical

buildings (e.g. greenhouses, one
-
storey buildings and facilities for domestic animals);


one or two
-
storey individual residential buildings;


other buildings that shelter low
-
value items and where a restricted
personnel carries out activities.



Presently, according to the in force regulations, both importance
categories and classes must be specified on any project written and
draw part.


4.
Tehnical

regulations in buildings

The widespread and complex activities performed in connection with

building construction had to be necessarily governed by comprehensive

compulsory rules
, aiming and guaranteeing in the first place public

health, safety and welfare.



Technical regulations

form an important part of this ensemble of

compulsory rules for constructions and are intended to achieve:


high
-

performance, correct, safe and sound, as well as economical
design;


high quality production of materials, components, elements and
subensembles
;


high quality execution of site works, through correct application of
technologies and procedures.


Due to their compulsory character,
technical regulations
bring an essential

contribution to the unification of criteria for analysis and selection of

solutions for various technical and economical problems in building

construction. On the other hand, due to the same compulsory character,

technical regulations obviously exert constraints upon and impose limits to

various parameters in the design, manufacturing of products and execution

of constructions.




Harmonised standards

are being produced in three main

categories,namely
:



category A standards: standards of design, codes of practice, etc. for
the whole construction works (e.g. structural
Eurocodes
);


category B standards: specifications for materials and products;


category
Bh

standards, which may apply across a wide range of
products, being related to testing methods and procedures,
standards for measurement, etc.




The Construction Products Directive, together with the Public
Works and Service Directives, form the legal basis for the
development of technical standards and harmonisation. A special
technical committee is producing a series of nine basic codes
-

Eurocodes



that set out design rules and standards, covering
design criteria for most types of construction works and the
structural materials used. The codes are first published in the form
of pre


standards (ENVs), that intended to be used for the design in
order to provide feedback information for modifications and
improvement, where necessary, to be incorporated into the final
European Standards

(ENs). These latter will be transposed to
replace gradually the existing national standards of the EU member
states.


In

the

last

decades

a

system

of

new

technical

regulations

has

been

developed

in

Romania
.

They

are

organised

on

several

hierarchic

levels,

interconnected

to

each

other,

and

are

being

subjected

to

periodical

revision

and

updating,

in

according

with

national

and


international

scientific

and

technological

progress
.


Lately,

new

editions

of

Romanian

technical

regulations

are

being


orientated

towards

gradual

harmonisation

with

those

issued

within

the


framework

of

the

European

Union
.


The

standards

are

technical

regulations

that

establish

characteristics


for

construction

materials,

elements,

subensembles
,

equipment

etc,

as


well

as

basic

concepts,

principles

and

data

for

design,

execution

and


acceptance

of

buildings
.

Some

typical

categories

of

such

standards


are
:


standards

for

materials

(e
.
g
.

steel

reinforcement

bars,

laminated

profiles

and

others

steel

products
;

natural

and

artificial

aggregates,

cement,

lime,

water,

additives

for

concrete
;

concrete

-

normal

or

with

special

characteristics

-

mortars
;

bricks

and

ceramic

blocks
;

timber

and

other

wooden

products
;

thermal
-
insulating,

acoustical
-
insulating

and

waterproofing

materials,

finishing

materials

etc)
;




standards for
elements

and
equipment

(e.g. plain, reinforced or
prestressed

prefabricated elements; partitioning elements; doors and
windows; equipment for heating, ventilation and air
-
conditioning, water
supply and drainage, waste disposal, electrical supply,
telecommunication, mechanical transportation, and so on);


standards for
design

(e.g. actions on buildings; soil mechanics and
foundations ; design of plain, reinforced and
prestressed

concrete,
steel, masonry and timber structures,;
thermotechnics
, acoustics and
illumination of buildings; performances; modular co
-
ordination and
tolerances; drawings etc).


The
codes are more specific,

are technical regulations that apply basic

concepts, principles

and data established by
standards

to various

categories or types of buildings, as well as to specific or complementary

problems related to their design, execution and acceptance. Some

representative kinds of present Romanian codes for building construction

(many of them labelled with the old term “norms”) are listed below, in

relation with:



functional design
(e.g. buildings destined to various functions,
such as dwellings, hotels, schools, hospitals, theatres, sports halls,
offices et al);


fire safety
;


protection against deterioration
due to natural and artificial
agents;


structural design and computation analysis
(e.g. earthquake
-
resistance design, reinforced concrete structures of various types


with frames or shear walls, cast
-
in
-
place or prefabricated
-
, masonry,
steel and timber structures etc);


geotechnics

and foundations
(e.g. shallow and deep foundations
of various types, foundations on soil with special properties,
strengthening of weak soils etc);


reinforced concrete design and construction


specific cases
(e.g. lightweight concrete, cold
-
formed wire
-
mesh reinforcement,
welded joints of reinforcement, formworks, concrete curing et al);


masonry and walls
(e.g. stone, brick, lightweight concrete and
cellular concrete blocks masonry, partition walls of various types,
watertightness

of exterior walls joints etc);



steel design and construction


specific cases
(e.g.
cold
-
formed profile elements, high
-
strength bolt joints et
al);


design and execution of roofing, insulation,
waterproofing
, finishes etc);


design and execution of systems and equipment
for
heating, ventilation and air conditioning, water supply an
drainage, electrical supply, gas supply,
telecommunications, mechanical transportation, etc);


maintenance and repair works.


Other technical regulations, focused on limited and specific
matters include:


technical instructions, technical specifications,
technological cards and procedures,
as well as

catalogues with unified or typified details.