Behavioral Learning Theories

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Learning Theories


By



Maria Victoria
Jauregui



EDTC 3320


Introduction


What is learning theory?



There are two types of learning theories and
their respective theorists.


Behaviorism



B.F. Skinner


Cognitivism



Jean Piaget



Learning theories impact on teaching and learning



Evaluate each theory on adult education.

Continuation



What is learning theory? It is an understood
thinking of how people and animals learn.



There are three main categories of learning
theories:


Behavior


Cognitive


Constructive



The first two categories along with their
respective theorists will be explain.

B. F. Skinner

Behavioral Learning Theorist


Skinner is distinguished for
describing the values of
operant conditioning.



According to Skinner, the
environment determines
behavior.



As determined by his view,
people have consistent
behaviors patterns because
they have particular kinds of
response patterns.

Skinner Box


In one of Skinner’s experiments, a
hungry rat was placed in a box.
When the rat accidentally pressed
the lever a pellet of food was
dropped in the tray. The rat
learned that pressing the lever
would give her food. The lever
pressing behavior was reinforced
by food in this experiment.



By this experiment, Skinner shows
the ideas of “operant conditioning”
and “shaping behavior.”



Skinner applied his findings about
animals to human behavior.


Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Development

Piaget’s Key ideas:


Assimilation: The process by which a
person takes material into their mind from
the environment, which may mean changing
the evidence of their senses to make it fit.
(Atherton 2009)



Accommodation: The difference made to
one’s mind or concepts by the process of
assimilation. (Atherton 2009)



Note that assimilation and accommodation
go together; you can’t have one without the
other. (Atherton 2009)

Piaget’s Developmental Theory


Piaget’s Theory


There are four
developmental
stages. The
process by
which children
progress
through them.


SENSORIMOTOR STAGE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE










0
-
2 The child begins to interact 2
-
7 The child begins to represent



with the environment. the world symbolically.


CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE












7
-
11 The child learns rules 11 years and up The adolescent


such as conservation can transcend the concrete


situation and think about the future.

Behavioral Learning Theories

Impact on teaching/training


Reinforces

may also
be used to teach new
skills. This process is
also referred as
shaping.



A teacher or
instructor can also use
punishment and
consequences
to bring
about a behavior
change and facilitate
learning (Davidson
2006)

A

ANTECEDENTS

Prompting

Modeling

Feedback

Goals

B

BEHAVIORS


Desired


Undesired

C

CONSEQUENCES

Positive

Reinforcement

Negative

Reinforcement

Punishment

Extinction

Escape/Avoidance


Behavioral Learning Theories



Behaviorists believe that
what one learns is influenced
by the environment instead of
the student (Davidson 2006).



The theory of behavioral
learning also contends that
contiguity and reinforcement,
whether positive or negative,
are essential to the learning
process (Davidson 2006).


The teacher’s function,
according to the behavioral
learning theory, is to make
use of negative reinforces to
end unwanted behavior and
positive reinforces to
strengthen wanted behavior
(Davidson 2006).

Cognitive Learning Theory



According to the cognitive learning theory, individuals are
actively engaged in the learning process.




The learning process consists of linking information that was
formerly learned with the new information being learned.


Personal

Determinants

Environmental
Determinants

Behavioral

Determionants

Cognitive Learning Theory

Impact on Teaching /Training



According to the cognitive theory, the
responsibilities of a teacher are:



* The lessons are presented organized.



* Understand a student’s way of learning and


stage of development. Use it to ensure that


lessons are developmentally appropriate.

Humanistic
Approach Theory


The humanistic theory
of learning involves the
concept of learning
through watching the
behavior of others and
what results from that
behavior. However,
learning does not have
to involve a behavior
change. Learning comes
about as a result of
observation (Davidson
2006).




The teacher’s role, according
to the humanistic theory, is
to be a role model (Davidson
2006).


Model appropriate behavior
and make an effort not to
replicate inappropriate
behavior.


Provide a reason and
motivation for each task,
teach general learning skills,
foster group work, and if
possible, give a choice of
tasks to the students.

Evaluate Behaviorism in adult
Education



Theory has six components for behavior
modification.



It was a one
-
dimensional approach to
behavior, it overlooked mind activity.



Behaviorism was replaced by
cognitivism, which focused on mental
activities.

Evaluate Cognitivism in Adult
Education



Gregorc

Style Delineator
-


Perception/Ordering based methods.




Four concepts based on the quality of


either concrete or abstract with both


having sequential and random methods.




These methods have been proven to


provide learning.


Conclusion

Behaviorists believe that learning is
influence by the environment. The theory of
behavioral learning sustains that behavior is
shaped by positive reinforcement or
negative reinforcement. Both positive
reinforcement or negative reinforcement
play an essential role in learning.


Cognitivists

believe that learners are active
participants in the learning process.
Individuals actively choose to practice, pay
attention, ignore and make many decisions in
order to achieve their goals.

References

Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2009, October). Behaviorism at Learning
-
Theories.com.


Retrieved October 10
,

2009 from
http://www.learning
-
theories.com/behaviorism.html



On Purpose Associates (1998
-
2008)
Funderstanding
: Piaget: Retrieved October10, 2009 from


http://www.funderstanding.com/content/piaget



Atherton JA (2005) Learning and Teaching: Piaget’s developmental theory [On
-
line] UK:


Retrieved October 10, 2009 from


http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm



Davison Brandi (2006) Associated Content: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Humanistic Theories


of Learning: Retrieved October 11, 2009 from


htto://www.associatedcontent.com/article/94979/behavioral cognitive and humanistic.html


Sparknotes

(2009). Psychology: Personality. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from


http://www.sparknotes.com/101/psychology/personality/behaviorist theories.html



Dr. Robert Ouellette (September 14, 2009) Learning Styles in Adult Education


Retrieved October 11, 2009 from


http://polaris.umuc.edu/~rouellet/learnstyle/learnstyle.htm



Wikipedia contributors(
n.d
.) Behaviorist Orientation Retrieved October 11, 2009 from


http://adulteducation.wikibook.us/index.php?title=Behaviorist

Orientation