The History of the Computer

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The History of the Computer

JAOIT 8

In the Beginning……….


Contrary to popular belief, the computer has
been around for several years.


It is said that the most complex computer ever
made is the human brain.


Computers have their beginnings back in pre
-
history, starting with the abacus.

The abacus


The abacus, a simple
counting aid, may have
been invented in Babylonia
(now Iraq) in the fourth
century B.C.


The Antikythera
mechanism, used for
registering and predicting
the motion of the stars and
planets, is dated to the first
century B.C. It was
discovered off the coast of
Greece in 1901.

You research on the WEB


Is the abacus still in use?


Where is it manufactured at?


What special needs students use the abacus?

The abacus


Arabic numerals are
introduced to Europe in the
eighth and ninth centuries
A.D. Roman numerals
remain in use in some parts
of Europe until the
seventeenth century. The
Arabic system introduced
the concepts of the zero and
fixed places for tens,
hundreds, thousand, etc.,
and greatly simplified
mathematical calculations.

The abacus


John Napier, Baron of
Merchiston, Scotland,
invents logs in 1614.
Logs allow
multiplication and
division to be reduced
to addition and
subtraction.

The abacus


Wilhelm Schickard builds the first mechanical
calculator in 1623. It can work with six digits,
and carries digits across columns. It works, but
never makes it beyond the prototype stage.
Schickard is a professor at the University of
Tubingen, Germany.

The abacus


Blaise Pascal builds a
mechanical calculator
in 1642. It has the
capacity for eight digits,
but has trouble
carrying and its gears
tend to jam.


Joseph
-
Marie Jacquard
invents an automatic
loom controlled by
punch cards.

Charles Babbage


Charles Babbage
conceives of a
"Difference Engine"
in 1820 or 1821. It is a
massive steam
-
powered mechanical
calculator designed to
print astronomical
tables.


Charles Babbage


He attempts to build it over the course of the
next 20 years, only to have the project cancelled
by the British government in 1842. Babbage's
next idea is the Analytical Engine
-

a mechanical
computer that can solve any mathematical
problem. It uses punch
-
cards similar to those
used by the Jacquard loom and can perform
simple conditional operations.

Charles Babbage


Augusta Ada Byron, the countess of Lovelace,
met Babbage in 1833. She describes the
Analytical Engine as weaving "algebraic patterns
just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and
leaves." Her published analysis of the Analytical
Engine is our best record of its programming
potential. In it she outlines the fundamentals of
computer programming, including data analysis,
looping and memory addressing.

The History of the Computer

JAOIT 8

Electronics


Konrad Zuse, a
German engineer,
completes the first
general purpose
programmable
calculator in 1941. He
pioneers the use of
binary math and
Boolean logic in
electronic calculation.

You research on the WEB


What is Boolean logic?


Can you name two types of computer language
that uses Boolean logic?


Electronics


Colossus, a British computer used for code
-
breaking, is operational by December of 1943.
ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator
Analyzor and Computer, is developed by the
Ballistics Research Laboratory in Maryland to
assist in the preparation of firing tables for
artillery. It is built at the University of
Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical
Engineering and completed in November 1945.

Electronics

Electronics


Bell Telephone
Laboratories develops the
transistor in 1947.


UNIVAC, the Universal
Automatic Computer
(pictured below), is
developed in 1951. It can
store 12,000 digits in
random access mercury
-
delay lines.

Electronics


EDVAC, for
Electronic Discrete
Variable Computer, is
completed under
contract for the
Ordinance
Department in 1952.

Electronics


In 1952 G.W. Dummer, a radar expert from the
British Royal Radar Establishment, proposes
that electronic equipment be manufactured as a
solid block with no connecting wires. The
prototype he builds doesn't work and he receives
little support for his research.


Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor
both announce the integrated circuit in 1959.


Electronics


The IBM 360 is
introduced in April of
1964 and quickly
becomes the standard
institutional mainframe
computer. By the mid
-
80s the 360 and its
descendents will have
generated more than
$100 billion in revenue
for IBM.

History of the Computer

JAOIT 8

Mini


Texas Instruments and
Fairchild semiconductor both
announce the integrated
circuit in 1959.


Ivan Sutherland
demonstrates a program
called Sketchpad on a TX
-
2
mainframe at MIT's Lincoln
Labs in 1962. It allows him to
make engineering drawings
with a light pen.


A typical minicomputer costs
about $20,000.

Mini


1965: An IC that cost $1000 in 1959 now costs
less than $10. Gordon Moore predicts that the
number of components in an IC will double
every year. This is known as Moore's Law.


Doug
Engelbart

demonstrates in 1968 a word
processor, an early hypertext system and a
collaborative application: three now common
computer applications.



Gordon Moore and Robert
Noyce

found Intel in
1968.

Mini


Xerox creates its Palo Alto Research Center
-

Xerox PARC
-

in 1969. Its mission is to explore
the "architecture of information."


Fairchild Semiconductor introduces a 256
-
bit
RAM chip in 1970.


In late 1970 Intel introduces a 1K RAM chip and
the 4004, a 4
-
bit microprocessor. Two years
later comes the 8008, an 8
-
bit microprocessor.

You research on the WEB


What would be the mini computers of today?


What is the average cost of the mini computers
today?


The History of the Computer

JAOIT 8

Micro


Bill Gates and Paul
Allen form Traf
-
O
-
Data
in 1971 to sell their
computer traffic
-
analysis systems.


1972: Gary Kildall
writes PL/M, the first
high
-
level
programming language
for the Intel
microprocessor.

Micro


Steve Jobs and Steve
Wozniak are building
and selling "blue
boxes" in Southern
California in 1971.


April 1972: Intel
introduces the 8008,
the first 8
-
bit
microprocessor.

Micro


Jonathan A. Titus designs the Mark
-
8, "Your
Personal Minicomputer," according to the July,
1974 cover of Radio
-
Electronics.


Popular Electronics features the MITS Altair
8800 on its cover, January 1975. It is hailed as
the first "personal" computer. Thousands of
orders for the 8800 rescue MITS from
bankruptcy.


Pictured below: The Homebrew Computer Club
in 1975.

Micro


Jonathan A. Titus designs the Mark
-
8, "Your
Personal Minicomputer," according to the July,
1974 cover of Radio
-
Electronics.


Popular Electronics features the MITS Altair
8800 on its cover, January 1975. It is hailed as
the first "personal" computer. Thousands of
orders for the 8800 rescue MITS from
bankruptcy.

Micro


By 1980 Apple has captured 50% of the personal
computer market.


In 1980 Microsoft is approached by IBM to
develop BASIC for its personal computer project.
The IBM PC is released in August, 1981.


The Apple Macintosh debuts in 1984. It features
a simple, graphical interface, uses the 8
-
MHz,
32
-
bit Motorola 68000 CPU, and has a built
-
in
9
-
inch B/W screen.

Micro


Microsoft Windows 1.0
ships in November,
1985.


Motorola announces
the 68040, a 32
-
bit
25MHz
microprocessor.


Microsoft's sales for
1989 reach $1 billion,
the first year to do so.

You research on the WEB


How many versions of Microsoft Windows has
been released?


What are those versions?

The History of the Computer

JAOIT 8

Network


Timesharing, the concept of linking a large
numbers of users to a single computer via
remote terminals, is developed at MIT in the late
50s and early 60s. 1962: Paul
Baran

of RAND
develops the idea of distributed, packet
-
switching networks.


ARPANET goes online in 1969.


The world's first operational packet switching
network and the progenitor of what was to become
the global Internet.

Network


Bob Kahn and
Vint

Cerf develop the basic ideas of
the Internet in 1973.


In 1974 BBN opens the first public packet
-
switched
network
-

Telenet
.


A UUCP link between the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University
establishes USENET in 1979. The first MUD is also
developed in 1979, at the University of Essex.


TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and
Internet Protocol) is established as the standard for
ARPANET in 1982.


Network


1987: the number of
network hosts breaks
10,000.


1989: the number of
hosts breaks 100,000.


Tim Berners
-
Lee
develops the World Wide
Web. CERN releases the
first Web server in 1991.


1992: the number of
hosts breaks 1,000,000.

You research on the WEB


What is a top level domain?


How many top level domains are there.


What do the following TLD’s stand for:


.gov


.com


.mil


.UK


.AQ

Network


The World Wide Web sports
a growth rate of 341,634% in
service traffic in its third
year, 1993.


The main U.S. Internet
backbone traffic begins
routing through commercial
providers as NSFNET reverts
to a research network in
1994.


The Internet 1996 World
Exposition is the first
World's Fair to be held on
the internet.

WORLD INTERNET CONNECTIVITY

(As
of 6/15/95)