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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Section 1.1



Explain the reasons for using a network



Show how networks are useful



Describe the difference between synchronous and
asynchronous networking



Identify traits that make a good network


Section 1.2



Describe important milestones in networking history



List uses of networks today



Identify emerging network technologies


Section 1.3



Differentiate between careers in the networking
industry



Describe duties of each career track in networking


Section 1.4



Identify parts of a computer system



Explain the uses of computer components

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas


Networks help us share
data and resources. This
increases efficiency and
cost
-
effectiveness.
Networks must be
reliable, redundant,
scalable, secure, and fast.

Key Terms


network

file sharing

resources

synchronous
communication

asynchronous
communication

reliable

redundant

scalable

throughput

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Reasons to Use a Network

Computer
networks

connect systems together
to make better use of
limited resources.


Networks:




allow users to engage in
file sharing



allow users to share
resources



centralize administration
and support



improve communication

network

A system of two or
more computer systems
connected together so they
can share and exchange
data. (p. 6)


file sharing

Sharing files
between computers; the act
of making files on one
computer accessible to
others on a network. (p. 6)


resource

Software or
hardware, such as a hard
drive, printer, or scanner, that
can be shared over a
network. (p. 6)

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Reasons to Use a Network

Sharing resources, such as a printer, provides many
benefits.

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Reasons to Use a Network

Networking allows two

kinds of communication:




synchronous

(real
-
time)



asynchronous


synchronous
communication

When
people talk to each other at
the same time. (p. 8)


asynchronous
communication

A form of
data transmission that
involves a delay of seconds,
minutes, or even days.
Communication does not
happen instantly. (p. 8)

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Traits of a Good Network

The five main traits of a
good network are:




reliability



scalable



redundant



secure



speed


reliable network

A
dependable network that
user’s trust to work. (p. 8)


scalable network

A network
that the hardware or software
can grow (scale) up or down
to meet an organization’s
needs. (p. 9)


redundant network

Networks that duplicate data
and/or resources to minimize
down time and losses in the
event of a disaster. (p. 9)

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Traits of a Good Network

A server cluster acts as a single server to other computers
on the network.

pp.

6
-
10

1.1

Principles of Networking

Traits of a Good Network

The speed of a network is
critical. Network speed is
measured by several
factors, such as the rate
at which data will travel,
which is related to its
throughput
.


throughput

The capacity to
handle network traffic. A
measure for network data
transfer performance. (p. 10)

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas


Understanding how
networks evolved in the
past helps you to
understand today’s
technology. Future
networks will enable us to
connect almost anywhere,
anytime, and faster than
ever before.

Key Terms


multitask

timesharing

terminal

dumb terminal

ARPANET

hyperlink

distributed computing

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

The First Networks

The first computers could
only perform one task at a
time. Within a few years,
computers were able to
multitask

and
timeshare
,
which increased the
computer’s productivity.


multitask

A computer’s ability to
work on more than one job at a
time. The processor can turn its
attention from one job to another
if one is held up waiting for input
or output. (p. 12)


timesharing

In the early days
of computers, the concept of
running multiple jobs at the
same time. The idea of switching
the computer’s processing from
one task to another and
incorporating a main, or host,
computer. (p. 12)

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

The First Networks

Timesharing allowed for
direct human/machine
interaction through
terminals
.


Terminals used with
timesharing computers
were known as
dumb
terminals
.


terminal
A device with a
keyboard and a monitor that
connects directly to a
mainframe through a
communications link or
cable. The terminal requests
information from the
mainframe computer. (p. 13)


dumb terminal

Computers
consisting of keyboards for
input and screens for output.
They are wired directly to the
host computer and have little
or no processing power of
their own. (p. 13)


pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

ARPANET

The U.S. Department of
Defense established
ARPANET
. ARPANET
linked computers around
the country and provided
a data highway for military
communications.

ARPANET

The Advanced
Research Projects Agency
Network created in the 1960s
made it possible for military
and university computers to
communicate long distances
and to share files through an
interconnected network.
(p. 13)

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

ARPANET

ARPANET allowed host computers around the country to
communicate with each other.

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

Networks have become a
part of everyday life. The
original Internet was
primarily a text
-
based
network.


Tim Berners
-
Lee
developed the World Wide
Web, using a graphic user
interface (GUI) with
hyperlinks

to access
information on the
Internet.

hyperlink

Text or image that
“links” the user to another
document when clicked. (p.
14)

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

Although the Web is only one part of the Internet, most
users think they are the same thing.




The Internet is hardware connected together to create a
network.



The Web includes software (browsers) that send information
along the Internet’s hardware.

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

Networks are important parts of many facets of our lives,
such as the following examples:




business



health care



education



leisure and recreation

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

New ways of using
existing systems, like
distributed computing
,
allow computers
connected to a network to
share resources.

distributed computing

Using the processing power
of thousands of idle
computers to process large
data sets. For example, it is
the primary source of
computing power for
research into the human
genome. (p. 15)

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

Example of Distributed Computing

pp.

12
-
17

1.2

The Evolution of Networks

Today’s Networks

Other important developments in networking in recent
years have been:




Next Generation Internet (NGI) and Internet2



educational Webcasts



collaborative health care

pp.

18
-
22

1.3

Networking Careers

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas


There are many career
paths in networking.
Although educational
backgrounds for many
career paths in networking
are similar, on
-
the
-
job
experience and a
continued interest in
learning are keys to
success in networking.

Key Terms


network administrator

network engineer

network architect

network support
technician

outsourcing

pp.

18
-
22

1.3

Networking Careers

Career Paths

There are many careers
tied to networks and
networking.




network administrator



network engineer


network administrator

Trained individual
responsible for installing
computers and their
operating systems and
managing networks on a
daily basis. (p. 18)


network engineer

Highly
trained individual responsible
for connecting computers to
the network and connecting
networks to networks. (p. 19)

pp.

18
-
22

1.3

Networking Careers

Career Paths



network architect



network support technician


Some companies
outsource
their
networking needs to
contractors.


network architect

Highly
trained individual who oversees
the construction, maintenance,
and expansion of a company’s
network. (p. 19)


network support technician

Individual with specialized
technical knowledge to
troubleshoot the many problems
that arise in network usage.

(p. 20)


outsourcing

To hire an outside
company to handle various
information technology (IT)
services, such as technical
support. (p. 20)

pp.

18
-
22

1.3

Networking Careers

Job Skills

The job skills required to succeed in a networking career
are communication, problem solving, teamwork, and
leadership.


Because the technology is always changing, you can no
longer count on going to college and learning all you will
ever need to know for the rest of your career.

pp.

18
-
22

1.3

Networking Careers

You Try It






Activity 1A Creating a Career Development Plan (p. 22)

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas


A computer is made up of
many components that
interact with each other.
Hardware is the physical
components of the system.
Software is a compiled set of
instructions that tell the
hardware what to do.

Key Terms


input

output

operating system (OS)

central processing unit
(CPU)

reduced instruction set
computers (RISC)

complex instruction set
computers (CISC)

random
-
access memory
(RAM)

read
-
only memory (ROM)

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

It is very important in networking to understand how the
different parts of a computer work together.


The four main parts of a computer system are:




hardware



software



data



users


pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

Hardware identifies all the
physical components of a
computer.


Hardware is broken into
several groups:




input



output



storage devices

input

Provides some sort of
instruction to the computer
so that it knows what to do. A
device such as a keyboard is
an example of an input
device. (p. 24)


output

Data that are
displayed (for example, on a
screen or printer) or heard as
music from speakers. (p. 25)


pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

Hardware devices allow
users to interact with the
computer.


A port, as shown in this
figure, is a socket in the
back of the computer. The
port connects input and
output devices to the
computer.

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

The second part of the computer system is software.
Software is a set of instructions for the computer
processors. Software is often divided into two broad
categories:





systems software



applications software

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

The third part of the computer system, data, is the
information the computer works on.



Data are stored in binary format. As you input data, such
as text, the operating system translates data into 1’s and
0’s so the computer can process and store the data.

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

The Parts of a Computer System

The user is the fourth part of the computer system.


Users include the people who program computers, as well
as those who use the applications.

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

Inside the Machine

Your computer is made of
powerful hardware. The
components in your
computer include the
following:




processor



memory



communication devices

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

Inside the Machine

The
central processing
unit (CPU)

is the brain of
the computer. CPUs fall
into two groups:




RISC



CISC



central processing unit (CPU)

The brain, or processor
component, of the computer that
performs basic functions. (p. 27)


reduced instruction set
computers (RISC)

A type of
microprocessor that relies on a
relatively small set of simplified
instructions, allowing them to
operate very fast. (p. 27)


complex instruction set
computers (CISC)

A type of
microprocessor that supports
most instructions and is difficult
to design and build, leading to
somewhat higher costs. (p. 27)

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

Inside the Machine

Memory consists of two
types:




random
-
access memory
(RAM)



read
-
only memory (ROM)

random
-
access memory
(RAM)

Provides a storage
area for data going into and
out of the CPU. (p. 28)


read
-
only memory (ROM)

A set of prerecorded
instructions that tells the
computer how to start, look
for hardware devices, and
check the operating system.
(p. 28)


pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

Inside the Machine

Communication devices, such as modems and network
interface cards (NICs), enable your computer to connect to
other computers.


NICs allow your computer to communicate with other
computers on other networks.

pp.

24
-
28

1.4

The Computer System

You Try It






Activity 1B Analyzing a Hard Drive (p. 26)

Chapter 1

Resources

For more resources on this chapter, go to the Introduction
to Networks and Networking Web site at
http://networking.glencoe.com
.