Mr. Navdeep Bhandari Aman Bassi

orangesvetΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

79 εμφανίσεις

Submitted To:
-

Submitted By:
-

Mr.
Navdeep

Bhandari

Aman

Bassi


(Faculty, I.T.
Deptt
.)
Gurleen

Kaur


Gurpreet

Kaur


(BCA
2
A)

Sub Topics:

1. ALOHA


1.1 Introduction


1.2 Overview


1.3 Aloha Protocol


1.4 Types of Aloha


1.4.1 Pure Aloha


1.4.2 Slotted Aloha


1.5 Aloha
Throughtput


2. SONET


2.1 Introduction


2.2 Architecture


2.3 Advantages


2.4
Sonet

Protocol


2.5 Basic Frame

INTRODUCTION




World ‘s First computer communication N/W using low
cost ham like radios, named ALOHA net.




First Functioning network in the USA




Conceived &
Implenmented

at the University of Hawaii
Campus at MANOA




Purpose was to link the University mainframe Computer
to client Computers

OVERVIEW. . . . . .




Created in 1970 by Norman Abramson




Idea was to Use low cost amateur radio like system to create
C/N.




Original version of ALOHA used two distinct frequencies in a
hub/star configuration




Used a shared medium for transmission

ALOHA PROTOCOL. . . . .




An OSI layer 2 protocol for LAN networks with broadcast
topology




Two Conditions



1. If you have a data to send, send the data



2. If the message collides with other transmission, try
resending “later”

TYPES. . . .

1.
Pure Aloha

Pure Aloha Vulnerable Time = 2 x
Tfr

2. Slotted Aloha

Slotted Aloha Vulnerable Time =
Tfr

SONET (Synchronous Optical Network )



A Multiplexing Protocol for transferring
multiple digital bit streams using laser or
LED.




Basically a TDM




Supports both electrical & Optical signal




Is a set of standards for interfacing OTC
optical networks.




Implemented for long haul traffic

Sonet

Transmission Network

is composed of several
pieces of equipment, including:



Terminal multiplexer (TM)



Add
-
drop multiplexer (ADM)



Repeater



Digital cross
-
connect system (DCS)


Architecture In SONET



The architecture used in SONET technology is SONET
rings, known as "self
-
healing rings,“.



use two or more transmission paths between network nodes,
which are typically digital cross
-
connects (DCSs) or (ADMs).

Two Fiber Unidirectional

Two Fiber Bidirectional

Four Fiber Bidirectional

ADVANTAGES




Higher speed




Provides advanced network management and
maintenance features




flexibility to accommodate any networks




used in the three traditional telecommunications areas:


1. Long haul networks


2. Local Networks


3. Loop Carriers

SONET Protocol:


Consist of Four Layer

1.
Photonic layer

2.

Section layer

3.

Line layer

4.

Path layer

THE BASIC FRAME



3 basic parts to each frame


1.
Section overhead


2.
Line overhead


3.
Synchronous payload

To Conclude. . . .

REFERENCES


1.
Kuo
, Franklin F (1973).
"The ALOHA system" in Computer
Networks
. Prentice
-
Hall. pp.

501

518.



2.
Kuo
, Franklin F (1995). "The ALOHA system".
ACM Computer
Communication.

3. International Engineering Consortium SONET Tutorial,
undated, URL retrieved on 21 April 2007.