Instructor: Li Ma

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Instructor: Li Ma


Department of Computer Science

Texas Southern University, Houston

August,
2011

Computer Systems


Computer is a programmable electronic device


Computer has 4 basic computing functions


Input


Processing


Output


S
torage


Types of Computers


Supercomputer: large and powerful


Mainframe computer: multitasking


Minicomputer: for medium
-
sized business


Microcomputer: desktop computer, notebook computer, tablet
computer, Personal Digital Assistant (PDA
)

by Li Ma

2

Hardware of Computer Systems


Motherboard: the primary printed circuit board in a PC


All the other circuit boards in the computer are connected
to
motherboard


CPU


RAM chips


Expansion cards


Processor and coprocessor sockets


Memory sockets


Serial and parallel ports


Peripheral controllers


System bus

by Li Ma

3

Hardware of Computer Systems
(
cont’)


The central processing unit (CPU)


Fetch instructions, follow the instructions, and produce some
results


Control unit


Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)


Main memory (
Random
-
access memory, RAM)


It holds the sequences of instructions in the programs that are
running and the data those programs are using


It is a volatile type of memory, used only for temporary storage


Data will be lost when power is off

by Li Ma

4

Hardware of Computer Systems
(
cont’)


Secondary storage devices


Type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time


Disk drives: hard disk, floppy disk, Zip disk, etc.


Optical devices: compact disk (CD)


Flash drives: or thumb drives, directly plug to USB port


Input devices


keyboard, mouse, scanner,
microphone, and digital camera


Output devices


printer, monitor
,
and
speaker


secondary storage devices

by Li Ma

5

Hardware of Computer Systems
(
cont’)


Others


Modem: a communication device


Video Card: an expansion card, responsible for transforming
graphics and text signals onto the monitor


Power Supply: responsible for converting the standard power
into an energy form that your computer can use


System Buses: channels over which information flows between
two or more devices

by Li Ma

6

Software of Computer Systems


Software refers to the programs that run on a computer,
there are two categories:


Operating System (OS): interface between hardware and software


DOS: Disk Operating System


Windows


Unix


Linux: portable Unix


Macintosh


Application software: developed by users, for some specific purpose

by Li Ma

7

MS
-
DOS


A set of programs that allows users to interact with a
computer


Once you turn on the computer, it will be loaded


It has a command
-
line interface


File and Directory Structure


Tree
-
like


Nodes:
directories
and files


Windows 95 folded DOS into
GUI (Graphical User
Interface)


Friendly interface


Easier to operate

by Li Ma

8

Windows


Windows 95


First truly combined the operating system and GUI for the
Intel
-
based computers


Windows 98


Logical extension of Windows 95


More efficient


Integrates World Wide Web (WWW) capabilities into the
operating system


Newer version of Windows


Windows 2000, Windows XP
,
Windows
Vista, …

by Li Ma

9

Windows
(
cont’)


Icons and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)


A software program that allows you to communicate with your
computer by using a pointing device like mouse.


Application Suites in Windows


Microsoft visual studio


Microsoft office


Internet Explorer, Etc.

by Li Ma

10

Windows XP


Windows refers to the operating system that runs the
PC or PC
-
compatible computers


It is loaded once you turn on the computer


Desktop: the basic screen on which Windows and
application run


Taskbar, Shortcut icons, Start button, Quick
-
Launch toolbar,
System tray, Mouse pointer


A window is a rectangle area for some certain
application


It can be opened and closed


It can also be resized, moved, and reduced to a button (to the
task bar)

by Li Ma

11

Windows XP
(
cont’)


File and Directory Structure


Like file cabinets: files and folders


My Computer
: view your disks, folders and files


Create a new folder


Copy, move, rename, and delete files


Find files and folders


Compress (or zip) files

by Li Ma

12

Microsoft Office


A set of powerful applications (or a suite) that has been
designed to work together


Share data to combine text, chart & database
information in one document


Word: word processing


Excel: electronic spreadsheet manipulation


PowerPoint: making presentation materials


Access: manipulating databases


FrontPage: developing web pages


Outlook: tracking the schedule, checking email

by Li Ma

13

Microsoft Office

(
cont’)


Web aware


All applications can be used to access or generate HTML document


Starting an office application


Double
-
click the icon on the desktop (shortcut)


Invoke the Start, Programs command sequence


Open an associated file


Office Assistant


Very useful to new user

by Li Ma

14