I never considered Deep Blue intelligent in any way. I

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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11/8/2013

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1

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Mastering the Game
: A History of
Computer
Chess


5
.0 Title:
Endgame
: Challenging the Masters




5.0 Quote:


I never considered

De
ep Blue intelligent in any way. I
t’s just an excellent problem
solver in this very specific domain.”


Murray Campbell, Deep Bl
ue team member


5
.0
Main Text:

[
18
4

words]

Endgame:
Challenging the Masters

In 1978
,

International Master David Levy won a bet made ten years earlier that no
computer would beat him.
At the 1984 ACM conference, a panel of experts could not
agree whether

a
computer
would ever

defeat
the
top human

chess
player
.
But after
dramatic games in
1989

in which

two widel
y
-
respected G
randmasters were defeated
by
Carnegie Mellon University’s
Hitech

and
Deep Though
t

chess
machines
,

the goal
of defeating the World Chess C
hampion seemed
within reach
.


The
recognition
that would come if one did defeat the World Chess Champion got
IBM interested in the challenge. Their

development
program in
late
19
89

result
ed

in
a
specialized

chess computer
called

Deep Blue.
When
it

beat

Ga
rry Kasp
a
rov

in
1997
,
it was

the fi
rst and only time
a World Chess C
hampion

was defeated by a
computer
.



At long last, the
promise
of the mythical Turk
and the
dream of the
early
computer
pioneers
had become real
.
Deep Blue
defeat
ed

the best human

chess

player
using

large amounts of
calculation. But was it
a
thinking

machine
?
I
s
human
thinking
calculation of a sort that we do not

yet understand
?





5.0a Main Photo: [
5
3
words]

The popular media portrayed t
he 1997 re
-
match between
World Chess Champion
Garry Kasparov and IBM’s Deep Blue
custom
supercomputer as a battle between
man
and

machine
. The
cover of
Newsweek

proclaimed it
“The Brain’s Last Stand.”
This
view
exaggerated the power of the computer and
minimized

the human effort
behind the machine its
elf.

Credit: ©
Telegraph Group Limited





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2

of
5



5.1 Secondary Text: [1
2
9

words]

Levy’s
Bet

In 1968 International M
aster David Levy made a famous bet that no chess computer
would beat him within ten years.
“Until 1977
,

there seemed to be no point in my
playing a

formal challenge match against any chess program because none of them
were good enough,” wrote Levy, “but when CHESS 4.5 began doing well…it was time
for me…to defend the human race against the coming invasion
.”


He won his bet in 1978
at the Canadian Na
tional Exhibition in Toronto
by beating
computer chess program
CHESS 4.7
,

which
r
an

on a CDC Cyber 176 mainframe
computer
.

Although the level of play of computer chess programs improved steadily
for thirty years, it was not until the late 1980s
that
they
w
ere able to defeat some of
the

top human players.


5.1a Chart: [
61

words]


[NOTE TO VSR: Chart will have a lot of detail, leave space for larger size secondary image]


Chess
-
playing computers steadily improved their
game throughout the 1970s and

80s
. By t
he late 1990s, m
icrocomputers
reached

the same level of play as more
expensive special
-
purpose computers.
To obtain ratings
,

computers played against
already
-
rated human opponents. Shown here are the
estimated
chess ratings of
several top computer chess pr
ograms over time

as well as the corresponding levels
for human players
.





5.2 Secondary Text:

[10
6

words]

Embedding Software

in Hardware

In the 1980s, two competing computer chess
machines
, named Hitech and ChipTest,

emerged from Carnegie Mellon Univers
ity.
These

computers

used

advances in
custom
chip technology

to implement

search strategies

in hardware

that
had
previously
been

performed

by software
. This
allow
ed

faster
and
thus deeper
searching
.



The ChipTest team developed a second machine,
named
Dee
p Thought
,

which

won
the Fredkin Intermediate Prize
in 1989
for the first system to
play at
the
Grandmaster level
(
above 2400
)
.

Both
Hi
t
ech and Deep Thought

won computer
-
to
-
computer
c
hess tournaments. M
ore importantly
,

they stunned the
chess
community
in
1988
by
defeating
human opponents, G
randmasters
Arnol
d Denker
(Hitech)
and
Bent Larsen

(Deep Thought)
.







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5.
2
a

Photo
:

[
4
6

words]


The chess
-
playing computer

Hi
t
ech was designed
from 1986 to 1988
by student Carl
Ebeling (r) under
Professor
and Senior

Master
Hans Berliner

(l)

at Carnegie Mellon
University
.


Hi
t
ech
’s custom hardware
could analyze 200,000 moves per second and
was the
first computer to
be
rated over 2400.

Credit: © Bill Redick





5.
2b

Artifact label
[
4
9

words]

The chess
-
playing compute
r

ChipTest
was the creation of
Carnegie Mellon University

doctoral students Feng
-
H
siung Hsu
,
Murray Campbell
,

Thomas Anantharaman, and
Andreas Nowatzyk.
Chip
Test’s hardware
could analyze 50,000 moves per second
,
and

the

second version, ChipTest
-
M, could ex
amine 500,000 moves per second.


Shown here is the main ChipTest circuit board.


Credit:
Loan of
the
Internet Chess Club, L2005.5.1



5
.3
Secondary Text:

[
1
2
9

words]

Challenging the World Champion

In 1989,
IBM hired
Deep Thought team members
Feng
-
Hsiung H
su
, Murray Campbell
and Thomas Anantharaman

to develo
p a computer
that would
beat
reigning
World
Chess C
hampion

Garry Kasparov
.
Although
Deep Thought

lost to Kasparov in 1989,
the
match
led the
team
to
refine
its

software

and add
more custom processors
. By

1996,

it could examine 100 million chess positions per second
,

or
about
nine to
eleven
moves ahead
.

That same year,

Deep Thought was renamed

Deep Blue
and
met

Kasparov
for a best
-
of
-
six
games match.
In the

first game, Deep Blue made history by defeating
K
asparov

marking the first t
ime a current World Chess C
hampion had ever
lost
a
game
to

a computer

in a tournament setting

but
Kasparov bounced back
to win
the
match
with

a score of
4
-
2.


11/8/2013

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5




5.3a

Photo: [
6
9

words]

At
twenty
-
two
,

Garr
y Kasparov became the you
ngest World Chess C
hampion
.

He
is
widely considered the greatest player in history
.
As s
hown here in 1996, he lost his
first game against
IBM’s
Deep Blue, but came back to win the
match. At the end of
the
match,

Kasparov remarked, to the delight of the IBM

team
:

“In certain kinds of
position
s

it sees so deeply that it plays like God.”

Credit:

© LAURENCE KESTERSON/CORBIS SYGMA


5.4 Secondary Text:

[1
24

words]

Defeating the World
Chess
Champion

After defeating Deep Blue in 1996,
Garry
Kasparov issued a rem
atch challenge

for
the following year
.
To prepare, the team tested the
machine
against

several
Grandmasters
,

and
doubled the performance of the
hardware
.


A six
-
game
rematch took place in New York in May 1997.
Kasparov won the first
game
but missed an opp
ortunity in the second game and lost. Kasparov never
recovered his composure and played defensively
for the remainder of the match
. In
the last game
,

he made a simple mistake and lost
,
marking

May 11, 1997,
as the
date on which a World Chess Champion lost
a match to a computer.

There have
since
been two other matches
between a computer and a

World Chess
Champion
. B
oth have ended in a tie.



5.4a

Photo: [
6
3

words
]

Shown here are members of
IBM’s

Deep Blue team (l
-
r) Joe Hoane, Joel Benjamin,
Jerry Brody,

F
eng
-
Hsiung Hsu
, C.J. Tan and Murray
Campbell
.
IBM supported
the
development of
a computer that could beat the World Chess C
hampion
to promote
IBM’s image as a leader in computer technology
. It also
hope
d

that
this research
might have applications to comple
x problems in business and science
.

Credit: IBM Archives



11/8/2013

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5.4b Photo
large

banner:

[
27

words]

World Champion
chess player Garry Kasparov
was defeated by

IBM’s Deep Blue
chess
-
playing computer in
a six
-
game match in
May
,

199
7.

The match received
enormou
s media coverage, much of which emphasized the notion that Kasparov was
defending humanit
y’s honor.

Credit: © Najlah Feanny/CORBIS SABA



5.4
C

Artifact
s

(
Deep Blue
): [
5
5

words]

D
eep Blue

was based
on

IBM’
s RS/6000 SP
2

supercomputer
,

consist
ing

of
30
proces
sors in
two
towers, one
of which is
shown here.

The

480

identical
custom
chess chips

(integrated circuits)

were the
key to
the system’s
performance as a chess

playing machine
.

It calculated 200 million positions per second,
at times up to thirty
moves ahea
d
.

Credit:
Loan of IBM
,
L2004.8


5.4
D Artifact (Deep Blue chip
)

and photo enlargement
:

[
59

words]

IBM’s Deep Blue

relied on custom chess chips designed by Feng
-
Hsiung Hsu. The
chips
, one of which is shown here,

co
ntained 1.5 million transistors

and ran at

24
MHz.

Although
this chip

contained only one quarter the number of transistors of a
Pentium 2

the top microprocessor at the time

it was

immensely powerful

as
a
specialized chess

processo
r
.

Credit: Gift of Feng
-
Hsiung
Hsu
,
102633907


5.4E Artifact (Ches
sboard and pieces)

[7
1

words]

Shown here is a game board from the 1996 match between Deep Blue and
Garry
Kasparov in Philadelphia.
When playing Deep Blue, Kasparov

frequently played
a
defensive style of
chess

that seemed to include an

“anti
-
computer” strat
egy.

As
Grandmaster Vishwanathan Anand observed of Kasparov’s play in the 1997
rematch
:


B
y tryi
ng so hard to avoid

any position where Deep Blue might be able to
calculate its way

through, he effectively self
-
de
structed.”


Credit:
Loan of Monty Newborn
,
L2
005.
4.8


5.4AV Video:

4 minute AV presentation featuring footage of Deep Blue vs Kasparov match