Foundations of New Media

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μέρες)

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Introduction and Theoretical
Foundations of New Media

Interaction Styles

Contents


Etymology


The relation between the evolution of computing and
the main interaction styles


The technological hype cycle and adoption timings


Related knowledge domains


Beyond interacting with digital media

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

2

Personal computing


1978

It is generally thought that a computer must cost under USD
1000.00 to have mass
-
market appeal. A machine at that
price today is a minimal computer system. It has as little as
8KB of user memory, uses audio cassettes for mass storage,
and has a CRT display for output. Today’s computer is
programmed in BASC. Small amounts of application
software are available on cassettes.

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

3

Data storage


1978

A new approach to storing data in computers, using a tunable
dye laser, is described in US Patent 4,101,976 awarded to
scientists at IBM’s San Jose Research Laboratory. Based on a
photochemical process called ‘hole burning’, the new
system provides a unique method for increasing the amount
of information that can be packed into a given space.

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

4

Mobile computing


1994

Recent advances in technology have provided portable
computers with wireless interfaces that allow networked
communication even while a user is mobile. Whereas
today’s first
-
generation notebook computers and personal
digital assistants are self
-
contained, networked mobile
computers are part of a greater infrastructure. Mobile
computing will very likely revolutionize the way we use
computers.

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

5

Interaction styles


Inter

Among, between


Action

the fact or process of doing something, typically to achieve an aim


Interaction

Reciprocal action or influence

Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an
effect upon one another


The idea of a two
-
way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as
opposed to a one
-
way causal effect


Style

A
manner of doing
something


A way of painting, a way of writing…


A way of interacting

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

Interaction styles


In our case…

Ways of interacting with and through interactive media

Ways of communicating with and by means of computerized
environments

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

7

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

8

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

9

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

Main
i
nteraction styles


Command line interfaces


Graphical user interfaces


Natural user interfaces

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

10

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

11

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

Physical programming

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

12

In the beginning it was

a
ll about interacting

w
ith the computer

C
ard punching and reading

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

13

Batch processing

A teletypewriter

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

14

The birth of the Command

Line Interface

Early graphic workstation

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

15

An initial Graphic

User Interface

A mouse prototype

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

16

Invented by

Douglas
Engelbart

A video
-
display unit

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

17

The
oN
-
Line

System

f
eaturing a display
,

a keyboard
and
mouse

The
oN
-
Line

System


…or the
Augmentation of Human Intellect

A system envisioned by Douglas
Engelbart
, to
help Increasing the
capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation,
to gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive
solutions to
problems

Increased
capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of
the following: more
-
rapid comprehension, better
comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of
comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex,
speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding
solutions to problems that before seemed
insolvable

Complex
situations we include the professional problems of
diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical
scientists, attorneys, designers
--
whether the problem situation
exists for twenty minutes or twenty
years…

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

18

http://
www.dougengelbart.org
/pubs/augment
-
3906.html

The
oN
-
Line

System


The system was called
oN
-
Line

System, because it was
also networked between multiple
computers

Computers were no longer isolated


The
display system was based on vector graphics
technology and could display both text and solid lines on
the same
screen


Because
of limited memory space in the mainframe
computer, it could only display upper
-
case characters,
although true upper
-
case was displayed by the use of a
short horizontal line directly above any capitalized
letters


David Lamas, TLU, 2011

19

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

20

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

The Xerox Alto

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

21

The Alto was not a
microcomputer as such,
although its
components
did fit
under a desk

The Xerox Star

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

22

The Star had some
differences from the Alto,
most significantly the
ability to overlap windows
was removed as it was
thought too confusing for
the general
public…

The Apple Lisa

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

23

The Lisa user interface
invented
some of the
Graphical User Interface
concepts we
still use
today. Icons
could
represent all files in the
system and the drag
and
drop
was used for file

The Apple Macintosh

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

24

The Apple Macintosh

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

25

Other early graphic user interfaces

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

26

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

27

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

A graphic user interface timeline


Examples of graphic user interface
styles are…

Menu selection

Forms fill
-
in

Direct manipulation

Metaphors (
ie
. The desktop)

Web navigation


David Lamas, TLU, 2011

28

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

29

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

The evolution of computing

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

30

Waldner
, J
-
B. 2007. Nano
-
informatique

et
intelligence
ambiante
:
inventer

l'ordinateur

du
XXIe

siècle. Hermes
Science
Publications,
2007

Natural user interfaces



i
s
the common
designation used
by designers and
developers of computer interfaces to refer to a user
interface that is effectively invisible, or becomes invisible
with successive learned interactions, to its
users

The
word natural is used because most computer interfaces use
artificial control devices whose operation has to be
learned

Such an interface
relies on a user being able to carry out
relatively natural motions, movements or gestures that they
quickly discover control the computer application or
manipulate the on
-
screen
content

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

31

Natural user interfaces


The most
distinct identifier
of a natural user interface is the
lack of a physical keyboard and or mouse

Hence, the most common examples are…


(multi
-
)touch interfaces; and


voice
-
operated interfaces


The
natural user interface removes the metaphors, and
many of the artificially learned devices, to allow users to
more directly manipulate content using more natural
movements, motions and
gestures


Enthusiast defend that these interfaces are fast
to
learn and,
as such, freely apply the
adjective '
intuitive’ to
describe how
users interact with
them

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

32

Perceptive pixel

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

33

Microsoft Surface

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

34

Xbox
Kinect

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

35

Natural user interfaces are… not natural


According to Don Norman

Fundamental
principles of knowledge of results, feedback, and a good
conceptual model still
rule

The
strength of the graphical user interface
has
little to do with its use of
graphics


It
has to do with the ease of remembering actions, both in what actions
are possible and how to invoke
them


Visible
icons and visible menus are the mechanisms, and despite the
well
-
known problems of scaling up to the demands of modern complex
systems, they still allow one to explore and
learn


The
important design rule of a GUI is
visibility: through
the menus, all
possible actions can be made visible and, therefore, easily discoverable.
The system can often be learned through
exploration


Systems
that avoid these well
-
known methods
suffer.

Are
natural user interfaces natural?
No, he says, but
they will be useful.

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

36

Other user interfaces

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

37

Other user interfaces

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

38

Other user interfaces

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

39

Technological hype cycle

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

40

Linden, A. and
Fenn
, J. 2003.
Understanding Gartner's Hype
Cycles. Strategic Analysis Report R
-
20
-
1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner
Research.

Technological hype
c
ycle

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

41

Technological
hype cycle
and
adoption timings

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

42

Linden, A. and
Fenn
, J. 2003. Understanding
Gartner's Hype Cycles. Strategic Analysis
Report R
-
20
-
1971. 30 May 2003. Gartner
Research.

Related knowledge domains


Human
-
computer interaction

The
study of how people interact with computers and to what
extent computers are or are not developed for successful
interaction with human
beings


Recent advances in mobile, ubiquitous, social, and tangible
computing technologies have moved human
-
computer
interaction
into
practically all areas of human
activity


This
has led to a shift away from
the usual stress on usability
to
a much richer scope of user experience, where user's
feelings, motivations, and values are given as much, if not
more, attention than efficiency, effectiveness and basic
subjective
satisfaction

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

43

Related knowledge domains


Interaction design

A design discipline dedicated to defining the behavior of
artifacts, environments and systems


User experience design

The field of user experience was established to cover the
holistic perspective to how a person feels about using a
system


The focus is on pleasure and value rather than on
performance


David Lamas, TLU, 2011

44

Human
-
computer
i
nteraction

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

45

Human
-
computer
i
nteraction

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

46

Interaction design

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

47

User experience
d
esign

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

48

User experience
d
esign

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

49

But…


Interactivity

is
not limited to technological
systems

People
have been interacting with each other as long as
humans have been a
species


From this broader viewpoint, reasoning about interaction
styles should also address the interaction
between human
beings by means of a
interactive media

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

50

Interaction styles recap


Etymology


The relation between the evolution of computing and
the main interaction styles


The technological hype cycle and adoption timings


Related knowledge domains


Beyond interacting with digital media

David Lamas, TLU, 2011

51

Two final questions


How do you see the evolution of interacting with and
through
interactive
media?

Are natural user interfaces the future or part of the future?

Are the previous interaction styles dead or condemned?


Should mobile user interfaces be regarded as a
completely new interaction style?

If so, what would their distinctive characteristics be?


David Lamas, TLU, 2011

52