File 1950s domesticx - Camden Central School District

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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“A
NXIETY
, A
LIENATION
,
AND


S
OCIAL

U
NREST

??


Ms. Clarke

THE 1950s:

“Conservatism, Complacency,
and Contentment”

OR

D
URING

THE

C
OLD

W
AR
, A
MERICANS

WERE

FORCED

TO

COPE

WITH

THE

DAILY

THREAT

OF

NUCLEAR

DESTRUCTION
. I
N

AN

ATMOSPHERE

OF

A
IR

R
AID

D
RILLS

AND

B
OMB

S
HELTER

CONSTRUCTION
,
A
MERICANS

CONFUSED

THE

REAL

THREAT

OF

THE

S
OVIET

U
NION

WITH

AN

UNREASONING
,
ANTI
-
COMMUNIST

HYSTERIA

AT

HOME
.

Cold War on the home front

Progress
Through Science

1951
--

First IBM Mainframe Computer

1952
--

Hydrogen Bomb

Test

1953
--

DNA

Structure Discovered

1954
--

Salk Vaccine

Tested for Polio

1957
--

First Commercial
U. S. Nuclear


Power Plant

1958
--

NASA

Created

1959
--

Press Conference of the
First 7


American Astronauts

Progress
Through Science

1957


創獳楡湳i污畮l栠
卐啔义䬠N

ㄹ㔸1


乡瑩潮慬N䑥晥湳攠


Education Act

Progress
Through Science

UFO Sightings

skyrocketed in the 1950s.

War of the
Worlds

Hollywood used aliens as a metaphor

for whom
??


Progress
Through Science

Atomic Anxieties
:


“Duck
-
and
-
Cover

Generation”


Atomic Testing
:


1946
-
1962


售U匮⁥硰 潤敤′ㄷ1

† †††††††
n畣汥慲a睥慰潮猠潶敲⁴桥


Pacific and in Nevada.

B
OMB

S
HELTER

C
RAZE

W
HAT

WOULD

YOU

BRING

WITH

YOU
?


A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants
to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until
radioactivity has decayed to a safer level.



Countries built fallout shelters for high
-
ranking
government officials and crucial military facilities.
Plans were made, however, to use existing
buildings with sturdy below
-
ground
-
level
basements as makeshift fallout shelters.

T
HE

B
OMB

S
HELTER

C
RAZE

D
UCK

AND

C
OVER

D
RILLS

T
HE

D
UCK

AND

C
OVER

D
RILLS

(
VIDEO
)


Duck and Cover was a suggested method of
personal protection against the effects of a
nuclear detonation which the United States
government taught to generations of United
States school children from the late 1940s
into the 1980s.


This was “supposed” to protect them in the
event of an unexpected nuclear attack which,
they were told, could come at any time
without warning.


Immediately after they saw a flash they had
to stop what they were doing and get on the
ground under some cover

such as a table, or
at least next to a wall

and assume the fetal
position, lying face
-
down and covering their
heads with their hands.

T
HE

S
ECOND

R
ED

S
CARE


Smith
Act of 1940
-
made it illegal to advocate or
teach the overthrow of the government by force
or to belong to an organization with this objective


Dennis et al. v United States
(1951)
-
Supreme
Court upheld the constitutionality of the Smith
Act of
1940


1947, Truman Admin. under pressure from the
Republicans set up a
Loyalty Review Board
to
investigate the background of more than 3
million federal employees. 1000s either resigned
or lost their jobs as a result of the probe that
lasted nearly four years.


M
C
C
ARRAN

I
NTERNAL

S
ECURITY

A
CT

1.
Unlawful to advocate or support the est. of a
totalitarian government

2.
Restricted the employment and travel of those
joining Communist
-
front organizations

3.
Authorized the creation of detention camps for
subversives



1950
-
Truman
had vetoed this act, but Congress
passed it
anyway

T
HE

H
OUSE

C
OMMITTEE

ON

U
N
-
A
MERICAN

A
CTIVITIES

(HUAC)


Originally est. in 1939 to seek out Nazis was
reactivated in the postwar years to find
Communists


Investigated government officials and looked
for Communists influence in organizations
such as:


Boy Scouts


Hollywood film industry


Writers


(ACLU argued that 1
st

Amendment protects the
free expression of unpopular political views and
membership in political Groups such as the
Communist Party.)

T
HE

H
OUSE

C
OMMITTEE

ON

U
N
-
A
MERICAN

A
CTIVITIES

(HUAC)


In 1947, the committee held nine days of
hearings into alleged communist propaganda
and influence in the Hollywood motion
picture industry.


After conviction on contempt of Congress
charges for refusal to answer some questions
posed by committee members, the "Hollywood
Ten" were blacklisted by the industry.


Eventually, more than 300 artists

including
directors, radio commentators, actors and
particularly screenwriters

were boycotted
by the studios.

T
HE

H
OUSE

C
OMMITTEE

ON

U
N
-
A
MERICAN

A
CTIVITIES

(HUAC)

Reagan

Walt Disney

Paul Robeson

T
HE

H
OLLYWOOD

T
EN


Alvah

Bessie, screenwriter


Herbert
Biberman
,
screenwriter and director


Lester Cole, screenwriter


Edward
Dmytryk
, director


Ring Lardner Jr.,
screenwriter


John Howard Lawson,
screenwriter


Albert
Maltz
, screenwriter


Samuel
Ornitz
, screenwriter


Adrian Scott, producer and
screenwriter


Dalton Trumbo, screenwriter

(Wrote my favorite book,
Johnny Got His Gun)


T
HE

E
SPIONAGE

C
ASES
: A
LGER

H
ISS

C
ASE

Is that future President Mr.
Richard Nixon?

T
HE

A
LGER

H
ISS

C
ASE
:

A
RE

THE

HIGHEST

LEVELS

OF

GOVERNMENT

INFILTRATED

WITH

COMMUNISTS
?


Whittaker Chambers
-

a confessed
Communist, became a star witness for HUAC
in 1948


Richard Nixon
-
Calf. Congressman
investigator for HUAC


Alger Hiss
-
State Department official who
assisted FDR @ Yalta Conference


Chambers accused Hiss of being a
Communist and giving secret documents to
him. Hiss denied.


1950
-
Hiss is convicted of perjury and sent to
prison

T
HE

E
SPIONAGE

C
ASES
: T
HE

R
OSENBERG

T
RIALS

Julius & Ethel
Rosenberg

T
HE

R
OSENBERG

C
ASE
:

A
RE

C
OMMUNIST

S
PIES

AMONG

US
?


The Soviets have an A
-
Bomb…they must have
been spying on us


Klaus Fuchs
-
British Scientist who worked on the
Manhattan Project admitted giving A
-
Bomb
secrets to Russians. This led to additional
anticommunist fears


An
FBI
investigation traced another spy ring to
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in NY


1951
-
Controversial Trial, they were found guilty
of Treason and executed for the crime in 1953.


Civil Rights groups raised questions about
whether
anti
-
communist
hysteria had played a
role in the conviction and punishment of the
Rosenbergs

J
OSEPH

M
C
C
ARTHY

J
OSEPH

M
C
C
ARTHY


Republican Senator from Wisconsin


Used
anti
-
communist
hysteria in his reelection
campaign


1950 speech: charged that 205 Communists were still
working for the State Department


Became one of the most powerful men in America
which was based entirely on the people’s fear of the
damage that McCarthy could do it his accusing finger
pointed their way.


Tactics:
Unsupported accusations about Communists
in government to keep the media focus on himself and
to discredit the Truman Administration


Popular among working
-
class Americans because of
his hard
-
hitting remarks that were often aimed at the
wealthy and privileged in society


R
ED

B
AITING


the
act of accusing, denouncing, attacking or
persecuting an individual or group as communist
,
socialist
, or anarchist, or sympathetic toward
communism.


Originated during the Palmer Raids


Most often associated with McCarthyism


T
HE

A
RMY

M
C
C
ARTHY

H
EARINGS

(
RECORDING
)

T
HE

A
RMY

M
C
C
ARTHY

H
EARINGS


1954


McCarthy’s “reckless cruelty” was exposed on
television


Senate committee held televised hearings on
Communist infiltration in the Army


December
-
Republicans and Democrats in the
Senate saw him as a bully and moved to
censure McCarthy


The “
Witchhunt
” for
Communists
(McCarthyism
) had ended


McCarthy died 3 years later, a broken man

“A
NXIETY
, A
LIENATION
,
AND


S
OCIAL

U
NREST

??


Ms. Clarke

THE 1950s:

“Conservatism, Complacency,
and Contentment”

OR



The postwar era witnessed tremendous
economic growth and rising social contentment and
conformity. Yet in the midst of such increasing
affluence and comfortable domesticity, social
critics expressed a growing sense of unease with
American culture in the 1950s.




Assess the validity of the above statement and
explain how the decade of the 1950s laid the
groundwork for the social and political turbulence of
the 1960s.


Class Discussion Topic:

F
EATURES

OF

P
OST
-
WAR

US


15 Million American Soldiers, sailors, and
marines returning to civilian life in 1945
-
1946
faced the problem of finding jobs and housing.


Theses:
What many thought would be
economic uncertainty, was actually a post
-
war boom in which pent
-
up consumer
demand for autos and hosing combined with
government road
-
building projects helped to
usher in an era of unprecedented prosperity
and growth; 1950s Americans enjoyed the
highest standard of living by any society in
history.

GI B
ILL

OF

R
IGHTS

(S
ERVICEMEN

S

R
EADJUSTMENT

A
CT

(1944)


‘44 Could get a college


15 million veteran, over 2 million attended
college, which started a post
-
war boom in higher
education


Veterans received $16 billion in low
-
interest,
government
-
backed loans to buy homes and
farms and to start businesses



Baby
Boom

It seems to me that every other
young housewife I see is pregnant.



--

British visitor to America, 1958

1957


ㄠ扡批1扯牮b敶敲礠㜠獥7潮摳


Younger marriages
and larger families
resulted in 50 million
babies entering the
US population
between 1945
-
1960


Had a huge effect on
economic life /schools


As baby boom
generation comes of
age, it will have a
profound impact on
the nations social
institutions


Baby
Boom

Dr. Benjamin Spock


and the Anderson
Quintuplets


Large cultural focus on raising children and homemaking


Women still worked MORE!


1/3 of married women worked outside the home.

G
ROWTH

OF

S
UBURBS

“Little Boxes” by
Malvina

Reynolds
(1962) song


Suburban
Living

$7,990 or $60/month with no down payment.

Levittown, L. I.:
“The American Dream”

1949


坩汬楡洠䱥癩瑴

灲潤畣敤u

††††
ㄵ〠桯畳敳h灥爠睥w欮

Suburban
Living:

The New “American Dream”



1 story high



12’x19’ living room



2 bedrooms



tiled bathroom



garage



small backyard



front lawn

By 1960


ㄯ㌠潦⁴桥o售U匮⁰潰畬o瑩t渠楮i


the suburbs.

Suburban
Living


SHIFTS IN POPULATION

DISTRIBUTION,

1940
-
1970





1940

1950

1960

1970

Central Cities


31.6% 32.3%


32.6% 32.0%

Suburbs


19.5% 23.8%


30.7% 41.6%

Rural Areas/


48.9% 43.9%


36.7% 26.4%

Small Towns



U. S. Bureau of the Census.

Suburban
Living:

The Typical TV Suburban Families

The Donna
Reed Show

1958
-
1966

Leave It

to Beaver

1957
-
1963

Father

Knows Best

1954
-
1958

The Ozzie & Harriet Show

1952
-
1966

R
ISE

OF

THE

S
UNBELT


Milder winters, warmer climate, lower taxes, economic
opportunities in defense related industries, attracted GI’s and
their families to the Sun
-
belt from Florida to California


Transfer tax dollars from Northeast and Midwest to South
and West, military spending during the Cold War helped
financ
e

the shift of industry, people, and political power from
one region to the other.


New cities sprung up: Atlanta
, Dallas, Houston, Las Vegas,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, Orlando and Phoenix.

The
Sunbelt typically includes
the states of Florida, Georgia,
South Carolina, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas,
New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada,
and California.

E
MPLOYMENT

A
CT

OF

‘46


Sept. 1945


Truman proposed National health insurance, an
increase in min. wage, a bill to commit the US
Government to maintain full employment


A watered down version was enacted


Created the Council of Economic Advisors to counsel
both President and Congress on means to promote
national economic welfare


Due to the Cold War and a conservative congress, the
next 7 years will prove to hinder the passage of most of
Truman’s domestic programs

I
NFLATION

AND

S
TRIKES


Truman asked Congress
to continue the price
controls of wartime in
order to hold inflation in
check


Instead, southern Dem.
Joined with Rep. in
relaxing the controls of
the Office of Price
Administration


Result was an inflation
rate of almost 25% in
the first year of peace.


Workers and Unions
wanted wages to catch
up after years of wage
controls


Over 4.5 Million
workers went on strike
in
1946


Truman seized mines
and using soldiers to
keep them operating
until the United Mine
Workers finally called
off its strike


C
IVIL

R
IGHTS


Truman
-
first modern president to use the powers
of his office to challenge racial discrimination


Used his executive powers to establish the
Committee on Civil Rights in 1946


Strengthened the civil rights div. in Justice
Department


1948 ordered the end of racial discrimination in the
fed. dept. and all three branches of the armed forces


Urged Congress to pass the Fair Employment
Practices Commission that would prevent
employers from discriminating against the hiring
of Afr. Amer. Southern Dems blocked the
legislation.


R
EPUBLICAN

C
ONTROL
-
80
TH

C
ONGRESS
:


Two
-
Term Limit

(2
-
2
-
T
-
T)


A reaction to the fact
FDR had been elected
four times


Ratified by 1951 by
the states


Probusiness


Truman vetoed as a “slave
-
labor” bill but Congress
overrode his veto


Repub. Intent was to “check”
on the growing power of
unions


Significantly divided
Democrats and Republicans


Unions could not get it
repealed

22
nd

Amendment (1951)

Taft
-
Hartley Act
1947

1946 election won Republican majority in both houses of Congress.

They attempted to pass two tax cuts for upper
-
income Amer
. But Truman Vetoed both measures

They will also begin to roll back some New Deal gains for labor and amend the Constitution

E
LECTION

‘48


Truman=Low popularity:


Dems were split, third parties
emerged


Liberals (Progressives/anti
-
Truman
foreign policy)
chose new Progressive
Party that Henry Wallace


States Rights Party/
Dixiecrats

(no
civil rights) chose Strom Thurmond of
SC

VS

NYS
Gov. Thomas E. Dewey,
Republican
candidate



The Moderate democrat
Truman was the man without a
chance, but he toured the
nation by rail


Won a decisive victory by a 2
million majority in the popular
vote and 303
-
189 electoral votes



Reunited FDR’s New Deal
coalition with the exception of 4
southern states that went to
Dixiecrats

C
HANGING

W
ORKPLACE
:

F
AIR

D
EAL


Fair Deal was Truman’s plan for reform, 1949


National health care insurance


Federal aid to education


Civil rights legislation


Funds for public housing


New farm program

(similar to New Deal programs)


Conservatives in Congress blocked most of the
program

1.
Truman’s political conflict with Congress

2.
Pressing foreign policy concerns of the Cold
War