Essential Computer Concepts

orangesvetΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

62 εμφανίσεις

XP

1

Essential Computer Concepts

Tutorial 1

XP

2

Describe the components of
a computer system


A computer system consists of much more than
just a computer; it also includes peripheral devices
and software.


The computer's physical components (such as the
main circuit board and the motherboard) are
referred to as hardware.


The peripheral devices are additional components
that are needed to accomplish input, output, and
storage functions.


Software refers to the intangible components of
the computer system, such as the programs that
the computer needs to perform specific tasks.

XP

3

A typical computer with input

and output devices

This figure shows a
typical computer
system configuration
with some potential
input and output
devices.

XP

4

Data is input, processed,

stored, and output

This figure shows a
typical processing cycle of
data. The user enters data
via the keyboard, it is
processed by the CPU, it
may be sent to another
workstation or to a
printer, and it is usually
saved on a storage device
.

XP

5

Compare the types of
computers


There are four basic types of computers:


Microcomputers


Minicomputers


Mainframes


Supercomputers


These classifications are based on size,
speed, and cost.

XP

6

Which type of computer is used
for what type of processing?


Microcomputers, or personal computers (PCs), come in several
forms:


Desktop


Tower


Notebook


Personal digital assistants (PDA)


Minicomputers are larger than microcomputers, and have the
capability of processing tasks for many users.


A mainframe computer is larger and more powerful than a
minicomputer and can handle many more users.


Typically used for centralized storage, processing, and data
management


The supercomputer is the largest and fastest of all the computers
and is used for high
-
volume computing tasks.

XP

7

Typical microcomputer types

This figure shows the various
types of microcomputers
available today.

XP

8

Define microcomputer
hardware in terms of input
and output devices


Many components can make up the hardware for a
microcomputer. Each type of component performs a
different function.


Input devices provide a method for inputting data and
commands.


Typical input devices include a keyboard, a mouse, or
another pointing device.


Output devices enable you to view the results of your
work and the processing work of the computer.


Typical output devices are monitors and printers
.

XP

9

Typical input devices

This figure shows several devices used for inputting data to the computer
.

Keyboards

Mouse

Other pointing devices

XP

10

Define microcomputer hardware in
terms of processing and storage


Processing hardware is the most critical component of
a computer system.


It includes the microprocessor (a silicon chip designed
to manipulate data) and the memory that stores data
and instructions.


All of the data that is generated through your input or
the computer's processing needs to be stored in a
fashion that can later be retrieved.


This is done through storage devices and media, such
as magnetic storage devices (floppy disks and hard disk
drives), tape drives, and optical storage devices (CD
-
ROM and DVD drives).

XP

11

Storage devices and RAM
storage

Data is frequently
transferred from a
storage device to RAM
for processing, and
transferred back to the
storage device after
processing.

XP

12

Store data on a magnetic
disk

This figure shows
how data is stored on
a magnetic disk, be it
a hard drive or a
floppy drive.

XP

13

An optical storage device

This figure shows the
basic way in which
data is stored on an
optical storage device.

XP

14

Examine data representation

and the ASCII code


A computer does not understand the characters
that are used in human languages.


A computer must represent every signal as
either “on” (with a 1) or “off” (with a 0).


These numbers are called binary digits or bits.


A series of 8 digits is called a byte.

XP

15

How numbers appear in binary
form

This table shows how various
decimal numbers would be
represented in binary form
.

Note that each number
requires 8 bits, which
makes up one byte.

XP

16

Learn about ASCII code


In ASCII code, which is commonly used by
microcomputers, each byte represents a unique
character (such as a letter, a number, or a
typographical symbol).


The storage capacity of the processor or
storage hardware is represented as the number
of bytes that the device can handle.


These capacities are expressed in kilobytes
(KB), megabytes (MB), or gigabytes (GB).

XP

17

How letters and symbols
appear in ASCII code format

This figure shows how
several letters and symbols
would appear inside the
computer when converted
into ASCII format.

Note that each character still
requires one byte (8 bits) of
storage.

XP

18

Describe how peripheral
devices are connected to a
microcomputer


In order for peripheral devices to be useful,
they must have a way of communicating data
with the microprocessor.


Each device has a port and a cable that
connects into the computer (either externally or
internally).


These ports connect to a controller card that
provides the electrical connection to the main
computer board.

XP

19

Microcomputers use ports
for input and output
operations


There are several types of ports available with
microcomputers:


USB


Parallel


Serial


SCSI


MIDI


Each has different capabilities for data
transmission, and each is designed to work with
different peripheral devices.

XP

20

Identify microcomputer
ports

This figure shows the various types of
ports in use on modern microcomputers.
Notice that each port requires a different
connector format.

Parallel Port

Keyboard

PS/2 Mouse

USB Port

DB
-
9 Serial Port

Power cable

DB
-
25 Serial Port


Sound


Modem

Video

Card Ports

Ports

Port

XP

21

Connect a printer to the
computer

A
printer must be connected to a computer port before it can be used. It is connected
via a cable that has a connector on one end that fits into the printer port. The other
end has a connector that fits into the computer’s port.

XP

22

Identify the hardware and software used

to establish a network connection


A network enables you to share data and resources
with others.


A typical network configuration is a local area network
(LAN), in which the computers and devices are located
relatively close to each other.


If a computer is connected to a network, it is referred
to as a workstation.


Each workstation requires a network interface card to create
the communications channel between the network and the
computer


The computer workstation must also have network software to
establish communications protocols


Each device on the network is referred to as a node.

XP

23

A typical LAN configuration

This figure shows a typical network with several workstations connected to a server,
and a printer connected to the network that can be accessed by any workstation.

XP

24

Explain how Internet access, e
-
mail, and

the World Wide Web affect

the use of computers


The Internet, which was originally developed for the government
to connect researchers around the world who needed to share
data, is the largest network in the world.


It can be used to send messages from one user's computer to
another
-

commonly called e
-
mail.


It can also be used to access the World Wide Web
-

a huge
database of information stored on network servers around the
world.


You can use a Web browser to search for and view the
information available on any topic or to go to a specific location.

XP

25

A Web page on the World Wide Web

The variety of text, images,
sounds, etc. that can be
displayed on the Internet, as
well as the format in which
they appear, is virtually
limitless. This figure is an
example of what one page of
one Web site looks like.

XP

26

Discuss the types of system
software and their functions


The fundamental operations of your computer are
managed by the system's software.


There are four types of system software.


Operating system software controls basic input and output,
allocates system resources, manages storage space, maintains
security, and detects equipment failure


Utilities aid the operating system by taking over some of its
responsibility for allocating hardware resources


A device drive aids the computer in communicating with
individual peripheral devices


Computer programming languages are used by programmers
to write computer instructions

XP

27

Software works with your hardware
to perform basic functions

Many of the components
of the system software
work hand
-
in
-
hand with
each other to assist you in
accomplishing your tasks.
This figure shows the
operating system software
working with the word
processing software in
order to print a document
.

XP

28

Identify popular application
software


Application software (commonly referred to as
a computer program) enables you to perform
specific tasks with your computer.


Some typical tasks are: creating documents and
spreadsheets, managing databases, and
creating graphics and multimedia
presentations.


All of these applications have features and tools
built into them that aid you in achieving the
best results for the project on which you are
working.


XP

29

Application software can be
purchased and installed

This figure shows
a popular
application
software product
-

Microsoft
Office.

XP

30

A word processing application

This figure shows a typical
window for a word
processing application
program. In this case, the
red line underneath the
word ‘bigin’ indicates a
potential spelling error that
was caught by the
program.

XP

31

A typical spreadsheet application

Spreadsheet
application programs
allow you to organize
data in a grid of rows
and columns. The
data can be used in
calculations and
formulas.

XP

32

Use presentation software

Presentation software
allows you to create
slide shows that can be
shown via your
computer.

XP

33

Describe how data is shared among
different types of application software


The ability to use data created in one application in
another application is one of the most powerful
developments in the software industry.


In the Windows environment, this is done through
object linking and embedding (OLE).


Embedding copies the source data from one application
into a different application.


The copy will remain in its new location regardless of what
happens to the original


Linking creates a continuous connection between
original source data and the copied data.


Whenever the source data is updated or changed, so too is the
data in the linked application