Delaware Integrated Marsh Monitor Network: Delaware Integrated Marsh Monitor Network: Evaluating sedimentation and sea Evaluating sedimentation and sea- -levels levels effects on marsh surface elevation and effects on marsh surface elevation and evolution evolution

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21 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

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Delaware Integrated Marsh Monitor Network:
Delaware Integrated Marsh Monitor Network:
Evaluating sedimentation and sea
Evaluating sedimentation and sea
-
-
levels
levels
effects on marsh surface elevation and
effects on marsh surface elevation and
evolution
evolution
Bartholomew D. Wilson
Bartholomew D. Wilson
Robert Scarborough
Robert Scarborough
David B. Carter
David B. Carter
Donald R. Cahoon
Donald R. Cahoon
Lewes, Delaware
Lewes, Delaware


mean sea level of 3.16 millimeters/year (1.04 feet/century), sta
mean sea level of 3.16 millimeters/year (1.04 feet/century), sta
ndard error of 0.16 mm/yr
ndard error of 0.16 mm/yr


based on monthly mean sea level data from 1919 to 1999.
based on monthly mean sea level data from 1919 to 1999.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania


mean sea level trend is 2.75 millimeters/year (0.90 feet/century
mean sea level trend is 2.75 millimeters/year (0.90 feet/century
), standard error of 0.12 mm/yr
), standard error of 0.12 mm/yr


based on monthly mean sea level data from 1900 to 1999.
based on monthly mean sea level data from 1900 to 1999.
Causes:
Causes:


Lowering of the Marsh Surface Elevation
Lowering of the Marsh Surface Elevation


Increases in Sea
Increases in Sea
-
-
level
level


Subsidence and compaction
Subsidence and compaction


Changes in sediment input into system: organic and
Changes in sediment input into system: organic and
inorganic
inorganic
-
-
natural
natural
-
-
anthropogenic alteration in watershed
anthropogenic alteration in watershed
Effects:
Effects:


Widening of tidal creeks
Widening of tidal creeks


Dieback of vegetation
Dieback of vegetation


Slumping and erosion on the banks of the rivers
Slumping and erosion on the banks of the rivers


Large scale shifts in the path
and intensity of flow of river
Large scale shifts in the path
and intensity of flow of river


Variations in rates and intensity of surface inundation
Variations in rates and intensity of surface inundation


Increased
Increased
ponding
ponding
and development of salt pans
and development of salt pans


dramatic shifts in the halophyte distributions and
dramatic shifts in the halophyte distributions and
abundances.
abundances.
Degradation of the Estuaries
Degradation of the Estuaries


Integrated Research
Integrated Research


Paleoenvironmental
Paleoenvironmental
reconstruction
reconstruction


Holocene Evolution
Holocene Evolution


Stratigraphic analysis:
Stratigraphic analysis:
»
»
Chirp Sub
Chirp Sub
-
-
bottom Profiling,
bottom Profiling,
Vibra
Vibra
-
-
and Auger
and Auger
coring
coring


Historical Sedimentation Rates
Historical Sedimentation Rates


Pb210 and Cs137: 100 yrs and 50 yrs
Pb210 and Cs137: 100 yrs and 50 yrs


Palynology
Palynology
: ~ Deforestation of region
: ~ Deforestation of region


Radiocarbon analysis: Long
Radiocarbon analysis: Long
-
-
term rates
term rates


Monitor current marsh elevation and
Monitor current marsh elevation and
sedimentation rates
sedimentation rates


Sediment Elevation Tables (
Sediment Elevation Tables (
SET
SET


s
s
)
)


Sediment traps
Sediment traps


Terrestrial Lidar (intertidal flats)
Terrestrial Lidar (intertidal flats)


Subtidal morphologic and bathymetric changes
Subtidal morphologic and bathymetric changes


Integrated Research
Integrated Research


Paleoenvironmental
Paleoenvironmental
reconstruction
reconstruction


Holocene Evolution
Holocene Evolution


Stratigraphic analysis
Stratigraphic analysis


St. Jones River
St. Jones River


Historical Sedimentation Rates
Historical Sedimentation Rates


Pb210 and Cs137
Pb210 and Cs137
-
-
Both
Both


Palynology
Palynology


St. Jones River
St. Jones River


Radiocarbon analysis
Radiocarbon analysis
-
-
St. Jones River
St. Jones River


Monitor current marsh elevation and sedimentation rates
Monitor current marsh elevation and sedimentation rates


Sediment Elevation Tables (
Sediment Elevation Tables (
SET
SET


s
s
)
)




Blackbird: 4
Blackbird: 4
SET
SET


s
s


2+ years of data, 1 SET
2+ years of data, 1 SET


1/2007
1/2007


St. Jones: 1 SET
St. Jones: 1 SET


2+ years, 3
2+ years, 3
SET
SET


s
s


Installed
Installed
12/2006
12/2006


Sediment traps
Sediment traps


Terrestrial Lidar (intertidal flats)
Terrestrial Lidar (intertidal flats)


Subtidal morphologic and bathymetric changes
Subtidal morphologic and bathymetric changes
St. Jones Marsh Health Index
Blackbird Creek Marsh Health Index
Stratigraphic Reconstruction
Stratigraphic Reconstruction
:
:
The Holocene and the Modern
The Holocene and the Modern
Environment
Environment
of the St. Jones Estuary
of the St. Jones Estuary
~ 10,000 years ago to Present
~ 10,000 years ago to Present
Sea Level Curve for Delaware:
Sea Level Curve for Delaware:
Pre
Pre
-
-
Holocene To Present
Holocene To Present
(Nikitina,2000)
(Nikitina,2000)
Ancestral Delaware River: ~12,000
Ancestral Delaware River: ~12,000
ybp
ybp
St. Jones River
St. Jones River
Oertel
Oertel
and Kraft, 1994
and Kraft, 1994
Pleistocene Incised
Pleistocene Incised
-
-
Valley
Valley
Surface
Surface
4,800 to 5,400 YBP
4,800 to 5,400 YBP
Mean Sea
Mean Sea
-
-
Level 8.00 to 9.00 m below Present Sea
Level 8.00 to 9.00 m below Present Sea
-
-
level
level
N
N
39.06
39.07
39.08
39.09
75.41
75.4
2
75.43
75.44
75.45
75.46
Subtidal
Supratidal
Intertidal
Depositional Environment
2,500 to 3,000 YBP
2,500 to 3,000 YBP
Mean Sea
Mean Sea
-
-
Level 4.50 m below Present Sea
Level 4.50 m below Present Sea
-
-
Level
Level
N
N
39.06
39.07
39.08
39.09
75.41
75.42
75.43
75.44
75.45
75.46
Subtidal
Supratidal
Intertidal
Depositional Environment
1,000 to 1,500 YBP
1,000 to 1,500 YBP
Mean Sea
Mean Sea
-
-
Level 1.75 to 2.50 m below Present Mean Sea
Level 1.75 to 2.50 m below Present Mean Sea
-
-
Level
Level
39.0
6
39.0
7
39.0
8
39.0
9
75.41
75.42
75.43
75.44
75.45
75.46
Subtidal
Supratidal
Intertidal
Depositional Environment
N
N
200 to 250 YBP
200 to 250 YBP
Mean Sea
Mean Sea
-
-
Level 1.00 to 1.50 m below Present Mean Sea
Level 1.00 to 1.50 m below Present Mean Sea
-
-
level
level
39.06
39.07
39.08
39.09
75.41
75.42
75.43
75.44
75.45
75.46
Subtidal
Supratidal
Intertidal
Depositional Environment
N
N
The Onset of Human Impact on
The Onset of Human Impact on
The St. Jones Estuary:
The St. Jones Estuary:
Deforestation and Agriculture
Deforestation and Agriculture
1650 A.D. to 1750 A.D.
1650 A.D. to 1750 A.D.
~ 1930: Pre
~ 1930: Pre
-
-
Dredging
Dredging
N
N
?
?
?
SJB3a
SJC6
SJC3
SJSC2
SJSC3
790 - 930 YBP
4100 - 4240 YBP
Pre- Holocene Basement
0.40
0.00
0.80
1.20
1.60
Spartina alterniflora
Distichlis spicata
Spartina patens
D. spic
ata/ S. alter
niflora
Unidentifiable
S. altern
iflore and S. patens
Dep
t
h Below Mean Sea-Level (me
t
e
r
s)
39.06
39.07
39.08
39.09
75.41
75.42
75.43
75.44
75.45
75.46
?
Spartina alterniflora
Distichlis spicat
a
Spartina patens
Distichlis/S. patens
Distichlis
/ S. alterniflora
SJ
D3
SJD4
SJC1
SJC2
SJB6
?
?
unidentifiable
(km
)
4560 - 4840 Cal YBP
130 - 330 Cal YBP
Pre- Holocene Basement
0.50
1.00
2.50
2.00
1.5
0
0.00
Sediment Elevation Table (SET)
Sediment Elevation Table (SET)
Elevation Changes in the Marsh surface are
Elevation Changes in the Marsh surface are
influenced by surface and subsurface processes
influenced by surface and subsurface processes
occurring within the soil profile.
occurring within the soil profile.


Surface
Surface


Sediment deposition
Sediment deposition


Sediment erosion
Sediment erosion


Subsurface
Subsurface


Root growth or collapse
Root growth or collapse


Decomposition
Decomposition


Porewater
Porewater
flux
flux


Compaction
Compaction
Deep SET
Deep SET
Shallow SET
Shallow SET
Vertical Accretion or Sedimentation Rate
Vertical Accretion or Sedimentation Rate
Lakeland (8.5 m)
Wildcat Landfill (8.7 m)
DNERR Boardwalk (7.4 m)
Impoundment (24.3 m)
Beaver Branch (11.2 m)
Beaver Branch (11.2 m)
Eagles Nest (12.2 m)
Eagles Nest (12.2 m)
Delon
Delon


s
s
( 7.3 m)
( 7.3 m)
Blackbird Landing (9.8 m)
Blackbird Landing (9.8 m)
Eagle Nest
Eagle Nest
-4
0
-3
0
-2
0
-1
0
0
10
20
30
2
/
1
7
/
2
0
0
5
5
/2
8/
20
05
9/
5/
20
05
1
2
/
1
4
/
2
0
0
5
3/
24
/2
00
6
7
/
2
/
2
0
0
6
1
0
/
1
0
/
2
0
0
6
1
/1
8/
20
07
Ra
t
e
(
m
m
/
Y
r
)
El
ev
at
i
o
n
C
h
a
n
g
e
S
e
d
i
m
n
et
at
i
o
n
r
a
t
e
S
h
a
l
l
o
w
E
l
ev
at
i
o
n

C
h
an
g
e
Su
b
s
i
d
e
n
c
e
Blackbird Landing
Blackbird Landing
-1
0
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
2/17
/2005
5
/
28/20
05
9/5/2
005
12
/14/2
005
3
/
24/2
006
7
/
2/
200
6
1
0/10/2
006
1/18
/200
7
R
a
te
(m
m
/
y
r
)
El
e
v
at
i
o
n
C
h
an
g
e
S
e
di
m
e
nt
a
t
i
o
n
R
a
t
e
S
u
b
s
i
d
en
ce
S
h
al
l
o
w
El
e
v
at
i
o
n
C
h
an
g
e
Blackbird Creek Marsh Surface Elevation
Blackbird Creek Marsh Surface Elevation
-3
0
-2
0
-1
0
0
10
20
30
1
1
/9
/20
0
4
2
/1
7/2
0
0
5
5/
28/
200
5
9
/5
/20
0
5
1
2/1
4
/2
00
5
3
/
24/
200
6
7
/2/
200
6
10/1
0
/2
00
6
1
/1
8/2
0
0
7
R
a
te
(m
m
/
y
r
)
D
e
l
o
n S
e
d
i
m
e
nt

E
l
e
v
a
t
i
o
n
E
a
g
l
es
N
e
st
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t

E
l
ev
at
i
o
n
B
l
a
c
k
b
i
r
d
L
a
nd
i
ng
S
e
d
i
m
e
nt
E
l
e
v
a
t
i
o
n
B
eav
er
B
r
an
ch
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
E
l
ev
at
i
o
n
Sedimentation Rate
Sedimentation Rate
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
11/
9/
20
04
2
/
1
7
/
200
5
5
/
28/
20
05
9/
5/
200
5
12/
14
/
2
005
3
/
2
4
/
2
0
06
7
/
2
/
2
0
06
1
0
/
1
0/
20
06
1/
18/
20
07
Ra
t
e
(
mm/
yr
)
D
e
lo
n
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
a
t
io
n
R
a
t
e
E
a
gl
e
N
e
s
t
S
e
d
i
m
e
nta
t
i
o
n R
a
te
B
l
a
c
kb
i
r
d
L
a
n
d
i
n
g
S
e
di
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
R
a
t
e
Be
av
e
r

Br
an
c
h
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
at
i
o
n
Ra
t
e
Pb
Pb
210 and Cs 137 Dating
210 and Cs 137 Dating
Core: BBBB
Radioisotope activity (dpm/g)
0.1
1
10
Depth in core (cm)
0
20
40
60
80
Cs-137
0.6-0.7 cm/yr
XS Pb-210
0.5-0.6 cm/yr
Core: BBEN
Radioisotope activity (dpm/g)
0.1
1
10
Depth in core (cm)
0
20
40
60
80
10
0
XS
Pb-210
0.8-1.0 cm/yr
Cs-137
1.0-1.1
cm/y
r
Core: BBDL
Radioisotope activity (dpm/g)
0.1
1
1
0
Depth in core (cm)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
XS Pb-210
0.9-1.0 cm/yr
Cs-137
1.0-1.3
cm/yr
Sedimentation Rate
(SET; cm/yr)
Sedimentation
Rate (SET)
SD
Pb-210 (cm/yr;
~100 yr)
Cs-137
(cm/yr;
~50 yr)
Blackbird Landing
Blackbird Landing
1.50
1.50
0.40
0.40
Beaver Branch
Beaver Branch
2.39
2.39
1.78
1.78
0.5
0.5
-
-
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
-
-
0.7
0.7
Eagles Nest
Eagles Nest
1.84
1.84
0.14
0.14
0.8
0.8
-
-
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
-
-
1.1
1.1
Delons
Delons
2.29
2.29
0.09
0.09
0.9
0.9
-
-
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
-
-
1.3
1.3
What does the future hold?
What does the future hold?


Complete
Complete
paleo
paleo
-
-
reconstruction of Blackbird Creek
reconstruction of Blackbird Creek


Complete
Complete
palynological
palynological
study of Blackbird Creek
study of Blackbird Creek


Monitor
Monitor
SET
SET


s
s


Longer the record the better!!
Longer the record the better!!


Evaluate land
Evaluate land
-
-
use change as it corresponds to
use change as it corresponds to
sedimentation and surface elevation changes
sedimentation and surface elevation changes


Place more sediment traps throughout watersheds
Place more sediment traps throughout watersheds


Evaluate subtidal and intertidal environment
Evaluate subtidal and intertidal environment


Difference modeling Lidar and Multibeam data
Difference modeling Lidar and Multibeam data