Larry P. Walker, PhD, Professor, Cornell University Perspectives on ...

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12 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Larry
P.
Walker, PhD, Professor, Cornell University



Multiple choice questions

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA):

A.

establishes goals to help more than triple the world’s biofuel use in the future.

B. establishes

goals to help more than triple United States biofuel use in the future.

C.

was developed by the National Biodiesel Board.

D.

was developed by the World Bioenergy Association.

E.

protects the use of biofuel by major companies in the bioenergy sector.

Which of the following is not a root of disagreement in regard to carbon sequestration and net energy:

A. Complexity and diversity in bioenergy systems.

B. Uncertainty over the over “scalability” of bioenergy systems.

C. Inadequate data, models, and exp
erience base to drive sustainability analyses.

D. Bioenergy is a major risk to the environment and agriculture.

E. Evolution in technical, economic, and environmental performance of material transformation, transport, and storage
technology.


Out of the
following choices, which describe the bioconversion challenge Dr. Walker discusses?

A.

Improvements in strain performance through genetic engineering

B.

Addresses solvent toxicity problems to allow higher solvent

C.

Improvements in solvent in situation recovery

D.

In
tegrates fermentation process effectively with saacharification technology

E.

All of the above

F.

None of the above




Perspectives on Biofuels Development


Overview

-

Imagine a jazzy new national future with alternative energies replacing petrochemical sources and
all their associated problems. The combination of advancing technology, new thinking and changing
government policies put us on the brink of major societal
changes. Listen to noted Cornell Professor and
national leader Dr. Larry Walker provide an assessment of the state of biofuel development and where we
need to go in order to achieve greater sustainability, energy independence and widespread
commercializat
ion.


Include Keywords: alternative energy, agricultural biomass, energy policy, forest resources, ethanol


Viewing instructions

for video and content of PowerPoint slides (eXtension link)


View this Audio/Visual PowerPoint



About Larry Walker, Ph.D.:

During Larry’s 25 years at Cornell he has been involved in a number of biomass to energy and chemical
projects including an assessment of New York State biomass resources available for ethanol production, farm
-
scale methane production and co
-
generation, th
e application of nanotechnology to characterizing and
studying important biocatalysts for industrial biotechnology, and optimization of solid
-
state fermentation for
the production of biocontrol products. He is the Director of the Northeast Sun Grant Insti
tute of Excellence.

Link to
Larry Walker
’s

Biogra
phy , Institution, Publications and

Resources

and to information about the
Cornell Biomass Conversion Lab
.




Oil, water, food, and greenhouse gas are all drivers that lead him to believe we have to rework which system if we
want to sustain human develo
pment?

A.

Energy system

B.

Mechanical system

C.

Organic system

D.

Water system

E.

None of the above

Which of the following renewable energies reduces our dependency on liquid fuels?

A.

Oil

B.

Solar Power

C.

Biomass

D.

Ethanol

E.

Coal


How much of the petroleum imported into the US is
for transportation?

A.

20%

B.

35%

C.

45%

D.

60%

E.

70%


An important method used for cutting the cost of biodegrading the biomass is to:


A.

Ship the enzymes from centralized location.

B.

Collect the enzymes from cesspool.

C.

Improve science and technology.

F.

Licensing technology
to bio
-
refineries and producing the enzymes onsite.

D.

Extract the enzymes from pig and horse waste.


1.

To break down the biomass and produce energy we can use :


A.

Yeast

B.

Micro
-
organisms

C.

Algae

D.

Bacteria

E.

All of the above


EISA establishes ambitious goals to more than triple overall U.S. biofuel use to _____ billion gallons by 2022.

A.

50

B.

36

C.

200

D.

150

E.

42



Which of the following is NOT used to produce Ethanol? (B)

A.


Corn Starch

B.

Oil Crops

C.

Cane Sugar

D.

Beet Sugar

E.

Microorganisms


How

many million gallons of cellulosic ethanol did we have in 2010?

A. 1.3

B. 23

C.
10.3

D. 77.3

E. 46

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a type of?


A. Biodiesel

B. Sugar

C. Ethanol

D.
Yeast

E. Corn ethanol


Which biofuel has the highest motor octane number?

1.

Unleaded Gasoline

2.

Methanol

3.

Ethanol

4.

Butanol

5.

None of the above


Which of the following is the reason that Brazil had such a successful sugarcane ethanol industry?

A.

They made a major commitment to bioethanol from sugarcane

B.

They were lead by a military
dictatorship

C.

They stuck with renewable energy when other countries backed away from it

D.

They have adjusted their energy infrastructure to accommodate biofuels

E.

All of the above


Corn starch, cane sugar, and beet sugar all undergo
_________________
__ in order to transform into ethanol

A.

Mechanical Extraction

B.

Industrial Biotechnology

C.

Mechanical biotechnology

D.

Industrial engineering

E.

Thermochemical engineering

F.

None of the above



Which country found a bio
-
fuel alternative, sugarcane ethanol, to oil during

the Arab Oil Embargo in 1973 and
1979?

1)

The United States

2)

Brazil

3)

Germany

4)

China

5)

Japan


1)

Multiple Choice: How much ethanol does the United States produce from corn?

A.

10 million gallons

B.

20 billon gallons

C.

12 billion gallons

D.

12 million gallons

E.

16 billion gallons


Which one these will contribute in providing the raw materials and energy needed to drive our transition to a
sustainable world?

A.

Argricultire

B.

Horticulture

C.

Aquaculture

D.

Pig Farming

E.

Oneology


The United States uses what kind of ethanol?

A.

Sugarcane

B.

Cellulos
ic

C.

Corn


D.

wheat

E.

cotton


In what year did the number of tractors outnumber horses and mules on farms?


A.

1990

B.

1780

C.

1897

D.

1954

E.

1989


The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA):

A.

establishes goals to help more than triple the world’s biofuel

use in the future.

B. establishes goals to help more than triple United States biofuel use in the future.

C.

was developed by the National Biodiesel Board.

D.

was developed by the World Bioenergy Association.

E.

protects the use of biofuel

by major companies in the bioenergy sector.

Which of the following is not a root of disagreement in regard to carbon sequestration and net energy:

A. Complexity and diversity in bioenergy systems.

B. Uncertainty over the over “scalability” of bioenergy
systems.

C. Inadequate data, models, and experience base to drive sustainability analyses.

D. Bioenergy is a major risk to the environment and agriculture.

E. Evolution in technical, economic, and environmental performance of material transformation, tr
ansport, and storage
technology.



Fill in the blank questions

___________ is the most energy dense biofuel.

A. Butanol

B. Methanol

C. Unleaded gasoline

D. Carbon monoxide

E. Ethanol

F. Diesel

Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA)

establishes a
mbitious goals to more than triple overall U.S. biofuel use to
36 billion gallons by 2022, with cellulosic biofuels making up 16 billion gallons on a trajectory to surpass corn
-
based
ethanol use.

Dr. Walker states that there is/are a lot of _________ going

into the commercial ethanol industry.


A.

Carbon dioxide

B.

Biofuels

C.

Feedstock logistics

D.

Conversion technology

E.

Antibiotics

F.

Biomass production


_________________ and ___________________ are evolving to economically convert plants to bioenergy.

A.

People and Technology.

B.

The Government and Technology

C.

Science and People

D.

Science and Technology

E.

The Government and People

F.

The Government and Science


.______________ is an efficient method for producing energy from biomass.

A.

Composting

B.

Fermentation

C.

Recycling

D.

Regeneration

E.

Mortification

F.

Fractionation




A good example of renewable cellulosic fuel is __________.

A.

Coal

B.

Natural gas

C.

Ethanol

D.

Petroleum

E.

Propane

F.

Whale oil


Oil crops are turned into Bio
-
diesel through what process?
(Mechanical Extraction)

F
ill in the Blank: ________, _________, ________
are three factors that drive sustainable human development.

a
-

Oil

b
-

Fuel

c
-

Food

d
-

Agriculture

e
-

Water



According Professor Walker ___________ is probably the major biofuel conversion technology used globally
?

A.

Gasification

B.

Combustion

C.

Mechanical extraction

D.

Pyrolisis

E.

Simplification

F.

Conversion of enzymes


_______ is
the only renewable energy source that directly reduces our dependency on liquid fuels.


Ans
: Biomass

True/False questions

Agriculture will eventual
ly become obsolete in our transition to a sustainable world.
False

The number of tractors on farms today does not exceed the number of horses and mules used in the past.


False: The number of tractors on farms exceeds the number of horses and mules for the first time in 1954.


EISA, stands for Energy Intelligence and Sensibility Act.

False: Energy Independence and Security Act.


Biomass is a renewable energy source that
can directly reduce our dependence on liquid fossil fuels.

(
True)


Cellulosic ethanol

is a

bio
-
fuel

produced from wood, grasses, or the non
-
edible parts of plants
.
(True)


Disturbance in global peace
will cause a drop in the cost of energy prices
.
(False)


Correct Answer
: Disturbance in global peace will disrupt the transportation of oil or natural gas and cause energy prices to
rise.


The idea of using renewable energy from potatoes and corn emerged
as far back as the earl
y 1900’s.
(True)


Natural gas is a good example of renewable energy generated from biomass
.
(False)


Correct Answer
: Natural gas is extracted from wells by a process called hydraulic fracking or fracturing.


Improvements in strain
performance through genetic engineering are one of the challenges of Bioconversion
.
(True)

Biomass is the only renewable energy that directly reduces our dependency on liquid fuels
.
True

Agriculture will increasingly provide the
raw materials and ener
gy needed to drive our transition to a sustainable
world
.
Tru
e

Biomass is the only renewable energy that directly reduces our dependency on liquid fuels.
True:

The driver is
transportation


Saccharomyces cerevisiae

was the first eukaryote to be fully sequenced, annoted, and made publically available
.
True


Are plants and trees renewable resourses
?
True


Short answer questions

Discuss why evolutionary processes do not produce optimum outcomes when it comes to
bioenergy.


As Dr. Walker discusses in his lecture, evolutionary processes do not produce optimum outcomes, but he states that “it
works” and that these bioenergy processes produce satisfactory outcomes. He explains that in our capitalistic society the
ne
ed to balance public good with the need of major companies to make money must be taken into account when analyzing
the evolutionary process of bioenergy. This opportunistic process spans into social, cultural, political, and economic
realms and is affecte
d by the current states of these aspects of society. Efficiency is the key to driving change in these
processes. For example, different plants get more reliable and efficient as time goes on, but it takes time for things to
change, which is why evolution
ary processes do not produce the most desired outcomes.


Dr. Walker states that innovation is not just science, but it is also how people envision and address a certain need.
Write a short essay on whether you agree with this, and use a key example.


I a
gree with this statement because I think that innovations in science and other areas need to address a certain need in
order to be successful. For example, cell phones are a fairly recent form of technology that has drastically changed
throughout the years
. Innovations for cell phones were not made just because of science, but because there was a demand
for newer technology and better performance. I think that technology based on communication is based on science and
addresses a need. In today’s society i
t is important for people to stay in contact with loved ones, friends, and even
business partners. The changing cultures needed updated technology, and science is the main way to improve it. I think
that innovations are made because of peoples’ beliefs a
nd demands; and that science is an aid in making these innovations
even better.

Explain three points of why there is a disagreement over renewable energy.

First off this is a new technology catering to a newer crisis. There are inadequate models, data,
and experience to ensure
its success, and drive sustainability analysis. Secondly, there is an uncertainty over the scalability. Individuals are unsur
e
if plants can create enough fuel through renewable energy to service our global population. And lastly,
there is an intense
complexity in structuring the bioenergy systems that are needed for our world. While this is ultimately the solution to the
energy crisis it is a solution that will come with time and great care.


What is renewable energy? Compare or
contrast fossil fuels with renewable energy. Give at least two comparisons.


Answer 1:

Humans are known to utilize renewable energy sources since their existence. Renewable energy is derived from natural
resources, which are easily replenished by nature. S
olar energy using solar cells, hydroelectricity from flowing waters,
ethanol from corn, electricity from wind using turbines, geothermal heat, and bio
-
fuels from biomass such as grass, wood
chips and corn stovers are all examples of renewable energy.

Rene
wable energy is necessary because currently excessive usage of fossil and nuclear fuels has created stressful
problems for planet earth and its habitats.


1.

Fossil fuels such as oil and coal are extracted from under the earth’s surface and transported. The
process causes
spills and leakages. Solid, liquid and air
-
born wastes pollute the earth’s surface and natural resources. They harm
several habitats. Damages to water, land and air over time has created diseases and deaths.

On the other hand, renewable ener
gy is produced from biomass such as wood chips, grass, and corn stovers, and
from natural energy sources such as sunlight, wind and water. Hence, it does not produce pollution.


2.

Carbon dioxide released from the burning of fossil fuels causes the greenhous
e effect and is responsible for global
warming.


Renewable energy is clean energy and it does not produce carbon dioxide when used, hence it does not contribute
to global warming.

3.

Mining of coal causes destruction of land and pollution of the surrounding

habitats. Diseases such as cancer in the
lungs and digestive system are caused by pollution of air, land and water from coal dust, gases and slurry. Miners
have to dig deeper and deeper for coal because it not replenish.

Renewable energy does not pollute
land or water resources and it is not destructive. We can repeatedly use it
without running out of it. Moreover, it does not have hidden cost related to health.

4.

Emission of sulfur dioxide is responsible for acid rain.

There will be no harmful acid rains
if we use renewable energy.

5.

Hydraulic fracking or pressure fracturing is a process for extraction of natural gas. Each fracking requires 80 to
300 tons of highly toxic and hazardous chemicals that are poured up to a depth of 8000 feet. The water aquifers
are at a depth of mere 1000 feet. Once the natural gas is extracted, these wells are repeatedly fractured to remove
natural gas and they can then go further deeper and continue fracturing. Hence, natural gas and chemicals leaks
into water wells.

However,
renewable energy sources are replenished easily and they do not contaminate water resources.

6.

Nuclear waste is very harmful to all lives and nuclear pollution via leaks or breakdowns has permanent long
-
term
effects on habitats.

If we use renewable energy,

we can eliminate the need of nuclear usage and save our planet from destruction.

7.

Natural gas comes up wet and has to be separated from waste
-
water. The wastewater is toxic and contains
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s), which are evaporated into the atm
osphere using evaporators.

Renewal energy does not contain volatile organic compounds and hence secondary cost of clean up of air, land
and water does not occur. The cost of maintaining quality of the environment and good health and is very low.
Hence, by

using renewable energy we can protect our earth and its habitats from suffering and destruction.


Why is an understanding of applied sciences such as System Biology and Plant Molecular Biology important in
order to improve Biofuels & Industrial Chemical
Systems?

Existing knowledge associated with other simpler biological processes (i.e. fermentation to produce alcohol) can be used
in a more complex manner in order to create comprehensive biofuels and industrial chemical systems.

Dr. Walker mentioned th
at scientists can essentially “mix and match” existing scientific processes in order to refine
organic materials into more useful forms. The continued integration of applied sciences will help produce new or improve
existing technologies in both Biofuels
and Industrial Chemical Systems. (See slide titled: “Integrating Knowledge from
Basic and Applied Sciences for a Mission)

Professor Walker says there are a list of things to produce a “beautiful” new technology. It requires integration of
good science, go
od technology and good business to make this work. Do you think it is a network type of system, if
so name something we could do to help?


I agree with Professor Walker that we need a broad and interactive network, and that biorefiniers are not very green
.
Instead we need to look at our industrial ecology, and see how things such as growing crops can have an
advantageous effect on biofuels and our earth in general. This greater system will be beneficial to biofuel
development if people realize how science

and technology can happen. By changing the business model we improve
the economics of enzymes, this will drive cost down which includes the business community in making change. I
also believe that we need to think about the cars we drive since the carbo
n dioxide contributes to green house gases
that cause global warming. Plants absorb the carbon dioxide and they are the ingredient to biofuel production, this
cycle does two things at once because while they absorb carbon dioxide they can be grown for bio
fuel which is a
renewable resource and we can continue to grow more. By working together with the whole community
-
politician,
business, scientist, engineers we can figure out how to use the cellulose to make biofuels will greatly help in the
future with su
stainable development.


Discuss the factors that currently prevent renewable energy sources such as biomass from contributing a
greater percentage of primary energy consumption.


Mainly p
eople use
nonrenewable fossil fuels

coal,
petroleum
, and natural gas

provide more than 85% of the
energy

used around the world. In the United States,
fossil fuels

comprise 81.6% of the total energy supply,
nuclear power

provides 7.7%, and all
renewable energy

sources provide 7.3%.

People are very comfortable
using nonrenewable fossil fuels since it has been around for much longer. It is what is in our homes and
workplace. It is hard to switch over to bi
omass when all of our appliances use fossil fuels. We are slowly
converting to biomass but it might take longer than wanted since the recession is deterring people from
spending more money on their homes and transportation.



Professor argues that we need
to understand that the nature of technology evolves. What is his argument and how
does he support it?

Professor quotes W. Brian Arthur and says, “all technology are combination of elements, these elements themselves are
technology, and technologies use phe
nomena to some purpose”. Professor believes that society, too often, thinks of
technology as static. However, we see in everyday life with televisions, cars, and cell phones that this is not the case.
Technology evolves. There are multiple, radically diffe
rent technologies for all types of science and engineering. He also
argues that technology is evolving because it continually combines technologies to keep up with science today. He
argues that we need to be innovative in order to advance science and techn
ology. He says that no matter how important
science is, it will only get better if we can think outside of the box concerning how we understand and handle science.


What are some issues we

need to keep in mind before completely switching over to bio
-
fuels?

One reason the United States has not switched over to bio
-
fuels yet is the bio
-
fuel carbon debt problem.
Planting corn in fields that are already tilled is fine but when farmers start to

plant in fields that have not yet
been used for farming they can release 17 to 400 times more carbon dioxide than the fossil fuels they will be
replacing. Another issue is that we need to irrigate the corn or other crops being turned into bio
-
fuel. We
w
ould not only need to set aside fields just for growing bio
-
fuels and compete with planting food for human
and livestock consumption; but we would also have to set aside large quantities of freshwater for irrigation.
The U.S. is not in a water crisis like

much of the world but we are walking a fine line and bio
-
fuels may be the
demise of potable water in the United States, causing competition between bio
-
fuel growers, farmers, and the
public water supply. Another issue to think about is soil quality. Far
mers already must let fields lay fallow and
grapple with the challenges of rotating crops and planting. We must take into consideration the challenges of
soil quality. If the soil becomes depleted of nutrients nothing will be able to grow there and we wi
ll once
again have to rely on foreign energy or food.


Who were the early proponents mentioned in the video, that tried to evolutionize alternative energy sources?


Some early proponents were Henry Ford who worked with ethanol, and Rudolf Christian Karl D
iesel who worked with
vegetable oil.